nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2016‒10‒23
nine papers chosen by

  1. The Brazilian credit market : recent developments and impact on inequality By Magalhães Prates, Daniela.; Nunes Ferreira, Adriana.; Gorayeb, Daniela.
  2. Asignación del tiempo de niños y niñas en Colombia – Factores para el desarrollo de la primera infancia By Diego Andrés Cobaleda Martinez; Jonathan David Saavedra Ramirez
  3. Teacher Incentives and Student Performance: Evidence from Brazil By Andrea Lepine
  4. Distribution and Cost-Push inflation in Brazil under inflation targeting, 1999-2014 By Serrano, Franklin; Summa , Ricardo
  5. Child Discipline and Social Programs: Evidence from Colombia By Diana Lopez-Avila
  6. La brecha de género en jubilaciones y pensiones: los casos de Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay By Amarante, Verónica; Colacce, Maira; Manzi, Pilar
  7. The Role of Services for Economic Performance in Brazil By Dorothée Rouzet; Francesca Spinelli
  8. Choques de precios de recursos naturales, asignaciones al gasto público y posición fiscal: una ilustración con Bolivia. Price Shocks of natural resources, public spending and fiscal Stance: The Bolivian case By Roger Alejandro Banegas-Rivero; Reyna Vergara
  9. Learning and Earning: An Approximation to College Value Added in Two Dimensions By Evan Riehl; Juan E. Saavedra; Miguel Urquiola

