nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2020‒01‒06
three papers chosen by

  1. Factors associated with female sterilization in Brazil By Amaral, Ernesto F. L.; Potter, Joseph E
  2. The Evolution of the Elderly Labor Force Participation and Retirement in Brazil By Queiroz, Bernardo L; Ferreira, Matheus L.A.
  3. Affirmative Action with Overlapping Reserves By Tayfun Sönmez; M. Bumin Yenmez

  1. By: Amaral, Ernesto F. L. (Texas A&M University); Potter, Joseph E
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate factors associated with female sterilization in Brazil. The analysis is innovative because it adds the time of exposure to the risk of sterilization into survival models. The models control for postpartum duration, age at delivery, parity at delivery, type of delivery, place of delivery, region of residence at the time of interview, color/race, and years of schooling at the time of interview. The main contribution of this analysis is to comprehend the effects of different birth intervals (postpartum duration) on the risk of a woman getting sterilized. Data is from the 2006 Brazilian National Survey on Demography and Health of Children and Women (PNDS). The strongest probability that sterilization might occur was observed among women who gave birth at private hospitals and received support from health insurance companies at childbirth. Female sterilization is also executed in combination with childbirth and cesarean section. The findings suggest that years of schooling do not predict the risk of sterilization. The higher chances of getting sterilized among black women are specific to the public sector at higher-order postpartum duration (interval sterilization).
    Date: 2018–04–02
  2. By: Queiroz, Bernardo L (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil); Ferreira, Matheus L.A.
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the length of retirement in a less developed economy with large public pension program, Brazil. We analyze the evolution of labor force participation and retirement since 1979 and estimate the expected length of retirement from 1979 to 2098 for both males and females. We use a stochastic model (Lee-Carter) to forecast labor force participation rates. Combining these estimates to UN mortality forecasts. We estimate the expected length of retirement. We find a steady decline in the labor force participation of young adults and elderly over time, mostly due to access to education and public pension programs, whereas for females we observed a constant increase for the prime-age women. Our findings also indicate that the expected length of retirement might increase from 10% to over 20% of Brazilian working lives, as people leave the labor force at early ages and live longer lives.
    Date: 2018–10–31
  3. By: Tayfun Sönmez (Boston College); M. Bumin Yenmez (Boston College)
    Abstract: In a wide variety of real-life resource allocation problems such as school choice or assignment of public positions, implementation of affirmative action policies rely on choice rules that balance meritocracy with equity. We study choice rules where meritocracy is attained through reliance on a priority list, and equity is attained through reserved positions for target groups of disadvantaged individuals. Focusing on overlapping reserves, the case where an individual can belong to multiple types of reserved positions, we characterize choice rules that satisfy maximal compliance with reservations, elimination of justified envy, and non-wastefulness. When an individual accommodates only one of the reserved positions, the horizontal envelope choice rule is the only rule to satisfy these three axioms. When an individual accommodates each of the reserved positions she qualifies for, there are complementarities between individuals. Under this alternative convention, and assuming there are only two target groups, such as women and minorities, we show that paired-admission choice rules are the only ones to satisfy the three axioms. Building on these results, we provide improved allocation mechanisms for school choice in Chile, public position allocation in India, and college admissions in Brazil.
    Keywords: Market design, matching, affirmative action, deferred acceptance
    JEL: C78 D47
    Date: 2019–12–15

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