nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2019‒06‒10
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Labor Market Outcomes and Early Schooling: Evidence from School Entry Policies Using Exact Date of Birth By Pedro Cavalcante Oliveira; Daniel Duque
  2. Un modelo DSGE bayesiano para la heterogeneidad en shocks de impuestos como política fiscal en la reactivación económica del Perú By Juan Tenorio; Maritza Huanchi
  3. Shaping Individual Preferences for Social Protection: The Case of Platform Workers By Francesco Bogliacino; Valeria Cirillo; Cristiano Codagnone; Marta Fana; Francisco Lupiáñez-Villanueva; Giuseppe A Veltri
  4. A new societal contract By Snower, Dennis J.

  1. By: Pedro Cavalcante Oliveira; Daniel Duque
    Abstract: We use a rich, census-like Brazilian dataset containing information on spatial mobility, schooling, and income in which we can link children to parents to assess the impact of early education on several labor market outcomes. Brazilian public primary schools admit children up to one year younger than the national minimum age to enter school if their birthday is before an arbitrary threshold, causing an exogenous variation in schooling at adulthood. Using a Regression Discontinuity Design, we estimate one additional year of schooling increases labor income in 25.8% - almost twice as large as estimated using mincerian models. Around this cutoff there is also a gap of 9.6% on the probability of holding a college degree in adulthood, with which we estimate the college premium and find a 201% increase in labor income. We test the robustness of our estimates using placebo variables, alternative model specifcations and McCrary Density Tests.
    Date: 2019–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:1905.13281&r=all
  2. By: Juan Tenorio (Georgetown University); Maritza Huanchi (Universidad Nacional del Callao)
    Abstract: Durante los últimos años, el Perú atravesó recesiones debido a la dependencia externa estableciendo políticas fiscales para la reactivación económica. Sin embargo, la diversidad de impuestos y su escaso estudio no permitieron definir una política adecuada debido a la no consideración de heterogeneidad de sus efectos. Esta investigación estima el impacto de shocks del IGV y el IR considerando las limitaciones anteriores. Asimismo, a través del modelo de Equilibrio General Dinámico Estocástico (DSGE) Bayesiano se evidenció que un shock por IGV incrementa la economía en 2.2%, disminuye el empleo, aumenta el consumo en el periodo inicial y retrae la inversión. Por otra parte, un shock de IR impulsa la economía en 4.8%, retrae el consumo pero eleva el empleo casi proporcionalmente, e incrementa la inversión. Finalmente, se concluyó que una reforma tributaria de IR tiene efectos más satisfactorios, logrando una recaudación de 12.3% del PBI, en comparación del IGV (8.9%).
    Keywords: Reactivación económica, política fiscal, impuestos, DSGE Bayesiano
    JEL: E62 H22
    Date: 2019–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:apc:wpaper:148&r=all
  3. By: Francesco Bogliacino; Valeria Cirillo; Cristiano Codagnone; Marta Fana; Francisco Lupiáñez-Villanueva; Giuseppe A Veltri
    Abstract: Workers who perform their occupations through platforms are becoming an increasing share of the labour force. The debate is polarized between those arguing for platforms as an instrument to increase flexibility and labor force participation, and those who see it as a further mechanism to increase Non Standard Work (NSW). This debate is policy relevant because in either case, platform participation is associated to a difference in terms of willingness to contribute to the social security system. Nevertheless, the evidence is scant because we lack reliable data sources. In this contribution, we use a dedicated survey to estimate Willingness to Pay (WTP) for social security and estimate the causal impact of platform participation using a selection on observable strategy. We found that platform workers are less disposed to contribute to social security, although perception of accessibility and adequacy are not affected. Results are robust to specifications and multiple hypotheses testing. *** Los trabajadores que realizan sus ocupaciones a través de plataformas se están convirtiendo en una parte cada vez mayor de la fuerza laboral. El debate está polarizado entre los que abogan por las plataformas como instrumento para aumentar la flexibilidad y la participación de la fuerza laboral, y los que las ven como un mecanismo más para aumentar el trabajo no estándar. Este debate es relevante para la política porque, en cualquier caso, la participación en la plataforma está asociada a una diferencia en términos de voluntad de contribuir al sistema de seguridad social. Sin embargo, las pruebas son escasas porque carecemos de fuentes de datos fiables. En esta contribución, utilizamos una encuesta dedicada para estimar la Disposición de Pago de la seguridad social y estimamos el impacto causal de la participación en la plataforma utilizando una estrategia de selección por variables observables. Encontramos que los trabajadores de las plataformas están menos dispuestos a contribuir a la seguridad social, aunque la percepción de accesibilidad y adecuación no se ve afectada. Los resultados son robustos a las especificaciones y a las pruebas de hipótesis múltiples.
    Keywords: employment; preferences; work; economic behavior
    JEL: J32 J40 C21
    Date: 2019–05–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000178:017293&r=all
  4. By: Snower, Dennis J.
    Abstract: This paper argues that the traditional societal contract that underlies the market economy has run its course and needs to be replaced by a new contract, based on a new conception of the "empowering economy." Whereas different societal contracts are relevant to different societies, there must be some features that all societal contracts will have in common, in order to address some basic human needs that every thriving society must satisfy and to promote popular approval for multilateral agreements to address multilateral problems. The paper proposes a new societal contract that promotes three building blocks of economic policies: (1) automatic stabilizers that reduce inequalities of economic power, (2) policies that focus not just on material prosperity, but also on personal and social empowerment and (3) policies that develop the human capabilities of cooperation and innovation.
    Keywords: societal contract,empowerment,social cohesion,inequality,cooperation,innovation,free markets,welfare state,incentives
    JEL: O31 P11 P12 P16 P41 P47 P48 P51
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:ifwedp:201935&r=all

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