nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2022‒11‒14
four papers chosen by

  1. Gender gaps in time devoted to Commuting: Evidence from Peru, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia By Campaña, Juan Carlos; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio
  2. Harmonized Latin American innovation Surveys Database (LAIS) By Vargas, F.; Guillard, Charlotte; Salazar, Monica; Crespi, G.A.
  3. Intergenerational Mobility in the Land of Inequality By Britto, Diogo; Fonseca, Alexandre; Pinotti, Paolo; Sampaio, Breno; Warwar, Lucas
  4. Assessing the Effects of Fiscal Policies on Poverty and Inequality : The Case of Uruguay By Bucheli,Marisa; Lara Ibarra,Gabriel; Tuzman Fernandez,Diego

  1. By: Campaña, Juan Carlos; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio
    Abstract: We analyze the relationship between gender and the time devoted to commuting by men and women in Latin American Countries. Using data from time surveys from Peru (2010), Ecuador (2012), Chile (2015) and Colombia (2012 and 2017), we observe in the four countries, that women devoted less time to this activity compared to men. We find that among the possible justifications for these gender gaps, it is important to consider the presence of children in the household, the hours of work and the type of employment of individuals. These results illustrate the importance of studying this topic in countries where the evidence is scarce mainly due to limitations in comparing the data between countries.
    Keywords: Time Use,Commuting,Gender Gaps,Latin America countries
    JEL: D10 J22
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Vargas, F.; Guillard, Charlotte; Salazar, Monica; Crespi, G.A.
    Abstract: This paper provides the methods through which the first version of the Harmonized Latin American Innovation Surveys database (LAIS) was built. LAIS, which is made freely available through the Inter-American Development Bank, contains nearly 690 variables and 119,900 observations at the firm level from 30 national innovation surveys conducted between 2007 and 2017 in 10 Latin American countries, increasing the number of countries of the region with publicly available microdata. This paper describes how, starting from significantly different survey methods and questionnaires between countries, criteria were applied to identify and select variables from different surveys measuring the same underlying concept. It also discusses and guides how differences in survey methodologies may affect comparisons even after the harmonization of variables. LAIS includes data on innovation activities expenditures, sources of information and collaborations for innovation, innovation obstacles, outputs and effects, protection of innovation results, and general firm characteristics. Since LAIS significantly decreases the cost of making data comparisons between countries, it will allow more scholars to research innovation in Latin American firms and to tackle long-standing unanswered questions about the importance of framework conditions in LAC for innovation decisions in firms. The dataset and supporting documentation are available at:
    JEL: O10 O12 O31 O32 C81
    Date: 2022–06–02
  3. By: Britto, Diogo (Bocconi University); Fonseca, Alexandre (Federal Revenue of Brazil); Pinotti, Paolo (Bocconi University); Sampaio, Breno (Universidade Federal de Pernambuco); Warwar, Lucas (Universidade Federal de Pernambuco)
    Abstract: We provide the first estimates of intergenerational income mobility for a developing country, namely Brazil. We measure formal income from tax and employment registries, and we train machine learning models on census and survey data to predict informal income. The data reveal a much higher degree of persistence than previous estimates available for developed economies: a 10 percentile increase in parental income rank is associated with a 5.5 percentile increase in child income rank, and persistence is even higher in the top 5%. Children born to parents in the first income quintile face a 46% chance of remaining at the bottom when adults. We validate these estimates using two novel mobility measures that rank children and parents without the need to impute informal income. We document substantial heterogeneity in mobility across individual characteristics – notably gender and race – and across Brazilian regions. Leveraging children who migrate at different ages, we estimate that causal place effects explain 57% of the large spatial variation in mobility. Finally, assortative mating plays a strong role in household income persistence, and parental income is also strongly associated with several key long-term outcomes such as education, teenage pregnancy, occupation, mortality, and victimization.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility, inequality, Brazil, migration, place effects
    JEL: J62 D31 I31 R23
    Date: 2022–09
  4. By: Bucheli,Marisa; Lara Ibarra,Gabriel; Tuzman Fernandez,Diego
    Abstract: This study looks at the redistributive effects of fiscal policy -- in particular of direct taxation and expenditures -- in Uruguay. This fiscal incidence analysis applies a widely recognized methodology to household survey data and government data for fiscal year 2017 and compares the results with the policies seen in 2009 to study the evolution of the distributional impacts of fiscal policy in the country. The study finds evidence that Uruguayan fiscal policy continues to reduce inequality, with government expenditures in the form of in-kind transfers leading to the largest decreases. While expenditures in basic education are benefitting the poorest, expenditures in tertiary education remain largely regressive. The personal income tax is found to be largely progressive, with the top quintile paying more than four-fifths of this tax. Uruguay’s fiscal policies also lead to a reduction in poverty, mainly due to well-targeted direct transfers.
    Keywords: Inequality,Health Care Services Industry,Educational Sciences,Economic Adjustment and Lending,Public Finance Decentralization and Poverty Reduction,Public Sector Economics,Macro-Fiscal Policy,Social Funds and Pensions
    Date: 2020–12–15

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