nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2018‒03‒05
five papers chosen by

  1. The Effect of Civil Conflict on Domestic Violence The Case of Peru By Italo A. Gutierrez; Jose V. Gallegos
  2. Reducing credit constraints to post-secondary technical education in developing countries : evidence from Colombia By Millán Quijano, Jaime Augusto; Gamboa, Luis Fernando
  3. La eficiencia en el uso del agua y la energía en los procesos mineros: casos de buenas prácticas en Chile y el Perú By Lewinsohn, José Luis
  4. The Impact of Conditional Cash Transfers on Households Investments in Productive Assets and Activities: Evidence from the Juntos Programme in Peru By Cristina Cirillo; Giorgia Giovannetti
  5. Determinants of Slum Formation: The Role of Local Politics and Policies By Alves, Guillermo

  1. By: Italo A. Gutierrez; Jose V. Gallegos
    Abstract: We study the effect of women's exposure to civil conflict violent events during childhood and early teenage years on the probability that they will experience domestic violence in their marriages as adults. In particular, we investigate the case of the internal conflict in Peru during the 1980s and early 1990s, and its effect on the incidence of domestic violence between 2004 and 2012. We find that female exposure to conflict violence increases their later risk of being a perpetrator and a victim of domestic violence. The average effects for women affected by the conflict are small, although they mask important heterogeneities as some regions were affected by the conflict more severely than others. The effects are substantial for women in the highest categories of exposure. We also find evidence that a potential mechanism through which exposure to the conflict affects domestic violence in the long-term is normalization of the use of violence. Women more exposed to conflict violent events are more likely to justify the use of violence against women and more likely to stay in a violent relationship.
    Keywords: domestic violence, civil conflicts, social norms, Peru
    JEL: J12 J16
    Date: 2016–10
  2. By: Millán Quijano, Jaime Augusto; Gamboa, Luis Fernando
    Abstract: We assess the importance of credit constraints for post-secondary education using different discontinuities that affect enrollment in free-technical education and eligibility for educational grants in Colombia. Our strategy makes use of multiple RD estimators in order to identify the importance of covering the opportunity cost on enrollment, completion and access to formal labor market for poor young individuals who want to enter tertiary education. We find evidence of large increases in enrollment and graduation rates. Particularly, the probability of obtaining a certification in technical studies rises from 3% to 14%. We also find an important increase in formal labor market participation in the medium term, individuals who received monetary aid to enroll and finish technical education from 2014 to 2016 are 50% more likely to have a formal job in 2017. We find that reducing credit constraints has no differential effects with respect to educational variables but only affects the labor market of men.
    Date: 2018–02–15
  3. By: Lewinsohn, José Luis
    Abstract: El uso del agua y la energía en los procesos mineros, en especial en los países andinos, planteará múltiples desafíos en el futuro, ya que la necesidad de capturar la renta derivada de la actividad extractiva exigirá, entre otros aspectos, el uso intensivo de estos insumos. En el presente ya existe una creciente preocupación social y ambiental respecto del uso múltiple del agua (gestión integrada), así como del aumento del impacto ambiental originado por la generación de energía (emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero). Uno de los caminos para promover el uso racional de estos y otros recursos es la integración de metodologías e instrumentos que permitan dotar de la eficiencia y la eficacia necesarias a los procesos mineros. En este documento se presenta el análisis de dos casos de estudio de la industria minera. El primero se relaciona con la gran minería del cobre de Chile, en la que se examina la incorporación de la herramienta de análisis de macrodatos (big data) en la toma de decisiones para reconocer alertas tempranas en determinados procesos de la producción (condiciones de riesgo, episodios críticos y otros). En el segundo se pasa revista al proceso de modernización de operaciones en el uso del agua y la energía en dos minas de mediana producción de oro en la zona andina del Perú.
    Date: 2018–12–31
  4. By: Cristina Cirillo (Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa); Giorgia Giovannetti
    Abstract: This paper provides an impact evaluation of the Juntos programme on households’ decisions to invest in livestock and agricultural and non-agricultural assets used for income generating activities. Using Propensity Score Matching and Difference in Difference techniques, we show: i) that beneficiaries are significantly more likely to invest in productive assets and activities with respect to non-beneficiaries; ii) that Juntos is more likely to relax liquidity constraints rather than to be used as an insurance for risky investments; iii) that the programs benefits the poor but not the poorest of the poor. Duration and transfers regularity do not produce significant differences between groups of beneficiaries. However, results show a sustained impact of the programme over time.
    Keywords: conditional cash transfers; impact evaluation; households investments; Juntos.
    JEL: I38 H20 O12 H43
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Alves, Guillermo
    Abstract: One-third of the developing world’s population lives in urban slums and the absolute number of slum residents grew from 650 million in 1990 to 863 million in 2012. Although negative impacts of slum living conditions on several dimensions of slum residents’ lives are well documented, much less research exists on why slums emerge and grow in the first place. This paper provides novel evidence on the effect of local political conditions and slum policies on slum growth. Using a regression discontinuity design in close municipal elections in Brazil, I show that victories by a center-left, pro-poor party led to both more slum upgrading policies and a higher share of slum housing. I further show evidence indicating that the pro-slum incentive effect from slum upgrading policies was the main mechanism behind this party’s effect on slum growth. By highlighting the relevance of local institutional conditions for understanding where slums are more likely to grow, these findings innovate over traditional explanations based on the role of rural-urban migration and rapid urban economic growth. This paper’s evidence on the potential incentive effect of slum upgrading policies on slum growth does not imply that slums upgrading efforts should stop. Given the solid evidence on the positive impacts of slum upgrading programs on the lives of the poor, these programs should continue to develop, and governments should consider, for example, complementing slum upgrading efforts with policies expanding the supply of non-slum housing.
    Keywords: Ciudades, Desarrollo social, Desarrollo urbano, Innovación social, Investigación socioeconómica, Pobreza, Vivienda,
    Date: 2018

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