nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2018‒10‒29
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Uruguay By Fernando Filgueira
  2. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Argentina By Fabián Repetto; Fernanda Potenza Dal Masetto
  3. Urban Transport Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges and Lessons Learned By Yanez-Pagans, Patricia; Martinez, Daniel; Mitnik, Oscar A.; Scholl, Lynn; Vazquez, Antonia
  4. The distributive impact of income taxes in Brazil By Rodrigo Cardoso Fernandes; Bernardo Campolina; Fernando Gaiger Silveira

  1. By: Fernando Filgueira (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: Uruguays welfare state can be characterised by its universal primary education system, its early and robust social security system as well as widespread health coverage and benefits. Uruguay also has one of Latin Americas highest levels of social spending in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (24.3 per cent) and as a percentage of total public spending (80.6 per cent)..(?)
    Keywords: Social Protection Systems, Latin America, the Caribbean, Uruguay
    Date: 2018–10
  2. By: Fabián Repetto (IPC-IG); Fernanda Potenza Dal Masetto (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "The social protection regime in Argentina has undergone changes over the past two decades. From the early 1990s until the 2001/02 crisis, privatisation of social security and decentralisation of health care and education in favour of provincial governments prevailed, while actions aimed at reducing poverty proliferated and successive (and failed) attempts were made to form a social authority. Finally, starting in 2001, a new regime began to take shape, whose central features included strengthening the role of the State as the driver of decentralised health care and education systems and unifying initiatives aimed at reducing poverty. In addition, the State has regained control of retirement funds and made advances in the progressive universalisation of social security by linking the contributory and non-contributory pillars. However, Argentina has not managed to strengthen social institutionality to promote integration based on measures that would be both relevant and necessary, like those described."(...)
    Keywords: Social Protection Systems, Latin America, the Caribbean, Argentina
    Date: 2018–10
  3. By: Yanez-Pagans, Patricia (IDB Invest); Martinez, Daniel (Inter-American Development Bank); Mitnik, Oscar A. (Inter-American Development Bank); Scholl, Lynn (Inter-American Development Bank); Vazquez, Antonia (Universidad de San Andrés)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the transportation challenges that urban areas in Latin America and the Caribbean face and reviews the causal evidence on the impact brought by different urban transport system interventions implemented around the world. The objective is to highlight the main lessons learned and identify knowledge gaps to guide the design and evaluation of future transport investments. The review shows that causal studies have been concentrated in certain areas and that an important number have been carried out in developed countries. Empirical challenges due to the non-random placement of these interventions and their possible effects over the entire transport network might explain the reduced amount of causal evaluations. A large part of the literature has focused on the impact of transport systems on housing values, finding overall increases in prices and rents, but with results highly dependent on the quality and perceived permanency of the system. There are few studies that explore socioeconomic effects, and those available have emphasized employment access. There are almost no studies exploring displacement effects, which should be examined to better understand the social inclusion role of transport systems. New avenues of research are emerging that exploit non-traditional sources of data, such as big data. Moreover, studies looking at ways to improve the operational efficiency of systems and those seeking to promote behavioral changes in transport users.
    Keywords: urban transport systems, Latin America and the Caribbean, impact evaluation
    JEL: O18 R15 R42
    Date: 2018–09
  4. By: Rodrigo Cardoso Fernandes (IPC-IG); Bernardo Campolina (IPC-IG); Fernando Gaiger Silveira (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Brazil has always been known as a country marked by inequality. Whether of opportunities, income or property, this inequality is manifest in all stages of wealth accumulation. Within this dire landscape, the country has always stood alongside much poorer nations, while countries with similar income and development profiles have presented substantially better indicators. Many scholars and academics have addressed this disturbing national quirk, analysing its origins and the main variables that have determined its persistent dynamics within Brazilian society. One element that has garnered relatively less attention in the analysis of the determinants of inequality is how the organisation of the tax system can impact the distribution of income. Therefore, in light of our investigation, one of the issues that has been identified as reinforcing the social injustices in Brazil is its national tax structure". (...)
    Keywords: Distributive, impact, income, taxes, Brazil
    Date: 2018–07

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