nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2019‒05‒20
six papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Desarrollo económico regional, especializaciones productivas y cooperación empresarial. Un estudio comparado de Chile, El Salvador, Paraguay y Uruguay By Adrián Rodrí­guez Miranda; Pablo Galasso; Pedro Argumedo; Sebastián Goinheix; Camilo Martí­nez; Fernando Masi; Santiago Picasso; Ignacio Rodrí­guez; Paulina Sanhuezad; Belén Servin
  2. Responsabilidad social en un centro público de salud en Chile By Severino-González, Pedro; Pujol-Cols, Lucas J.; Lazzaro-Salazar, Mariana
  3. Earnings inequality in the Brazilian formal sector: The role of firms, education, and top incomes 1994–2015 By Neri Marcelo; Machado Cecilia; Neto Valdemar
  4. Inequality in Mexico: Labour markets and fiscal redistribution 1989–2014 By Campos-Vázquez Raymundo; Lustig Nora; Scott John
  5. New imputation procedures in the measurement of inequality, growth, and poverty in Brazil By Neri Marcelo; Hecksher Marcos; Silva Pedro
  6. Partisanship and local fiscal policy : evidence from Brazilian cities By Raphael Gouvea; Daniele Girardi

  1. By: Adrián Rodrí­guez Miranda (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economí­a); Pablo Galasso (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economí­a); Pedro Argumedo (Fundación Salvadoreña para el Desarrollo (El Salvador)); Sebastián Goinheix (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economí­a); Camilo Martí­nez (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economí­a); Fernando Masi (Centro de Análisis y Difusión de la Economí­a Paraguaya (Paraguay)); Santiago Picasso (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economí­a); Ignacio Rodrí­guez (Universidad de la Frontera (Chile)); Paulina Sanhuezad (Universidad de la Frontera (Chile)); Belén Servin (Centro de Análisis y Difusión de la Economí­a Paraguaya (Paraguay))
    Abstract: This research has two aims. First, it characterizes regional development in the four selected countries. Second, it analyzes cooperation networks between firms and organizations, in 24 clusters in different regions of the four countries. Regarding the first aim, the work analyzes in each region the generation of wealth, the development of small business sector and socioeconomic conditions of the environment, complemented by the identification of the productive specializations in each region. Results show that economic development is not evenly distributed in the territory. Certain sub-national patterns in terms of economic development were found. In addition, there is a strong concentration of economic activity in the regions where the national capitals are located (except for the regions rich in mining or energy resources). The analysis of local business development and the socioeconomic environment shows that, in addition to external factors, a region must develop its own local capacities to take advantage of these external impulses and transform them into local development. Regarding the second objective, the study of 24 cooperation networks in clusters proves that organizations are the key actors to keep the networks connected. On the other hand, the level of cooperation among firms is, on average, low. In this sense, the countries under study do not present, in general, regions with high levels of local business capacity that can be the main support of cooperation networks. Therefore, organizations play an intermediary role between firms and provide access to external sources of innovation that can be disseminated through the network. Finally, the combination of social network analysis with econometric regression techniques revealed a positive relationship between the cooperation in networks and the economic performance of firms.
    Keywords: regional development, productive specializations, clusters, social network analysis, business cooperation, Latin America
    JEL: O18 O31 O32 O54 R11 R58
    Date: 2019–02
  2. By: Severino-González, Pedro; Pujol-Cols, Lucas J.; Lazzaro-Salazar, Mariana
    Abstract: Este artículo examina las percepciones de directivos y empleados de un centro público de salud de Chile acerca del grado de presencia de prácticas socialmente responsables en dicha institución, explorando, además, potenciales diferencias entre estas percepciones. Se administró una encuesta estructurada a una muestra no probabilística de 250 individuos. Los resultados revelan que los participantes coinciden en que el Centro posee un comportamiento socialmente responsable, aunque estas percepciones no resultan compartidas de igual modo por los directivos y los empleados.
    Keywords: Responsabilidad Social; Etica; Salud Pública;
    Date: 2019–03–31
  3. By: Neri Marcelo; Machado Cecilia; Neto Valdemar
    Abstract: This paper documents the evolution and the determinants of earnings inequality in the Brazilian formal sector from 1994 to 2015, using establishment level data. In 2015, schooling explained 33 per cent of overall inequality.Firm-specific effects explain 65 per cent of total inequality level and 76 per cent of the inequality fall observed. The downward inequality trend parallels the one seen in household surveys. However, the distributive decompression goes only until the 90th percentile, which is in line with Personal Income Tax based evidence. The share of inequality explained by top 1 per cent and 0.1 per cent incomes rose 43 per cent and 91 per cent, respectively.
    Keywords: Earnings inequality,Entropy indexes,Inequality,Linked employer-employee data
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Campos-Vázquez Raymundo; Lustig Nora; Scott John
    Abstract: Income inequality in Mexico increased between 1989 and 1994; between 1994 and 2006, inequality declined; and, between 2006 and 2014, inequality was again on the rise.We apply decomposition techniques to analyse the proximate determinants of labour income inequality and fiscal incidence analysis to estimate the first-order effects of taxes and social spending on the distribution of income.The key component that underlies the ‘rise-decline-rise again’ pattern was the evolution of returns to skills. In addition, while changes in fiscal policy in the 1990s were progressive and pro-poor, the redistributive effect has declined significantly since 2010, as transfers have become less progressive and net indirect taxes have increased.
    Keywords: Top incomes,Poverty,Fiscal redistribution,Inequality,Labour income
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Neri Marcelo; Hecksher Marcos; Silva Pedro
    Abstract: This paper develops a new imputation methodology applied to missing incomes values in PNAD.PNAD is the main Brazilian household survey, but it has no imputation. The imputation process starts by fitting regression models applied to different income sources considering the complex sampling design of the survey. Later this procedure is combined with stochastic methods.In 2015, 2.5 per cent of the sample had per capita incomes imputed, resulting in slightly higher levels of inequality. Inequality and poverty changes were not affected by imputation. We took advantage of the methodology proposed to input rents and to preserve pressure points in income distributions associated with Brazilian institutional features such as minimum wages.Â
    Keywords: Missing incomes,Stochastic imputation,Imputation,Inequality,Poverty
    Date: 2018
  6. By: Raphael Gouvea (Institute for Applied Economic Research and Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst); Daniele Girardi (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst)
    Abstract: We study the role of political parties in shaping local fiscal policy in the context of Brazilian cities in the 2004-2016 period. Using a regression-discontinuity design, we find no effect of left-wing mayors on the size of the city government nor on the allocation of spending across main budget categories (current spending, investment and personnel). We do find a modest, significant and robust positive effect on the share of social expenditures. The (close) election of a left-wing mayor tends to raise the share of social expenditures by around 0.6 percentage points in our preferred RD specification. We then explore possible mechanisms which could bring about substantial fiscal policy convergence between political parties in Brazilian cities. We exploit oil-related revenue windfalls to explore the role of institutional constraints, and build an index of Tiebout competition to measure the role of the latter. We find support for the institutional constraints hypothesis in explaining the limited extent of spending allocation effects, and little support for the Tiebout-competition hypothesis.
    Keywords: Partisanship, Local Fiscal Policy, Brazil, Regression-Discontinuity, Elections, Oil Windfalls, Tiebout Competition
    JEL: H7 L38 D72 P16
    Date: 2019

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