nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2020‒11‒23
three papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Unveiling cacao agroforestry sustainability through the socio-ecological systems diagnostic framework: the case of four amazonian rural communities in Ecuador By Jilmar Castañeda-Ccori; Anne-Gaël Bilhaut; Armelle Mazé; Juan Fernández-Manjarrés
  2. Entendiendo la paradoja de la maternidad adolescente en Lima Metropolitana: un análisis de los efectos de vecindario en el 2013 By Cueva, Selena
  3. U.S. Robots and their Impacts in the Tropics: Evidence from Colombian Labor Markets By Adriana D. Kugler; Maurice Kugler; Laura Ripani; Rodimiro Rodrigo

  1. By: Jilmar Castañeda-Ccori (ESE - Ecologie Systématique et Evolution - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Anne-Gaël Bilhaut (IFEA - Institut Français d'Etudes Andines - MEAE - Ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires étrangères - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Armelle Mazé (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Juan Fernández-Manjarrés (ESE - Ecologie Systématique et Evolution - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Cacao cultivation is rapidly increasing in Latin America under the influence of public policies and external markets. In Ecuador, the cultivated surface of high quality cacao trees has doubled in the last 50 years, creating great expectations in neighboring countries. Here, we investigated the social-ecological sustainability of cacao-based agroforestry systems in four rural Amazonian highlands communities in eastern Ecuador, close to the region where cacao was once domesticated. Kichwa-and Shuar-speaking groups were interviewed by adapting Ostrom's institutional diagnostic framework for social-ecological systems. Through a set of specifically created indicator variables, we identified key interactions and outcomes to understand the fragility and the sustainability of those communities. The studied communities were fairly young, with land rights secured less than 30 years ago in most cases. Per-family surfaces were very restricted (typically one hectare) and plots were divided between cash producing crops and their own home food. The small production per household goes through a precarious commercialization by both intermediaries and cooperatives, making the cacao bean production merely sufficient for pocket money. Ties with specialist producers in one community close to the capital has promoted the use of native cacao lines. Elsewhere, improved varieties of high productivity are planted along native trees being commercialized indistinctly. The continuity of these communities currently depend on a reorganization of their demography with parts of the population working elsewhere, as cacao bean production alone will continue to be insufficient, and will compete with their food self-sufficiency.
    Keywords: self-organization,social-ecological systems,agroforestry,amazon highlands
    Date: 2020–07–23
  2. By: Cueva, Selena (Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE))
    Abstract: Durante los últimos 35 años, la tasa de maternidad adolescente en Lima Metropolitana no ha disminuido, a pesar de que la ciudad capital cuenta con mayor acceso a servicios públicos y mejores oportunidades económicas que otras regiones del Perú. En este trabajo, se analiza esta aparente paradoja a partir de un análisis exploratorio de efectos de vecindario para el 2013. Específicamente, mediante un análisis de dependencia espacial y de “puntos calientes” se testea si el espacio importa en la aglomeración de casos de maternidad adolescente. Además, se analiza cómo las características de los vecindarios y de las personas que habitan en ellos se asocian con la probabilidad de que las adolescentes se conviertan en madres, para lo cual se utiliza una estrategia de vecindarios sobrepuestos, únicos para cada manzana georreferenciada.
    Keywords: Adolescentes, Madres, Adolescents, Youth, Teenagers, Mothers, Lima Metropolitana, Perú, Peru
    JEL: J13
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Adriana D. Kugler; Maurice Kugler; Laura Ripani; Rodimiro Rodrigo
    Abstract: Previous studies for developed countries show negative short-run impacts of automation on employment and earnings. In this paper, we instead examine whether automation by a key trading partner can hurt workers in a developing country. We specifically focus in Colombia’s labor market, and how the automation in the U.S. impacts Colombian workers by replacing exports from Colombia for cheaper robot-made U.S. products. We use employer-employee matched data from the Colombian social security records combined with data on U.S. exposure to robots in different sectors from 2011 to 2016 to examine if robots in the U.S. are displacing workers in Colombia. We find that U.S. robots decrease employment and earnings for Colombian workers in those sectors of local labor markets that have high levels of automation -measured as robots per thousand workers- in the U.S. labor market. In terms of turnover, as expected, there is an increase in dismissals and a decrease in hires for workers in sectors highly impacted by robots in the U.S. Moreover, the negative displacement effects of robots are greater for women; older workers; workers employed in small and medium sized enterprises, and workers employed in manufacturing. Importantly, local labor markets which exported the most to the U.S. in the past, are also the most affected by the increased adoption of U.S. robots, suggesting that Colombian workers may be losing employment to automated jobs reshored back to the U.S. Our estimates suggest that during our period of analysis, the adoption of robots in the U.S. led to a cumulative loss of between 63,000 and 100,000 jobs in Colombia.
    JEL: C33 C36 F66 J21 J23 J63
    Date: 2020–10

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