nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2022‒12‒19
four papers chosen by

  1. US Immigration from Latin America in Historical Perspective By Gordon H. Hanson; Pia Orrenius; Madeline Zavodny
  2. Public Childcare, Labor Market Outcomes of Caregivers, and Child Development: Experimental Evidence from Brazil By Orazio Attanasio; Ricardo Paes de Barros; Pedro Carneiro; David K. Evans; Lycia Lima; Pedro Olinto; Norbert Schady
  3. Effects of school day time on homicides: The case of the full-day high school program in Pernambuco, Brazil By Leonardo Rosa; Raphael Bruce; Natália Sarellas
  4. Gender differences in opinions about market solutions and government interventions: the case of Uruguayan economists. By Verónica Amarante; Marisa Bucheli; Tatiana Pérez; Verónica Amarante

  1. By: Gordon H. Hanson; Pia Orrenius; Madeline Zavodny
    Abstract: The share of US residents who were born in Latin America and the Caribbean plateaued recently, after a half century of rapid growth. Our review of the evidence on the US immigration wave from the region suggests that it bears many similarities to the major immigration waves of the 19th and early 20th centuries, that the demographic and economic forces behind Latin American migrant inflows appear to have weakened across most sending countries, and that a continued slowdown of immigration from Latin America post-pandemic has the potential to disrupt labor-intensive sectors in many US regional labor markets.
    JEL: F20 J6 O15
    Date: 2022–11
  2. By: Orazio Attanasio; Ricardo Paes de Barros; Pedro Carneiro; David K. Evans; Lycia Lima; Pedro Olinto; Norbert Schady
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of publicly provided daycare for children aged 0-3 on outcomes of children and their caregivers over the course of seven years after enrollment into daycare. At the end of 2007, the city of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil used a lottery to assign children to limited public daycare openings. Winning the lottery translated to a 34 percent increase in time in daycare during a child’s first four years of life. This allowed caregivers more time to work, resulting in higher incomes for beneficiary households in the first year of daycare attendance and 4 years later (but not after 7 years, by which time all children were eligible for universal schooling). The rise in labor force participation is driven primarily by grandparents and by adolescent siblings residing in the same household as (and possibly caring for) the child, and not by parents, most of whom were already working. Beneficiary children saw sustained gains in height-for-age and weight-for-age, due to better nutritional intake at school and at home. Gains in beneficiary children’s cognitive development were observed 4 years after enrolment but not later.
    JEL: I30 I31 I38
    Date: 2022–11
  3. By: Leonardo Rosa; Raphael Bruce; Natália Sarellas
    Keywords: school day length, public health, youth homicide rate
    Date: 2022–06–17
  4. By: Verónica Amarante (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Marisa Bucheli (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Sociales. Departamento de Economía); Tatiana Pérez; Verónica Amarante
    Abstract: This paper explores the differences in views between male and female Uruguayan economists regarding their opinions about market solutions and government interventions. In line with international evidence, the support to statements more market-oriented is lower among women than men, but the magnitudes of the gaps are small. We examine the role of age, family background, exposure to economic discussions (proxied by postgraduate education, reading of blogs and press and academic environment), and personality traits (risk aversion, optimism, and preferences for competition) to explain the gender gaps. Our results indicate that there is a positive relationship between gender differences in competitiveness and pro- market opinions. However, the gender difference remains significant after controlling for explanatory variables, though the magnitudes are mild. In any case, the findings indicate that achieving gender balance through the inclusion of women in public debates and decision-making positions would improve the diversity of perspectives in economics.
    Keywords: gender gap, economic opinions, economists
    JEL: A11 H00 Z00
    Date: 2021–02

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