  1. By: Magalhães Prates, Daniela.; Nunes Ferreira, Adriana.; Gorayeb, Daniela.
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the evolution of the Brazilian credit market from 2003 to 2011, and its impact on inequality in the country.
    Keywords: banking, bank, credit, income distribution, Brazil, activité bancaire, banque, crédit, répartition du revenu, Brésil, actividad bancaria, banco, crédito, distribución del ingreso, Brasil
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Diego Andrés Cobaleda Martinez; Jonathan David Saavedra Ramirez
    Abstract: Este trabajo explica cómo influyen variables socioeconómicas, del cuidado y de uso del tiempo de un hogar, en el desarrollo de capital humano de los niños menores de cinco años; para esto, se utiliza la Encuesta Nacional de Uso del Tiempo (ENUT) y un modelo econométrico aplicando regresión ordenada. Se encuentra que pertenecer a un grupo étnico disminuye el capital humano de los niños en 0,15 desviaciones estándar con respecto a no pertenecer a un grupo étnico; de igual manera, cada aumento de una desviación estándar en los años de educación del hogar, aumenta el capital humano de los niños menores de 5 años en 0,14 desviaciones estándar; por otra parte, aquellos niños que asisten a guarderías privadas, tienen más probabilidades de tener mayor capital humano; finalmente, a modo de contraste, cuidar al niño en guardería privada genera mayor capital humano que cuidarlo en una oficial
    Keywords: Uso del tiempo, modelos econométricos ordenados, primera infancia, desarrollo integral
    Date: 2016–07–06
  3. By: Andrea Lepine
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence on a large-scale teacher incentive program in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, which awarded group bonuses to teachers and school staff conditional on improvements in student performance. By using a difference-in-differences and triple-differences framework, I show that the program had overall positive effects on student achievement, although improvements vary across grades and subjects. The robustness of the results is assessed through the use of a series of alternative counterfactuals. I also investigate whether initial school characteristics affect the impact of the program. Although it could be expected that free-riding effects increase with the number of teachers in schools, therefore limiting the impact of the program, this does not seem to be the case. More sizeable differences are found according to school's previous performance. Initially low-performing schools improved much more than the average, suggesting there may be considerable differences in the ability of schools to respond to this type of policy.
    Keywords: Pay for performance; Student achievement; Incentives
    JEL: I21 I28 J45
    Date: 2016–10–11
  4. By: Serrano, Franklin (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro); Summa , Ricardo (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the evolution of Brazilian inflation under the inflation targeting system from a cost-push perspective. We identify the main features of three quite distinct phases (1999-2003, 2004-2009 and 2010-2014) and explain them in terms of tradable price trends in local currency, changes in the dynamics of monitored prices and behavior of wage inflation. We conclude that the trend towards continuous nominal exchange rate devaluation after mid-2011, together with the strengthening of the bargaining power of workers and the trend of rising real wages since 2006, means that distributive conflicts in Brazil are getting much more intense. We also suggest that the apparently very irrational recent (early 2015) change in the orientation of economic policy towards contractionary fiscal, incomes and monetary policies in a stagnating economy seems to be ultimately based on the desire to weaken the bargaining power of workers that was much strengthened during the brief but intense Brazilian “golden age” of 2004-2010.
    Keywords: Cost-Push inflation; Inflation Target System; Functional Income Distribution; Brazilian Economy
    JEL: B51 E31 E58
    Date: 2015–11
  5. By: Diana Lopez-Avila (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper examines how interventions during early childhood affect disciplining methods in Colombia, where poor households are eligible for a number of social programs targeted to young children, based on a proxy means index. These programs include child care options, nutritional programs and health checks. I analyze whether these programs affect parents' disciplining methods through two different identification strategies. I implement a regression discontinuity design exploiting the discontinuity on the probability of benefiting from these programs, as a function of the proxy means index used for targeting. I also implement a propensity score matching using differences in length of exposure to one of these programs, a subsidized child care program. Results from the first identification strategy show that fathers of children who benefit from these programs to a larger extent, use less physical ways to discipline their children. On the other hand, mothers of children who have been exposed longer to the subsidized child care option, appear to move to more pedagogic ways of discipline. These results hold in particular for households with working or more educated mothers.
    Keywords: Early Childhood Development,Childcare,Parenting,Domestic Violence, J13, J18, O15
    Date: 2016–04
  6. By: Amarante, Verónica; Colacce, Maira; Manzi, Pilar
    Abstract: En esta publicación se analizan las diferencias de género en el acceso y nivel de las jubilaciones y pensiones, tanto contributivas como no contributivas, a la luz del diseño del sistema de seguridad social de cada país. El estudio se realiza para un conjunto de países del Cono Sur cuyos sistemas de pensiones tienen niveles de desarrollo similares, y han sufrido algunas modificaciones recientes: Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay.
    Date: 2016–10
  7. By: Dorothée Rouzet; Francesca Spinelli
    Abstract: This paper highlights the large contribution of services to the Brazilian economy and the under-exploited potential of services to sustain productivity gains and international competitiveness. The areas with the largest potential for regulatory reform include improvements in the general business and trading environment as well as specific policies in transport sectors, telecoms and financial services. Reforms targeting services that add value by favouring productivity and quality enhancements, as well as services that increase efficiency by reducing production costs, have strong potential to unlock manufacturing performance. The set of proposed recommendations emerging from this analysis underlines the importance of streamlining sector-level regulatory frameworks to encourage foreign entry and competition, and the role that cross-cutting improvements in the trade and business environment would play to render services providers more competitive.
    Keywords: trade policy, services, competitiveness, services trade restrictions
    JEL: F13 F14 F15 F6 L8 L9 O24 O54
    Date: 2016–10–20
  8. By: Roger Alejandro Banegas-Rivero (Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas y Sociales 'José Ortiz Mercado' (IIES-JOM), Universidad Autónoma Gabriel René Moreno.); Reyna Vergara (Facultad de Economía, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México)
    Keywords: Fiscal stance, price shocks, assignment of fiscal revenues, public spending
    JEL: E31 E62 E64 H50 H63
    Date: 2016–07
  9. By: Evan Riehl; Juan E. Saavedra; Miguel Urquiola
    Abstract: This paper explores the implications of measuring college productivity in two different dimensions: earning and learning. We compute system-wide measures using administrative data from the country of Colombia that link social security records to students’ performance on a national college graduation exam. In each case we can control for individuals’ college entrance exam scores in an approach akin to teacher value added models. We present three main findings: 1) colleges’ earning and learning productivities are far from perfectly correlated, with private institutions receiving relatively higher rankings under earning measures than under learning measures; 2) earning measures are significantly more correlated with student socioeconomic status than learning measures; and 3) in terms of rankings, earning measures tend to favor colleges with engineering and business majors, while colleges offering programs in the arts and sciences fare better under learning measures.
    JEL: I23 J24 J44
    Date: 2016–10

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