nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2019‒07‒29
two papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Secondary School Enrolment and Teenage Childbearing: Evidence from Brazilian Municipalities By Martin Foureaux Koppensteiner; Jesse Matheson
  2. Una Política Mínima de Desarrollo Productivo para Chile: Una alternativa al estancamiento By Manuel Agosin

  1. By: Martin Foureaux Koppensteiner (Department of Economics, University of Surrey & IZA Bonn); Jesse Matheson (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield)
    Abstract: This article investigates whether increasing secondary education opportunities influences childbearing among young women in Brazil. We examine a novel dataset reflecting the vast expansion of secondary education in Brazil between 1997 and 2009 and exploit variation in the introduction of schools across 4,884 municipalities to instrument for school enrolment. Our most conservative estimate suggests that for every 9.7 students enrolled there is one fewer teenage births. These findings are robust to a number of specifications and sensitivity tests. Our estimates imply that Brazil’s secondary school expansion accounts for 34% of the substantial decline in teenage childbearing observed over the same period. We further look at heterogeneous effects across a number of municipal characteristics and discuss what these results suggest about the mechanisms underlying the school-childbearing relationship.
    Keywords: Secondary education, teenage childbearing, Brazil
    JEL: I20 J13
    Date: 2019–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:shf:wpaper:2019016&r=all
  2. By: Manuel Agosin
    Abstract: Desde 1997 Chile ha venido acusando una deceleración importante en su crecimiento económico. Este trabajo postula la hipótesis que el bajo desempeño de la economía chilena es su escasa diversificación productiva y exportadora. La gran mayoría de las intervenciones del Estado en la economía han sido hasta ahora de tipo horizontal – vale decir, orientadas a corregir fallas de mercado generalizadas en la economía. Tanto las autoridades económicas como los académicos han sido reacios a intervenciones verticales, que impliquen escoger ganadores (“picking winners”). Postulamos que existen intervenciones intermedias orientadas a atraer actividades con las características deseadas y que escasean en la economía chilena, dejando un amplio margen a las fuerzas del mercado en la selección de empresas. Generalmente, dichas políticas deberán privilegiar la diversificación productiva y exportadora. Asimismo, sin abandonar el tipo de cambio flexible, el artículo aboga por políticas que, actuando sobre sus fundamentos, moderen sus fuertes fluctuaciones, que hacen que potenciales exportadores se vuelvan reacios a invertir.
    Date: 2019–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:udc:wpaper:wp487&r=all

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