nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2022‒09‒26
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. The governance of civil aviation authorities in Latin American countries: Evidence from ICAO’s North American, Central American and Caribbean and South American regions By Alexis Durand; Anna Pietikäinen
  2. Towards the measurement of electromobility in international trade. An interactive online dashboard By Ronzheimer, Ira Nadine; Durán Lima, José Elías; Budnevich, Cristóbal; Gomies, Matthew
  3. Immigration, wages, and employment under informal labor markets By Delgado Prieto, Lukas Andres
  4. The Effect of Health Insurance on Child Nutritional Outcomes. Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design in Peru By Noelia Bernal; Joan Costa-i-Font; Patricia Ritter

  1. By: Alexis Durand (OECD); Anna Pietikäinen (OECD)
    Abstract: Good governance is a building block for the performance of regulators, including civil aviation authorities. This paper reports the results of a mapping of governance arrangements across 29 civil aviation authorities in Latin American and Caribbean countries, with the International Civil Aviation Organization’s South American and North American, Central American and Caribbean regions. Applying the methodology of the OECD Indicators on the Governance of Sector Regulators, the results provide a birds-eye view of the independence, accountability and scope of action of participating authorities. This paper explains the indicator methodology, summarises key data points, and presents high-level take aways.
    Keywords: accountability, better regulation, independence, Latin America, OECD, regulation, regulatory governance
    JEL: K23 L50 L93 L98 N46 D73
    Date: 2022–09–10
  2. By: Ronzheimer, Ira Nadine; Durán Lima, José Elías; Budnevich, Cristóbal; Gomies, Matthew
    Abstract: The dashboard presented here was developed in the framework of a collaboration project between ECLAC and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) on electromobility in Latin America. The dashboard represents the visualization of a methodology proposed for analysing trade flows in electric bus components in Latin America and worldwide in order to evaluate the productive capacity of Latin American countries in this area. The required components have accordingly been disaggregated into three levels: processed and semi-processed components and raw materials. The dashboard captures the complexity of this methodology and makes it accessible to policymakers and entrepreneurs, who can use it to evaluate their country’s or business’s potential to participate in the value chain of electric buses.
    Date: 2022–07–14
  3. By: Delgado Prieto, Lukas Andres
    Abstract: This paper studies the labor market impacts of Venezuelan immigrants in Colombia. Exploiting spatial variation in exposure, I find a negative effect on native wages driven by the informal sector (where immigrants are concentrated) and a reduction in native employment in the formal sector (where the minimum wage binds for many workers). To explain this asymmetry, I build a model in which firms substitute formal for informal labor in response to lower informal wages. Consistent with the model's predictions, I document that the increase in informality is driven by small firms that use both labor types in production.
    Keywords: Immigration; Event Study; Labor Market; Informality
    JEL: F22 O15 O17 R23
    Date: 2022–09–09
  4. By: Noelia Bernal; Joan Costa-i-Font; Patricia Ritter
    Abstract: Although a significant number of middle and low-income countries have expanded access to subsidized health insurance, it still is unclear whether these insurance expansions improve children’s health. This paper exploits quasi-random variation from an insurance expansion targeted at poor households in Peru to investigate its effects on nutrition related children’s health. We find that access to insurance reduces childhood obesity and exerts positive and economically significant effects on some preventive health care utilization and behaviours. That is, we show that insurance eligibility improves children’s regular growth check-ups and deworming treatments, consistent with an increased awareness of children’s weight and height and improvements on preventive health behaviours: namely, an increase in the duration of breastfeeding, and a substitution of the provision of food rich in carbohydrates for food rich in proteins. In contrast, we do not find any significant effect on other outcomes that are found to be sensitive to other interventions.
    Keywords: children’s health, obesity, overweight, public health insurance, health behaviors, nutrition, breast-feeding
    JEL: I18 J13
    Date: 2022

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