nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2016‒10‒09
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Food and nutrition security: towards the full realisation of human rights By Lívia Maria da Costa Nogueira; Flavio Luiz Schieck; Valente and Veruska Prado
  2. Hipótesis de ingreso permanente y consumo en Colombia 1952-2014 By Edwin Mauricio Parra Rodríguez
  3. Aspects of Chilean and Peruvian safety nets By Pedro Arruda; Manoel Salles; Luísa A. Nazareno
  4. Fiscal Policy, Inequality and the Poor in the Developing World By Nora Lustig

  1. By: Lívia Maria da Costa Nogueira (IPC-IG); Flavio Luiz Schieck (IPC-IG); Valente and Veruska Prado (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "The challenges involved in the realisation of the human right to adequate food and nutrition (HRtAFN), and of food and nutrition sovereignty and security in African countries and in Brazil, comprise different elements?but also share several similarities. While there has been evidence of a significant reduction in hunger and malnutrition worldwide, it is observed that this phenomenon has not occurred at the same pace in sub-Saharan Africa and in some regions of Brazil. At the same time, there has been a rapid increase in the rates of overweight, obesity and related illnesses, such as diabetes, cardiac disease, various types of cancer, etc". (...)
    Keywords: Food, nutrition security, realisation, human rights
    Date: 2016–10
  2. By: Edwin Mauricio Parra Rodríguez
    Abstract: El presente trabajo pone a prueba la Hipótesis de Ingreso Permanente (HIP) y examina los principales determinantes del Consumo Privado Real para Colombia en el Periodo 1952-2014. Para esto, se utiliza una metodología de series de tiempo y, se estima la relación entre el Consumo Privado Real como proporción del Ingreso Nacional Disponible con un conjunto de variables que recogen los efectos permanentes y transitorios del ingreso. De manera complementaria, se estima un modelo en el que el logaritmo del Consumo Privado Real está en función de los componentes permanente (tendencial) y transitorio (cíclico) del ingreso, obtenidos por medio del filtro Hodrick y Prescott al Ingreso Nacional Disponible. Los resultados de las estimaciones sugieren que en Colombia: i) el Consumo Privado Real es una función de sus valores inmediatamente anteriores, lo cual valida la Hipótesis de Expectativas Adaptativas de Hall en la que el consumo se comporta como un paseo aleatorio y, ii) se cumple la HIP, no obstante, los ingresos transitorios también ejercen influencia sobre el consumo.
    Keywords: Ahorro Privado, Consumo Privado, Hipótesis de Ingreso Permanente, Política Macroeconómica.
    JEL: E12 E13 E20 E27
    Date: 2016–09–28
  3. By: Pedro Arruda (IPC-IG); Manoel Salles (IPC-IG); Luísa A. Nazareno (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "This One Pager aims to synthesise the broader findings of a larger working paper (Arruda et al. 2016) regarding the social policies and programmes of Chile and Peru. The social protection networks of these countries are largely the outcome of responsive actions determined by their socio-political and economic contexts". (...)
    Keywords: Aspects, Chile, Peru, safety nets
    Date: 2016–09
  4. By: Nora Lustig (Department of Economics, Tulane University)
    Abstract: Using comparable fiscal incidence analysis, this paper examines the impact of fiscal policy on inequality and poverty in twenty-five countries for around 2010. Success in fiscal redistribution is driven primarily by redistributive effort (share of social spending to GDP in each country) and the extent to which transfers/subsidies are targeted to the poor and direct taxes targeted to the rich. While fiscal policy always reduces inequality, this is not the case with poverty. Fiscal policy increases poverty in four countries using US$1.25/day PPP poverty line, in 8 countries using US$2.50/day line, and 15 countries using the US$4/day line (over and above market income poverty). While spending on pre-school and primary school is pro-poor (i.e., the per capita transfer declines with income) in almost all countries, pro-poor secondary school spending is less prevalent, and tertiary education spending tends to be progressive only in relative terms (i.e., equalizing but not pro-poor). Health spending is always equalizing except for Jordan.
    Keywords: Fiscal Incidence, Social Spending, Inequality, Poverty, Developing Countries.
    JEL: H22 H5 D31 I3
    Date: 2016–10

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