nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2020‒10‒12
four papers chosen by

  1. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Costa Rica By Isabel Román
  2. The distributive impact of income taxes in Brazil By Rodrigo Cardoso Fernandes; Bernardo Campolina; Fernando Gaiger Silveira
  3. Social protection preparedness and natural hazards: Latin America and the Caribbean By Rodolfo Beazley; Ana Solórzano; Valentina Barca
  4. Are women less persistent? Evidence from submissions to a nationwide meeting of Economics By Paula Pereda; Matsunaga, Diaz, Borges, Chalco, Rocha, Narita, Brenck

  1. By: Isabel Román (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "In the mid-20th century, Costa Rica designed a universal social protection system dedicated to the promotion of citizenship and fundamental social rights. The institutionalisation of social policy, the development of universal policies for health care, security, education, housing and basic services (water and electricity), together with significant economic growth, allowed for a continuous improvement in human development and significant, internationally recognized achievements. Among these are the reduction in infant mortality, which dropped from 123 children per 1000 born in 1940, to 61.5 in 1970 and 9.1 in 2011; the increase in life expectancy, which rose from 55.6 years in 1950 to 79.3 in 2011; and the reduction of poverty incidence, from 50 per cent of households in 1950 to 20 per cent at the end of the century." (…)
    Keywords: Social Protection Systems, Latin America, Caribbean, Costa Rica
    Date: 2019–12
  2. By: Rodrigo Cardoso Fernandes (IPC-IG); Bernardo Campolina (IPC-IG); Fernando Gaiger Silveira (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Income inequality has been one of Brazil's most significant socioeconomic characteristics throughout its history. Although there has been a significant reduction since the end of the 1990s, its persistence and magnitude are still internationally notorious". (...)
    Keywords: distributive, impact, income, taxes, Brazil
    Date: 2019–09
  3. By: Rodolfo Beazley (IPC-IG); Ana Solórzano (IPC-IG); Valentina Barca (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "This One Pager discusses the use of social protection systems to respond to covariate shocks, focusing especially on Latin America and the Caribbean, where systems have been expanded and strengthened in recent decades". (...)
    Keywords: social protection, emergency preparedness, natural hazards, covariate shocks
    Date: 2020–02
  4. By: Paula Pereda; Matsunaga, Diaz, Borges, Chalco, Rocha, Narita, Brenck
    Abstract: Female underrepresentation in high-profile career positions has relevant impacts on firms' outcomes and public policies. In the academic profession, women's participation decreases as they evolve in their career. To understand the lack of women in the field of economics in Brazil, we investigate the decision to submit papers to the largest conference in the country (Brazilian Meeting of Economics), as an important achievement in the profession. We explore a novel panel dataset of researchers and match them with web-scraped data of their résumés to test gender differences in the probability of submitting an article one year after having an article (same or new) rejected in the previous year. Our findings suggest that women desist 5.9 percentage points more than men when facing rejection. We also find evidence that younger women give up more and that the quality of the undergraduate program matters to determine the difference in the desistance rate between men and women. We argue that higher quality institutions might self-select women who are more competitive.
    Keywords: Female underrepresentation; competitive behavior; academic conferences
    JEL: J15 J16 C23 A11
    Date: 2020–09–29

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