nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2018‒11‒05
four papers chosen by

  1. The distributive impact of income taxes in Brazil By Rodrigo Cardoso Fernandes; Bernardo Campolina; Fernando Gaiger Silveira
  2. Ciclo y composición del cambio en los salarios: una aproximación a la estructura salarial de Colombia By Francisco Lasso-Valderrama; Laura Rodríguez-Quintero
  3. Measuring the Redistributive Effect of Pensions By Alvaro Forteza
  4. Distribution and productivity growth: an empirical exercise applied to selected Latin American countries By Douglas Alcantara Alencar; Frederico Gonzaga Jayme Jr.; Gustavo Britto; Claudio Puty

  1. By: Rodrigo Cardoso Fernandes (IPC-IG); Bernardo Campolina (IPC-IG); Fernando Gaiger Silveira (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Income inequality has been one of Brazil's most significant socioeconomic characteristics throughout its history. Although there has been a significant reduction since the end of the 1990s, its persistence and magnitude are still internationally notorious. This One Pager seeks to synthesise the results of a study relating Brazilian inequality with its tax system, whose regressive nature must be overcome to enable a more egalitarian society. The Brazilian tax system places undue emphasis on indirect taxes?which comprise over 51 per cent of its gross tax burden. The countrys insistence on taxes on goods and services (indirect taxes)?to the detriment of taxes on income and property (direct taxes)?undermines the real application of the principle of contributive capacity, resulting in a regressive system whereby families with less income proportionally finance a larger share of the State". (...)
    Keywords: Distributive, impact, income, taxes, Brazil
    Date: 2018–07
  2. By: Francisco Lasso-Valderrama (Banco de la República de Colombia); Laura Rodríguez-Quintero (Universidad Javeriana)
    Abstract: Este trabajo presenta evidencia empírica del impacto de los efectos composición del empleo, estructura salarial y del ciclo económico sobre la evolución salarial en Colombia. Se utilizan las encuestas aplicadas a la fuerza laboral de siete ciudades por el Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE) desde 1984 a 2017. Esta es la serie de encuestas urbanas más larga y homogénea disponible en el país. Usando la técnica de función de influencia recentrada (RIF en inglés) en regresión cuantílica incondicional reponderada y una generalización de la descomposición estándar a la Oaxaca – Blinder se evidencia que los salarios exhiben un comportamiento pro-cíclico, y especialmente en la población de mayor remuneración, son flexibles y reaccionan significativamente ante los ciclos económicos. Este comportamiento está acompañado de un efecto composición favorable al incremento de los salarios reales y un efecto estructura salarial favorable a la disminución de la desigualdad salarial, siendo el capital humano (años de educación y experiencia laboral) el factor que más contribuye en ambos efectos. **** RESUMEN: This paper presents empirical evidence of the impact of the employment composition effects, wage structure and economic cycle on the evolution of wages in Colombia. The analysis is carried out using the labor force survey of the seven principal cities of Colombia applied by the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE) from 1984 to 2017. This one is the largest and homogeneous dataset available for urban sector in the country. The proposed methodology is based on the re-centered influence function (RIF), re-weighted unconditional quantile regressions and a generalization of the standard Oaxaca - Blinder decomposition. We find that wages present a pro-cyclical behavior, especially for the population that receives the greater remunerations. For this group, wages are also flexible and react significantly to economic cycles. The composition effect contributes towards greater real wages, and the salary structure effect reduce wage inequality. The human capital (number of years of education and work experience) is the factor that contributes the most in both effects.
    Keywords: Salarios, ciclo de los salarios, composición del empleo, desigualdad salarial, Colombia, regresión RIF, Wages, wages cycle, employment composition, wage inequality, Colombia, RIF regression.
    JEL: J31 E32 I24 C14 C23
    Date: 2018–10
  3. By: Alvaro Forteza
    Abstract: In this document, I present a methodological proposal for the analysis of the redistributive e↵ect of pension programs. The analysis is challenging and has generated controversies in the literature. One of the issues is to what extent pensions should be treated as transfers or deferred income (Lustig and Higgins 2017). In my view, this is basically a question about the correct counterfactual for non labor income. In other words, the main challenge is to estimate the income from property of wealth individuals would have earned had the pension program not been present. I use a standard life cycle model to provide a consistent answer.
    Date: 2018–09
  4. By: Douglas Alcantara Alencar (UFPA); Frederico Gonzaga Jayme Jr. (Cedeplar-UFMG); Gustavo Britto (Cedeplar-UFMG); Claudio Puty (UFPA)
    Abstract: In this article we analyze, from a Latin American structuralist perspective, whether productivity growth is affected by growth in income and employment. In order to test our hypothesis, we have chosen a sample of Latin American countries that represent 86% of the region’s gross domestic product. We perform an econometric test of the so-called Kaldor-Verdoon parameter and the employment growth parameter for the selected countries.
    Keywords: Demand-led growth, Endogenous technological change, Wage-led and profit-led demand regimes, Productivity regime, Latin American structuralism.
    JEL: O4 O3 E3
    Date: 2018–10

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