nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2018‒09‒10
five papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. To the Victor Belongs the Spoils? Party Membership and Public Sector Employment in Brazil By Brollo, Fernanda; Forquesato, Pedro; Gozzi, Juan Carlos
  2. Los efectos desprotectores de la protección del empleo: el impacto de la reforma del contrato laboral del 2001 By Jaramillo, Miguel; Almonacid, Julio; Flor, Luciana de la
  3. Economics of climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean: a graphic view By -
  4. An alert on the recent fall of the fiscal reaction in Brazil By Campos, Eduardo Lima; Cysne, Rubens Penha
  5. Política industrial en el ciclo de los commodities en Uruguay By Bértola, Luis; Lara, Cecilia

  1. By: Brollo, Fernanda; Forquesato, Pedro; Gozzi, Juan Carlos
    Abstract: We analyze how political discretion affects the selection of government workers, using individual-level data on political party membership and matched employer-employee data on the universe of formal workers in Brazil. Exploiting close mayoral races, we find that winning an election leads to an increase of over 40% in the number of members of the winning party working in the municipal bureaucracy. Employment of members of the ruling party increases relatively more in senior positions, but also expands in lower-ranked jobs, suggesting that discretionary appointments are used both to influence policymaking and to reward supporters. We find that party members hired after their party is elected tend be of similar or even higher quality than members of the runner-up party, contrary to common perceptions that political appointees are less qualified. Moreover, the increased public employment of members of the ruling party is long-lasting, extending beyond the end of the mayoral term.
    Keywords: Financial Economics
    Date: 2017–10–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uwarer:269088&r=lam
  2. By: Jaramillo, Miguel (Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE)); Almonacid, Julio; Flor, Luciana de la
    Abstract: Cuatro de cada cinco relaciones laborales en el sector formal de la economía peruana están amparadas en contratos temporales. Esta proporción es groseramente superior a la de cualquier país de la OECD y también bastante mayor a la de cualquiera de los países de nuestra región latinoamericana. El objeto de este estudio es elucidar el rol de la reforma laboral del año 2001 sobre estos resultados y estimar los efectos que esto ha tenido sobre variables asociadas al bienestar de los trabajadores. Se encuentra que la reforma ha reducido la probabilidad de tener un contrato por tiempo indefinido en el mercado laboral peruano. El impacto promedio en el corto plazo (hasta cinco años después de la reforma) es de una reducción de 50 por ciento en dicha probabilidad mientras que el impacto de largo plazo es de una caída de 80 por ciento. Esto significa que al año 2015 poco más de 900,000 empleos que hubieran sido a plazo indefinido en ausencia de la reforma se basaban en contratos temporales debido a la reforma. Estimaciones en base a ecuaciones de Mincer sugieren que esto se ha traducido en una pérdida de ingresos laborales de los trabajadores en el orden de los 6,100 millones de soles en el año 2015. Así, mismo 36,000 trabajadores se hubieran afiliado a un sindicato de no haberse dado la reforma. Los resultados llaman la atención sobre la urgencia de que el Tribunal Constitucional revise su posición sobre el mandato constitucional de “protección adecuada” frente al despido.
    Keywords: Empleo, productividad, contratos, Perú.
    JEL: J21
    Date: 2017
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gad:avance:0030&r=lam
  3. By: -
    Abstract: Climate change is one of the greatest challenges of the twentyfirst century given its global causes and consequences and the scale of the coordinated efforts that will be needed to alleviate its negative impacts, adapt to new climate conditions and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The primary aim of this publication is to provide a concise, graphic presentation of the basic assumptions and statistical data relating to the economics of climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean. This presentation of a set of stylized facts is intended to serve as a tool for improving the design, instrumentation and evaluation of public policies for the twenty-first century that are focused on transforming the current style of development and transitioning into a more sustainable one. In addition to the preceding preface and this introduction, this study will explore nine theses regarding climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean along with seven of the challenges that it poses.
    Keywords: CAMBIO CLIMATICO, ASPECTOS ECONOMICOS, AGENDA 2030 PARA EL DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE, OBJETIVOS DE DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE, ASPECTOS SOCIALES, DESARROLLO ECONOMICO, MODELOS DE DESARROLLO, CONSUMO, AGRICULTURA, RECURSOS ENERGETICOS, INFRAESTRUCTURA FISICA, ZONAS URBANAS, RECURSOS HIDRICOS, BOSQUES, DIVERSIDAD BIOLOGICA, COSTAS, INDICADORES AMBIENTALES, GAS DE EFECTO INVERNADERO, INDICADORES ECONOMICOS, INDICADORES DEL DESARROLLO, CLIMATE CHANGE, ECONOMIC ASPECTS, 2030 AGENDA FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS, SOCIAL ASPECTS, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, DEVELOPMENT MODELS, CONSUMPTION, AGRICULTURE, ENERGY RESOURCES, PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE, URBAN AREAS, WATER RESOURCES, FORESTS, BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY, COASTS, ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS, GREENHOUSE GASES, ECONOMIC INDICATORS, DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS
    Date: 2018–08–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ecr:col022:43889&r=lam
  4. By: Campos, Eduardo Lima; Cysne, Rubens Penha
    Abstract: Recent evaluations of how the Brazilian government’s primary surplus reacts to the evolution of the debt to GDP ratio convey two important (and worrisome) messages: first, the reaction function has been almost steadily decreasing since 2012. Second, it has turned from positive to negative figures as of October of 2017. With effective real interest rates (over the net government debt) higher than prospects of GDP growth, negative figures for the fiscal reaction function mean a non-sustainable debt trajectory. Significant fiscal adjustments will have to be made in the short run.
    Date: 2018–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fgv:epgewp:799&r=lam
  5. By: Bértola, Luis; Lara, Cecilia
    Keywords: CRECIMIENTO ECONOMICO, CICLOS ECONOMICOS, POLITICA INDUSTRIAL, INVERSIONES, COMERCIO INTERNACIONAL, DESARROLLO INDUSTRIAL, PROGRAMAS DE ACCION, POLITICA DE CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGIA, ECONOMIC GROWTH, BUSINESS CYCLES, INDUSTRIAL POLICY, INVESTMENTS, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, PROGRAMMES OF ACTION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY
    Date: 2017–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ecr:col022:43939&r=lam

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