nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2016‒10‒16
eight papers chosen by

  1. Non-standard forms of employment in Latin America : prevalence, characteristics and impacts on wages By Maurizio, Roxana.
  2. Mirror trade statistics between China and Latin America By Benita, Francisco; Urzúa, Carlos M.
  3. Maternal depression symptomatology and child well-being outcomes: limited evidence for a causal relationship. By Escobal, Javier; Benites, Sara
  4. A review of the effectiveness of active labour market programmes with a focus on Latin America and the Caribbean By Kluve, Jochen.
  5. El uso del castigo físico por parte del docente, y el rendimiento de los estudiantes en la sierra peruana. By Miranda, Alejandra
  6. Los efectos de la violencia doméstica sobre la salud infantil de los niños y las niñas menores de cinco años en el Perú. By León, Juan; Benavides, Martín; Ponce de León, Marcela; Espezúa, Lucía
  7. Formas atípicas de empleo en América Latina : incidencia, características e impactos en la determinación salarial By Maurizio, Roxana.
  8. Social protection systems in Latin America : an assessment By Ocampo, José Antonio.; Gómez-Arteaga, Natalie.

  1. By: Maurizio, Roxana.
    Abstract: During the 2000s and early 2010s, Latin America experienced a process of significant improvement in the labour market. The countries of the region, However, still suffer from remarkable deficits in their labour markets and in their generation and distribution of income. In addition to informality, non- standard forms of employment affect a large number of wage-earners. This paper analyses three of such kinds of employment: part-time, temporary and triangular employment. The analysis is carried out for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador and Peru. We estimate its incidence among total wage-earners and in different subgroups of workers, we analyse its evolution during the last decade and we assess the extent to which these non-standard forms of employment are a source of wage gaps and precarious labour conditions.
    Keywords: precarious employment, temporary employment, part time employment, informal employment, wage differential, ILO standards, legal aspect, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, emploi précaire, emploi temporaire, emploi à temps partiel, emploi informel, disparité des salaires, normes de l'OIT, aspect juridique, Argentine, Brésil, Chili, Equateur, Pérou, empleo precario, empleo temporal, empleo a tiempo parcial, empleo informal, diferencia del salario, normas de la OIT, aspecto jurídico, Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Ecuador, Perú
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Benita, Francisco (Tecnológico de Monterrey); Urzúa, Carlos M. (Tecnológico de Monterrey)
    Abstract: This paper contrasts the mirror trade statistics between China and twenty Latin American countries during the 2009-2014 years, after adding to the Chinese side the trade figures corresponding to Hong Kong, and adjusting for some valuation issues. Using the resulting panel data, the paper then explores some of the possible explanatory variables, in the case of Latin America, which can account for the significant trade misinvoicing that is found among most of the countries involved.
    Keywords: China, Latin America, mirror statistics, trade misinvoicing, statistical capacity, financial openness
    JEL: F14 H83 O53 O54
    Date: 2016–01
  3. By: Escobal, Javier (Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE)); Benites, Sara (Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE))
    Abstract: The paper explores whether or not there is evidence for a causal link between maternal depression symptomatology and child wellbeing. Considering three rounds of data from the Peruvian Young Lives (PYL) longitudinal study sample, the paper explores this relationship by using the SRQ-20 instrument, which is typically used as a screening tool for common mental disorders, and by collecting information about mothers’ socioeconomic characteristics and their children’s well-being outcomes. We found a low correlation of SRQ-20 scores across rounds, suggesting that the instrument may be capturing short-term depression or anxiety symptoms rather than chronic mental illness. Furthermore, the SRQ-20 instrument is correlated both with characteristics of the mother and with child well-being indicators, which change over time (nutritional, health, and educational outcomes as well as feelings and attitudes). The study shows that the magnitude of the relationship between the mental health indicator and the child well-being outcomes may be severely biased in a regression that neglects the possible endogeneity of the mental health indicator. Finally, besides maternal age, education, and ethnicity background, socioeconomic shocks are a key determinant of both depression and anxiety symptoms as well as of child well-being outcomes in the first year following birth of the child (PYL round one), where SRQ-20 scores were the highest.
    Keywords: Salud mental, Análisis causal, Perú, SRQ-20, Mental health, Causation, Causal analysis, Inference, Peru
    JEL: I10 I30
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Kluve, Jochen.
