nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2016‒08‒14
seven papers chosen by

  1. Familial effects on youth smoking in Brazil By Alberto Palloni; Laetícia De Souza; Letícia Junqueira Marteleto
  2. The effects of conditionality monitoring on educational outcomes: evidence from the Bolsa Família Programme By Luis Henrique Paiva; Fábio Veras Soares; Flavio Cireno; Iara Azevedo Vitelli Viana; Ana Clara Duran
  3. The effects of conditionality monitoring on educational outcomes: evidence from Brazil?s Bolsa Família programme By Luis Henrique Paiva; Fábio Veras Soares; Flavio Cireno; Iara Azevedo Vitelli Viana; Ana Clara Duran
  4. Do Government Audits Reduce Corruption? Estimating the Impacts of Exposing Corrupt Politicians By Eric Avis; Claudio Ferraz; Frederico Finan
  5. Economía del Cuidado en Argentina: Algunos resultados en base a la Encuesta sobre uso del Tiempo By Calero, