nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2018‒11‒19
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Learning Spillovers in Conditional Welfare Programs: Evidence from Brazil By Fernanda Brollo; Katja Maria Kaufmann; Eliana La Ferrara
  2. Effects of the bolsa fam lia program on the economic wellbeing of rural families in brazilian macrorregions: a computable general equilibrium analysis By Wolf, R.; Cardoso Teixeira, E.; Costa Gurgel, A.; Freitas, D.
  3. Internationalization paths of fruit export companies from emerging economies: Are they regionally or globally oriented? By Losilla, L.; Engler, A.; Otter, V.
  4. The Returns to College Choice: Loans, Scholarships and Labor Outcomes By Montoya, Ana Maria; Noton, Carlos; Solis, Alex

  1. By: Fernanda Brollo; Katja Maria Kaufmann; Eliana La Ferrara
    Abstract: We study spillovers in learning about the enforcement of Bolsa Familia, a program conditioning benefits on children’s school attendance. Using original administrative data, we find that individuals’ compliance responds to penalties incurred by their classmates and by siblings’ classmates (in other grades/schools). As the severity of penalties increases with repeated noncompliance, the response is larger when peers are punished for “higher stages†than the family’s, consistent with learning. Individuals also respond to penalties experienced by neighbors who are exogenously scheduled to receive notices on the same day. Our results point to important social multiplier effects of enforcement via learning.
    Date: 2018–11
  2. By: Wolf, R.; Cardoso Teixeira, E.; Costa Gurgel, A.; Freitas, D.
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effects of the Bolsa Fam lia Program on the economic well-being of rural families in the Brazilian macro-regions, contributing to the debate on income transfer programs, analyzing the impacts on consumption and well-being of families. The specific objectives of the study are to analyze the impact of the Bolsa Program on the economic well-being of families living in rural areas in each Brazilian macro-region and on the impact of government transfers on the prices of primary factors. The results indicate that, although the program is initially efficient in promoting the fight against inequality, gains in terms of economic well-being are minimal, as well as reducing the price of the labor factor, suggesting that in the long run, besides the effects of the Bolsa Fam lia Program becoming more lenient, and there is a need for transfers from the Bolsa Fam lia Program to be linked to labor market policies in rural areas. The effects of a real public expenditure on the Bolsa Fam lia Program in rural families in the Brazilian regions are low but positive and higher than the unit, which confirms the guiding hypothesis of the research. Acknowledgement : Coordena o de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de N vel Superior - CAPES Universidade Federal de Vi osa - UFV Projeto de An lise de Equil brio Geral da Economia Brasileira - PAEG
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2018–07
  3. By: Losilla, L.; Engler, A.; Otter, V.
    Abstract: There is a continuing debate regarding firms internationalization pathways and the approaches used for firm categorization, resulting in controversial identification of the degree of firms globalization. The aim of this paper is to establish a framework to examine the changes in the internationalization strategies of agricultural export companies from emerging economies over time. Thereby seeking to identify conceptual and empirical differences in what is known of export firms acting in non-agricultural sectors in industrialized countries. The matrix of multi-nationality developed by Aggarwal et al. (2011) is extended and tested to classify 233 Chilean fresh fruit exporters according to their internationalization strategies. A longitudinal analysis is conducted over a seven-year period (2009-2015) to explore the dynamics on that internationalization process. Most firms are transregionally (65.12%) and globally oriented (16.06%), mainly following a linear internationalization path in terms of number of markets but acting more as born-global firms in terms of psychic distance. This study provides a more inclusive and nuanced framework than those used in previous studies to classify the level of firms internationalization. It also contributes to existing literature by studying companies from the agricultural sector in Chile longitudinally, as a prime example of emerging economies from Latin America. Acknowledgement : The authors acknowledge the support of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and the University of Costa Rica on doing this research.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2018–07
  4. By: Montoya, Ana Maria (Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Chile); Noton, Carlos (Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Chile); Solis, Alex (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: To estimate causal eff ects of college choice, we exploit eligibility rules for student loans in a regression discontinuity design. Loan programs induce students to pursue college degrees that are more expensive and prolonged relative to technical education. Although higher education is profi table, the marginal return of college is identical to that of technical education when students are about 30 years old. The college premium seems to increase over time, possibly off setting the initial experience gap and covering cost diff erences under moderate discount rates. We study the eff ects of debt burden on college choice using a similar cutoff rule for scholarships.
    Keywords: college choice; credit constraints; returns to college; debt aversion; regression discontinuity
    JEL: I22 I23 I28 J08
    Date: 2018–07–31

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