    Keywords: labour market, impact evaluation, programme evaluation, Caribbean, Latin America, marché du travail, évaluation de l'impact, évaluation du programme, Caraïbes, Amérique latine, mercado de trabajo, evaluación de impacto, evaluación del programa, Caribe, América Latina
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Miranda, Alejandra (Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE))
    Abstract: Ensuring a quality education means having a suitable environment for students' development. In Peru, violence against children is one of the factors that continues to affect this environment. Due to this fact, the objective of the study is to explore the medium-term effect of teachers' use of corporal punishment in the highlands on students' achievement. Due to its high poverty, illiteracy, and malnutrition rates, the highlands is one of the most vulnerable regions in Peru. Using data from the Longitudinal Young Lives Study and the School Census, an OLS model as well as a Propensity Score Matching were performed to estimate the effect of teachers' violence on students' achievement from public schools in the highlands. Results show that being a victim of corporal punishment at the age of 8 years old negatively affects students' achievement in math and vocabulary at age 12, even after other characteristics of the child, family, and school are controlled. It was also found that although boys are more likely to be victims of such violence, the effect on achievement is heterogeneous, and more harmful for girls than boys.
    Keywords: Disciplina escolar, Docentes, Rendimiento escolar, Perú, School punishment, School discipline, Teachers, Academic achievement, Peru
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2016
  6. By: León, Juan (Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE)); Benavides, Martín (Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE)); Ponce de León, Marcela; Espezúa, Lucía (Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE))
    Abstract: El presente estudio tiene como objetivo medir el efecto de diferentes variables de violencia doméstica (violencia infantil, testigo de violencia hacia la madre y violencia contra la mujer) sobre la salud infantil (desnutrición y morbilidad). Haciendo uso de la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (Endes) correspondiente al año 2013, que cuenta con información de violencia infantil a nivel individual, se explora el efecto de estas variables en la salud infantil. Se usaron modelos de regresión logística para estimar los efectos netos de la violencia doméstica sobre la salud de los niños y las niñas menores de cinco años en nuestro país. Asimismo, para comprobar la robustez de los resultados, se utilizaron modelos de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM, por sus siglas en inglés) que permiten tomar en consideración la endogeneidad de las variables de violencia doméstica utilizadas como explicativas de la salud infantil en las regresiones logísticas. Se encontró que la violencia infantil, ya sea física o psicológica, no tiene un efecto sobre la desnutrición o morbilidad infantil. En el caso de ser testigo de violencia hacia la madre, tampoco se encontró que tuviera un efecto sobre la desnutrición o morbilidad infantil, pero sí en que el niño o la niña sufra de violencia física o psicológica. Finalmente, se encontró que la violencia contra la mujer tiene un efecto positivo y significativo sobre la morbilidad infantil, así como que el niño o la niña sufra de violencia física o psicológica. De esta manera, se pudo apreciar que la violencia contra la mujer es un factor de riesgo importante no solo en la presencia de violencia infantil por parte de los padres, sino también en la salud de los niños y las niñas, particularmente en la prevalencia de episodios de diarreas y síntomas de enfermedades respiratorias agudas.
    Keywords: Violencia doméstica, Salud infantil, Desnutrición, Enfermedades
    JEL: I10 J12
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Maurizio, Roxana.
    Abstract: Durante la última década América Latina experimentó un proceso de mejoras en el mercado de trabajo. Sin embargo, a pesar de ello, estos países siguen evidenciando déficits importantes en materia laboral y en la generación y distribución de los ingresos. Además de la informalidad, las formas atípicas de empleo afectan a un conjunto elevado de asalariados. Este documento analiza tres de estas modalidades: el empleo a tiempo parcial, temporario y la triangulación laboral. El análisis se lleva a cabo para Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Ecuador y Perú. Se estima su incidencia en el total del empleo asalariado y en diferentes subgrupos de ocupados, se analiza la evolución que estas formas atípicas han experimentado durante la última década y se evalúa en qué medida éstas son fuente de brechas salariales y de condiciones laborales más precarias.
    Keywords: precarious employment, temporary employment, part time employment, informal employment, wage differential, ILO standards, legal aspect, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Ocampo, José Antonio.; Gómez-Arteaga, Natalie.
    Keywords: social protection, social security, poverty alleviation, equal rights, economic development, Latin America
    Date: 2016

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