nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2021‒01‒25
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Does connectivity reduce gender gaps in off-farm employment?: Evidence from 12 low- and middle-income countries By Eva-Maria Egger; Aslihan Arslan; Emanuele Zucchini
  2. Large devaluations and inflation inequality: evidence from Brazil By Raphael Gouvea
  3. Automatización y Empleo en Uruguay By Diego Aboal; Andrés López; Roxana Maurizio; María Paz Queraltó; Emiliano Tealde
  4. Estimating the Effects of School Subsidies Targeted at Low-Income Students: Evidence from Chile By Barbara Flores

  1. By: Eva-Maria Egger; Aslihan Arslan; Emanuele Zucchini
    Abstract: Gender gaps in labour force participation in developing countries persist despite income growth or structural change. We assess this persistence across economic geographies within countries, focusing on youth employment in off-farm wage jobs. We combine household survey data from 12 low- and middle-income countries in Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa with geospatial data on population density, and estimate simultaneous probit models of different activity choices across the rural-urban gradient.
    Keywords: Gender gap, Youth, Employment, Asia, Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp-2021-3&r=all
  2. By: Raphael Gouvea (Institute for Applied Economic Research (IPEA); Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst)
    Abstract: In the aftermath of large devaluations, prices of tradable goods/lower-priced varieties increase significantly more than the prices of nontradables/higher-priced varieties. These relative price changes may lead to inflation inequality when household consumption baskets are different across the distribution of income. Using Cravino and Levchenko [2017]’s methodology, we show that inflation of poor households in Brazil was at least 11 percentage points higher than of the rich in the aftermath of the 2002 large devaluation. A detailed case study of the City of São Paulo estimates an inflation inequality ranging from 8 to 11 percentage points in the city.
    Keywords: Exchange Rate Devaluation, Pass-Through, Inflation, Inequality
    JEL: F31 F41 E31
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ums:papers:2020-05&r=all
  3. By: Diego Aboal (Centro de Investigaciones Económicas); Andrés López (Instituto Interdisciplinario de Economía Política de Buenos Aires - UBA - CONICET); Roxana Maurizio (Instituto Interdisciplinario de Economía Política de Buenos Aires - UBA - CONICET); María Paz Queraltó (Centro de Investigaciones Económicas); Emiliano Tealde (Centro de Investigaciones Económicas)
    Abstract: El presente trabajo revisa la evidencia disponible sobre la relación cambio tecnológico y empleo a nivel internacional y desarrolla una serie de ejercicios cuantitativos y cualitativos para el caso uruguayo a fin de evaluar los impactos de la automatización de tareas sobre el empleo. La evidencia disponible hasta el momento no permite concluir nada firme respecto de la preeminencia de los efectos escala o sustitución. Sin embargo, sí parece muy claro que ha venido ocurriendo un desplazamiento en el tipo de habilidades y calificaciones requeridas a medida que se despliegan los procesos de cambio tecnológico. No solo hay un pasaje de las habilidades físicas y manuales a las cognitivas, acompañado de un creciente requerimiento de credenciales educativas superiores, sino también, al menos en ciertos casos, una mayor demanda de habilidades socio-emocionales.
    Keywords: Automatización, Empleo, Capital humano, Habilidades, Uruguay
    JEL: O33 O54 J24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ake:iiepdt:202047&r=all
  4. By: Barbara Flores
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of school subsidies targeted at socioeconomically disadvantaged students on academic performance. To do so, the empirical strategy relies on comparing the standardised test scores of different cohorts of students over time. These cohorts have been exposed differentially to the Preferential School Subsidy Law, promulgated in Chile in 2008. In particular, I develop suitable differences-in-differences and individual fixed-effect estimators to compare the differential growth of test scores among four cohorts of students. The results indicate that, overall, the intervention has a positive effect on the average gain in reading and maths test scores. In addition, the estimations suggest that the longer the exposure to the programme the larger the effect on the average growth in test scores. However, the effect is larger for non-priority students than for priority students. The effect can be ascribed to the pedagogical actions taken by schools and not to school choice.
    Date: 2020–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:udc:wpaper:wp510&r=all

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