nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2018‒11‒12
four papers chosen by

  1. THE CHILE EXPERIMENT Comparing Chile’s Free School Choice Model with Quasi-Monopoly Educational Systems in Latin America on Academic Outcomes and School Segregation By Mariano Narodowski
  2. Growing Together: Assessing Equity and Efficiency in an Early-Life Health Program in Chile By Clarke, Damian; Cortés Méndez, Gustavo; Vergara Sepúlveda, Diego
  3. Household Debt and Recession in Brazil By Gabriel Garber; Atif Mian; Jacopo Ponticelli; Amir Sufi
  4. Análisis de la Desigualdad de Largo Plazo en Bolivia 1976-2012 By Luis Fernando Castro Peñarrieta; Gustavo Zárate Taborga; Valeria Salinas Maceda

  1. By: Mariano Narodowski
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to show the achievements and challenges of Chile's system of free school choice compared to countries with similar socioeconomic structures and common educational histories, but with traditional education systems: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay.
    Date: 2018–10
  2. By: Clarke, Damian (Universidad de Santiago de Chile); Cortés Méndez, Gustavo (Universidad de Santiago de Chile); Vergara Sepúlveda, Diego (Universidad de Santiago de Chile)
    Abstract: We study the mechanism of action of an early-life social safety net program, and quantify its impact on child health outcomes at birth. We consider both the equity and efficiency implications of program impacts, and provide a metric to compare various such programs around the world. In particular, we estimate the impact of participation in Chile Crece Contigo (ChCC), Chile's flagship early-life health and social welfare program, using administrative birth data matched to social benefits usage. We find that this targeted social program had significant effects on birth weight (approximately 10 grams) and other early life human capital measures. These benefits are largest among the most socially vulnerable groups, however shift outcomes toward the middle of the distribution of health at birth. We show that the program is efficient when compared to other successful neonatal health programs around the world, and find some evidence to suggest that maternal nutrition components and increased links to the social safety net are important mechanisms of action.
    Keywords: public health, neonatal health, social security, efficiency, early life investments
    JEL: H23 O15 I14 H43 O38 H51
    Date: 2018–09
  3. By: Gabriel Garber; Atif Mian; Jacopo Ponticelli; Amir Sufi
    Abstract: Brazil experienced one of the most severe recessions in its history from 2014 to 2016. Following a pattern shown for previous economic downturns in other countries, the Brazilian recession was preceded by a substantial increase in household debt from 2003 to 2014. This study utilizes a novel individual level data set on household borrowing in order to provide details of the household debt boom. The data set allows for a decomposition of the rise in household debt by the type of debt and by the source of debt, and it allows for an analysis of the income of individuals taking on more debt during the boom. We conclude with an exploration of potential causes of the rise in household debt.
    JEL: E32 F44
    Date: 2018–10
  4. By: Luis Fernando Castro Peñarrieta (Universidad Privada Boliviana y Tecnológico de Monterrey); Gustavo Zárate Taborga (Universidad Privada Boliviana); Valeria Salinas Maceda (Universidad de Salamanca)
    Abstract: La desigualdad en Bolivia es medida normalmente a través del ingreso pero la construcción de un índice socio-económico (ISE) utilizando los cuatro censos disponibles 1976, 1992, 2001 y 2012 logra analizar la desigualdad a largo plazo en un enfoque multidimensional. La aplicación de un enfoque de descomposición inter-temporal permite identificar la relevancia de variables como etnia y género (del Jefe de hogar) tanto en la estructura como en la composición del cambio del ISE en el tiempo a nivel de cuantiles.
    Keywords: Desigualdad, Género, Etnicidad, Descomposición de Varianza
    JEL: D63 I32 O15
    Date: 2018–09

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