nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2017‒12‒11
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Subjective well-being and adaptation. The case of Uruguay By Gonzalo Salas; Andrea Vigorito
  2. Estudio sobre el subsidio por enfermedad en el Uruguay By Amarante, Verónica; Dean, Andrés
  3. To the Victor Belongs the Spoils? Party Membership and Public Sector Employment in Brazil By Fernanda Brollo, Fernanda; Forquesato, Pedro; Gozzi, Juan Carlos
  4. Paraguay: Análisis del sistema fiscal y su impacto en la pobreza y la equidad By Lea Gimenez; María Ana Lugo; Sandra Martinez; Humberto Colman; Juan Jose Galeano; Gabriela Farfan

  1. By: Gonzalo Salas (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Andrea Vigorito (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía)
    Abstract: We assess the recent evolution of the quality of life in Uruguay, analysing whether current subjective well-being levels are conditioned by the objective well-being trajectory of each individual. We explore subjective well-being in three domains: life, economic situation and housing satisfaction. Although adaptation has been addressed in the empirical literature for developed countries, there is scarce evidence for developing countries due to the lack of suitable panel datasets. In this article, we provide an econometric test of the adaptation hypothesis based on longitudinal data from Uruguay for the years 2004, 2006 and 2011/12 (Estudio Longitudinal de Bienestar en Uruguay). Our main findings show that present levels of life, economic and housing satisfaction are each positively correlated with the corresponding contemporary and lagged objective variable of interest. Thus, we reject the adaptation hypothesis in all the dimensions considered. We also explore the role of social interactions in the three subjective well-being dimensions. Average objective well-being of the reference group (either income or crowding) is not associated with individual subjective well-being levels. However, life satisfaction is positively correlated with the average subjective well-being of the reference group.
    Keywords: Adaptation, adaptive preferences, subjective well-being, Uruguay
    JEL: I31
    Date: 2017–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ulr:wpaper:dt-14-17&r=lam
  2. By: Amarante, Verónica; Dean, Andrés
    Abstract: El programa de subsidio de enfermedad de Uruguay ha sufrido diversos cambios recientemente. En este estudio se analizan los efectos de estos cambios, en base a los registros administrativos del programa del susidio por enfermedad proporcionados por el Banco de Previsión Social. Se intenta dilucidar la importancia de estos cambios en el fuerte incremento de las erogaciones del programa en años recientes.
    Keywords: SEGURIDAD SOCIAL, ENFERMEDADES, SEGURO DE ENFERMEDAD, SUBSIDIOS, ASPECTOS ECONOMICOS, REFORMA ADMINISTRATIVA, SOCIAL SECURITY, DISEASES, HEALTH INSURANCE, SUBSIDIES, ECONOMIC ASPECTS, ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM
    Date: 2017–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ecr:col032:42506&r=lam
  3. By: Fernanda Brollo, Fernanda (University of Warwick, CAGE, and CEPR); Forquesato, Pedro (PUC-Rio); Gozzi, Juan Carlos (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: We analyze how political discretion a.ects the selection of government workers, using individual-level data on political party membership and matched employer-employee data on the universe of formal workers in Brazil. Exploiting close mayoral races, we find that winning an election leads to an increase of over 40% in the number of members of the winning party working in the municipal bureaucracy. Employment of members of the ruling party increases relatively more in senior positions, but also expands in lower-ranked jobs, suggesting that discretionary appointments are used both to influence policymaking and to reward supporters. We find that party members hired after their party is elected tend be of similar or even higher quality than members of the runner-up party, contrary to common perceptions that political appointees are less qualified. Moreover, the increased public employment of members of the ruling party is long-lasting, extending beyond the end of the mayoral term.
    Keywords: bureaucracy ; patronage ; political parties ; public sector employment
    JEL: D72 D73 H70 J45
    Date: 2017
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wrk:warwec:1144&r=lam
  4. By: Lea Gimenez; María Ana Lugo; Sandra Martinez; Humberto Colman; Juan Jose Galeano; Gabriela Farfan
    Abstract: A pesar de los importantes avances experimentados en Paraguay en los últimos años en lo que respecta a crecimiento económico y mejoras en la calidad de vida, reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad continúan siendo objetivos centrales de la política del Gobierno Nacional. En esta línea, el presente documento realiza un diagnóstico del impacto de la política fiscal en la desigualdad y pobreza de Paraguay para el año 2014. Los resultados indican que el sistema fiscal es igualador y reductor de pobreza, pero que ambos efectos son pequeños a pesar de existir una buena focalización tanto en impuestos como en transferencias. El efecto redistributivo se encuentra significativamente por debajo del promedio regional, y más aún, al promedio de América del Sur, mientras el impacto sobre la pobreza se encuentra en el promedio regional, aunque se mantiene por debajo del promedio de América del Sur. El análisis sugiere que el bajo nivel de impuestos directos y transferencias directas, si bien progresivo y relativamente bien focalizado, es un factor importante a la hora de explicar el limitado efecto de la política fiscal en reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.
    Keywords: Paraguay, política fiscal, pobreza, desigualdad
    JEL: E62 H22 I32 I38 D31 D63
    Date: 2017–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tul:ceqwps:74&r=lam

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