nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2020‒10‒05
three papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. An overview of gender inequality in Latin America from a political economy perspective By Quinonez, Pablo; Maldonado-Erazo, Claudia
  2. Knowledge Intensity and Gender Wage Gaps: Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee Data By Radu Barza; Cristian Jara-Figueroa; César A. Hidalgo; Martina Viarengo
  3. Heterogeneous effects of automation: How are young workers affected by a changing labor market? By Brambilla, Irene; César, Andrés; Falcone, Guillermo

  1. By: Quinonez, Pablo; Maldonado-Erazo, Claudia
    Abstract: This article explains what shapes the gender dimension of economic inequalities in Latin America from the perspective of political economy. In order to do so, we follow Frank Stilwell's (2012) framework and use the model of the circuit of capital proposed by Marx and situate gender in the sequential conditions for capital accumulation. In this context, gender inequalities are seen as functional to the accumulation of capital since they help meeting three of the requirements for its expansion, namely the reproduction of labor power, the production of surplus value, and the realization of surplus value. Therefore, we conclude that non-coordinated efforts, claims for inclusion, and the invocation of specific differences are far from solving the problem of gender inequality if they are not part of a broader effort that understands the structural nature of the issue. Additionally, we emphasize the specific conditions that differentiate the situation of women in this region from elsewhere, as well as the cultural and institutional characteristics that have contributed to the relegation of women in Latin America over time.
    Keywords: capital; gender; inequality; Latin America; Stilwell
    JEL: B51 B54 J16
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Radu Barza; Cristian Jara-Figueroa; César A. Hidalgo; Martina Viarengo
    Abstract: Do knowledge intense jobs exhibit lower gender gaps in wages? Here we use a linked employeremployee dataset of the entire Brazilian formal labor force to study the relationship between gender wage gaps and the knowledge intensity of industries and occupations. We find that employees in high-skilled occupations and industries experience lower gender wage gaps, and that the effect of knowledge intensity is stronger when the demand for skilled labor is high and the supply of skilled labor is low. We also find evidence that the gender wage gap of skilled workers, but not that of unskilled workers, decreases when knowledge intense industries grow. These effects are robust to controlling for individual, occupation, sector, and location characteristics. To address endogeneity concerns, we use a Bartik instrument based on labor demand shocks. Together, these findings suggest that competition for skilled labor in knowledge intense industries contributes to the reduction of gender wage gaps.
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Brambilla, Irene; César, Andrés; Falcone, Guillermo
    Abstract: We study the effect of automation on labor market outcomes with a focus on young workers and the case of Chile. We develop an index of routine task content of each occupation and follow two approaches. First we study the effect of automation on labor markets at the local level. Then we focus on mobility across occupations. We find that young workers are more easily displaced by automation than older workers of similar characteristics. This effect is concentrated on young workers in the age group 18-22. Young workers in the age group 23- 29 do not suffer unemployment significantly, but instead their employment participation decreases in occupations with high routine task content, reflecting mobility towards more flexible occupations. Wages fall in occupations with high routine task content, indicating that there is a decrease in demand for workers performing these tasks.
    Keywords: Ciencia y tecnología, Competitividad, Desarrollo, Desempleo, Economía, Habilidades y destrezas, Innovación, Jóvenes, Productividad, Tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC), Trabajo y protección social,
    Date: 2020

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