nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2022‒03‒28
five papers chosen by

  1. Brechas salariales entre varones y mujeres en el Uruguay By Zurbrigg, Julieta
  2. Affirmative action with no major switching: Evidence from a top university in Brazil By Rodrigo C. Oliveira; Alei Santos; Edson Severnini
  3. Do Inclusive Education Policies Improve Employment Opportunities? Evidence from a Field Experiment By Jorge M. Agüero; Francisco B. Galarza; Gustavo Yamada
  4. Do immigrants take or create natives' jobs? Evidence of Venezuelan immigration in Peru By Celia P. Vera; Bruno Jiménez
  5. O Brother, Where Start Thou? Sibling Spillovers on College and Major Choice in Four Countries By Adam Altmejd; Andrés Barrios-Fernández; Marin Drlje; Joshua Goodman; Michael Hurwitz

  1. By: Zurbrigg, Julieta
    Abstract: En este documento se resume brevemente la evolución de las brechas salariales entre varones y mujeres en el Uruguay, con énfasis en los años de crisis económica. En los años alrededor de la crisis de 2002 se constata una disminución de la brecha salarial que no debería interpretarse necesariamente como una buena noticia en materia de igualdad de género. De este análisis preliminar se concluye que la caída de la brecha salarial observada durante la crisis estuvo impulsada por los cambios en el mercado de trabajo que sufrieron los trabajadores de menor educación. En particular, los cambios vinculados a la variación del nivel de empleo como consecuencia de la caída de la actividad económica parecen haber sido el principal motor de esta disminución.
    Date: 2021–12–14
  2. By: Rodrigo C. Oliveira; Alei Santos; Edson Severnini
    Abstract: Affirmative action in higher education may lead to mismatch, a situation where students benefiting from preferential admission struggle with their college-level work because of poor pre-college academic preparation. In the United States, those students can switch majors if they underperform in the originally intended major. Only in the extreme may they drop out. What happens when major switching is not allowed?
    Keywords: Affirmative action, Higher education, Brazil
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Jorge M. Agüero (University of Connecticut); Francisco B. Galarza (Universidad del Pacífico); Gustavo Yamada (Universidad del Pacífico)
    Abstract: We study the employment opportunity of a college scholarship for high-achieving, low-income students in a labor market where disadvantaged groups are discriminated against. Using a correspondence audit-study we find that including information of being a scholarship recipient in a resume increases the likelihood of getting a callback for a job interview by 20%. However, the effects are much smaller in jobs and careers where the poor are under-represented. We show that this is consistent with the scholarship also sending a negative signal to employers and helps explain why actual beneficiaries almost never mention the scholarship in their resumes.
    Keywords: Employment, inclusive education, correspondence study, discrimination
    JEL: C93 I23 J7 J15
    Date: 2022–03
  4. By: Celia P. Vera (Universidad de Piura); Bruno Jiménez (Universidad Nacional de La Plata)
    Abstract: Peru is the second largest host nation of Venezuelan migrants. This paper combines newly available data on Venezuelans residing in Peru and the Peruvian Household Survey to assess the impact of migration on natives? labor market outcomes. We first rely upon education-experience groups to define labor markets and find that immigration does not affect the wages of competing native workers. We then slice the labor market into occupations based on the observation that in Peru, immigrants and natives with similar education and experience are likely to work in different occupations. Our instrumental variable estimates confirm the null effect on wages. We finally examine whether natives respond with changes in employment and find that 10 Venezuelan workers create informal employment for 38 Peruvians and displace 13 Peruvians from formal jobs, suggesting a change in the Peruvian employment composition toward informality.
    Keywords: Immigration, education-experience cells, occupation cells, informality
    JEL: J24 J31 J46
    Date: 2022–03
  5. By: Adam Altmejd (Stockholm University); Andrés Barrios-Fernández (MIT); Marin Drlje (CERGE-EI); Joshua Goodman (Boston University); Michael Hurwitz (College Board)
    Abstract: Family and social networks are widely believed to influence important life decisions but identifying their causal effects is notoriously difficult. Using admissions thresholds that directly affect older but not younger siblings’ college options, we present evidence from the United States, Chile, Sweden and Croatia that older siblings’ college and major choices can significantly influence their younger siblings’ college and major choices. On the extensive margin, an older sibling’s enrollment in a better college increases a younger sibling’s probability of enrolling in college at all, especially for families with low predicted probabilities of enrollment. On the intensive margin, an older sibling’s choice of college or major increases the probability that a younger sibling applies to and enrolls in that same college or major. Spillovers in major choice are stronger when older siblings enroll and succeed in more selective and higher-earning majors. The observed spillovers are not well explained by price, income, proximity or legacy effects, but are most consistent with older siblings transmitting otherwise unavailable information about the college experience and its potential returns. The importance of such personally salient information may partly explain persistent differences in college-going rates by geography, income, and other determinants of social networks.
    Keywords: Sibling Effects, College and Major Choice, Peer and Social Network Effects, United States, Chile, Sweden, Croatia
    JEL: I21 I24
    Date: 2020–05

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