nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2021‒01‒11
three papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Labor Earnings Dispersion in Chile: Decomposition, Dynamics and the Role of Firms By Rosario Aldunate; Gabriela Contreras; Matías Tapia
  2. Gender Gaps in Labor Informality: The Motherhood Effect By Berniell, Inés; Berniell, Lucila; de la Mata, Dolores; Edo, María; Marchionni, Mariana
  3. Promoción de exportaciones y desempeño exportador: el caso de Chile By Zaclicever, Dayna

  1. By: Rosario Aldunate; Gabriela Contreras; Matías Tapia
    Abstract: We use a matched employer-employee census of formal employment in Chile to characterize the distribution of formal labor earnings between 2005 and 2016. We decompose the overall dispersion in earnings across workers into between and within-firm components, and then use a two-way fixed effect model with no complementarities for individual earnings (the AKM model) to compare the contributions of firm and worker heterogeneity toward changes in dispersion. First, we find a decline in the dispersion of labor earnings throughout the decade, which is driven almost completely by a reduction in the variance of average earnings between firms. The dispersion of earnings within firms, which explain more than half of the overall dispersion and correlates strongly with productivity at the firm level, did not change. Second, AKM estimates show that systematic differences across workers explain the bulk of earning differences, and that the reduction in worker heterogeneity was the main driver towards a more compact earnings distribution, an effect that was complemented by weaker sorting patterns. Finally, although our results suggest that the AKM model provides a good first-order approximation to the labor earnings determination process, we use an alternative specification that allows for worker-firm complementarities. This estimation suggests a stronger role for sorting and an even weaker role for firms in explaining labor earnings differences in Chile.
    Date: 2020–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:chb:bcchwp:892&r=all
  2. By: Berniell, Inés; Berniell, Lucila; de la Mata, Dolores; Edo, María; Marchionni, Mariana
    Abstract: We estimate the short- and long-run labor market impacts of parenthood in a developing country, Chile, based on an eventstudy approach around the birth of the first child. We assess mechanisms behind these effects based on a model economy and find that: (i) informal jobs’ flexible working hours prevent some women from leaving the labor market upon motherhood, (ii) improving the quality of social protection of formal jobs tempers this increase in informality. Our results suggest that mothers find in informal jobs the flexibility needed for family-work balance, although it comes at the cost of deteriorating their labor market prospects.
    Keywords: Banca de desarrollo, Desarrollo, Economía, Familia, Género, Investigación socioeconómica, Mujer, Pobreza, Políticas públicas,
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:dbl:dblwop:1669&r=all
  3. By: Zaclicever, Dayna
    Abstract: Las políticas de promoción de exportaciones, implementadas generalmente a través de agencias especializadas, pueden contribuir a reducir las barreras de información que limitan el acceso de las empresas a los mercados externos. Este documento analiza el impacto de las medidas llevadas adelante en 2011-2015 por el gobierno chileno para fomentar las exportaciones de productos alimenticios y forestales, destino de gran parte de los fondos invertidos en el período en los proyectos de promoción.
    Keywords: COMERCIO INTERNACIONAL, EXPORTACIONES, PROMOCION DE LAS EXPORTACIONES, PROGRAMAS DE ACCION, FACILITACION DEL COMERCIO, ESTUDIOS DE CASOS, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, EXPORTS, EXPORT PROMOTION, PROGRAMMES OF ACTION, TRADE FACILITATION, CASE STUDIES
    Date: 2020–12–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ecr:col025:46545&r=all

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