nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2019‒12‒16
four papers chosen by

  1. The Revival of Agriculture and Inclusive Growth during the Commodity Boom in Latin America? By Andersson, Martin; Palacio, Andrés
  2. Formal salaried employment generation and transition to formality in developing countries the case of Latin America By Maurizio, Roxana.; Vásquez, Gustavo.
  3. Brechas de Género: Una Exploración Más Allá de la Media By Juan Martin Pal
  4. Digital Transformation in Latin America – A Bibliometric Landscape of a Nascent Field By Cortés-Sánchez, Julián David

  1. By: Andersson, Martin (Department of Economic History, Lund University); Palacio, Andrés (Department of Economic History, Lund University)
    Abstract: Latin America has constituted a recent example of inclusive growth by reducing poverty and income inequality simultaneously during the latest commodity boom. Against the backdrop of non-inclusive and non-transformative nature of commodity booms, we ask whether growth of agriculture was able to speed up structural transformation, and, relatedly, if agricultural growth was inclusive. We examine 16 countries for the period 1994-2014 and find that the increase in agricultural productivity is associated with an increase in both non-agricultural employment during the boom. We also find that income per capita growth has been increasing also among the poor, even if the income elasticities are lower in rural than in urban areas. Focusing on the distribution of agricultural income in Brazil and Colombia between 2003 and 2013, we find that any improvement did go through income for the bottom and the intermediate deciles. Furthermore, formal employment was positively connected to the development of agricultural prices, income improvement of the bottom 40 per cent and the quality of manufacturing exports. In other words, the commodity boom, through agricultural growth, increased linkages across sectors. We conclude that the boom is associated with advances in structural change and moderate inclusive growth rather than mere redistribution.
    Keywords: agriculture; commodity boom; inclusive growth; Latin America; structural transformation
    JEL: O13 O54
    Date: 2019–11–07
  2. By: Maurizio, Roxana.; Vásquez, Gustavo.
    Keywords: 1, 2, 3
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Juan Martin Pal (Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS), IIE-FCE, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and University of Nottingham)
    Abstract: La diferencia entre los salarios percibidos por hombres y mujeres es un tema de creciente importancia en la agenda pública. La evidencia reciente para múltiples países muestra que la posición relativa de las mujeres en el mercado laboral es heterogénea entre niveles de calificación, jerarquía y sector de ocupación. En este trabajo ponemos a prueba las hipótesis de techo de cristal y suelo pegajoso. Para ello, estudiamos como varía la brecha de género a lo largo de toda la distribución de salarios. En primer lugar, utilizamos la Función de Influencia Recentrada, una modificación del método de regresión por cuantiles, para estimar el efecto de los covariables en la brecha salarial más allá de la media. Luego, realizamos una descomposición detallada del tipo Oaxaca-Blinder en los cuantiles no condicionales para estudiar la influencia de cada covariable en los efectos estructura y composición. Verificamos la existencia del llamado techo de cristal, mientras que en los cuantiles inferiores la brecha se debe principalmente a diferencias en las dotaciones de los covariables.
    Date: 2019–11
  4. By: Cortés-Sánchez, Julián David (Universidad del Rosario)
    Abstract: This study presents the first bibliometric analysis of the subject of Digital Transformation (DT) in Latin America (LATAM). Social network analysis and text-mining was implemented. It was found that the co-authorship network is geographically diverse and influenced by Brazil and Mexico, yet disconnected from the majority of LATAM countries. Research output and impact are increasing but still far from global dynamics and not yet permeated by the open access agenda. Finally, the most consolidated research topics associated with DT are “Industry 4.0”, “smart manufacturing” and the “Internet of Things”.
    Date: 2019–04–26

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