nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2018‒05‒07
three papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Blessing a Curse? Institutional Reform and Resource Booms in Colombia By Jorge Gallego; Stanislao Maldonado; Lorena Trujillo
  2. On the heterogeneous effects of market access barriers: evidence from small and large Peruvian exporters By Fugazza, Marco; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Ugarte, Cristian
  3. Capital humano para la transformación digital en América Latina By Katz, Raúl L.

  1. By: Jorge Gallego; Stanislao Maldonado; Lorena Trujillo
    Abstract: Is it possible to revert the resource curse through institutional reform? Evidence suggests that there is a negative relationship between abundance of natural resources and economic growth, political stability, democracy, and peace. However, evidence illustrating how institutional reform can revert this situation is scarce. In this paper, we exploit an institutional reform that took place in Colombia in 2011. We evaluate the effects of the reform to the royalties system, that modified the allocation rule of these rents but also introduced important changes in terms of control and accountability, on the living standards of Colombian households. We instrument municipality-level allocations of royalties using international variations in the price of oil, and we find that the reform had important effects on several household welfare indicators. We find positive impacts on important dimensions, such as poverty, income, employment,housing conditions, health, and education, among others. Results are mixed or null in other areas, such as formality or employment in the service sector. We test for different channels explaining these effects, which include theories of state capacity, competition for resources, and increased control and accountability. Our evidence supports the state capacity mechanism.
    Date: 2018–04–19
  2. By: Fugazza, Marco; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Ugarte, Cristian
    Abstract: We examine the extent to which market-access barriers in Latin America affect small and large Peruvian exporters to the region. Using a dataset that allows us to distinguish between tariffs and different types of non-tariff measures introduced by Latin American countries between 2000 and 2014, we find that large Peruvian exporters benefit rather than lose from the introduction of tariffs and non-tariff measures in their destination markets. Their export value increases and the probability that they exit the export sector decreases as they face new market-access barriers abroad. The reverse is true for small exporters, which are hurt by more stringent market-access barriers.
    Keywords: Firm Heterogeneity; Non-Tariff-Measures; tariffs
    JEL: F13
    Date: 2018–04
  3. By: Katz, Raúl L.
    Abstract: En este documento se analiza la oferta de programas de capacitación en tecnologías digitales maduras en siete países de la región (Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia México, Perú y Uruguay). La mayoría de los programas censados incluyen cursos relacionadas con robótica / control, inteligencia artificial / aprendizaje de máquinas, o big data / analíticos. Como datos relevantes, el estudio indica que el país que ofrece el número mayor de cursos en tecnologías digitales avanzadas es Brasil y el menor, Uruguay. Asimismo, se observa una clara brecha de oferta en los programas de capacitación de alto nivel. Esto tiene un impacto en el nivel y recursos dedicados a investigación y desarrollo en la región. En lo que se refiere a la concentración en tecnologías de avanzada, la robótica y control tienden a concentrar la mayor parte de la oferta de capacitación.Por último, se ha identificado que la educación superior en la región se caracteriza por un sistema fragmentado y diversificado, en el que los sistemas de educación superior privados prevalecen sobre los públicos. En este sistema proliferan las instituciones destinadas a ofrecer programas de formación superior de forma descoordinada, sin responder a una matriz de desarrollo educativo uniforme orientada a aumentar la dotación de capital humano de los países.
    Date: 2018–04–24

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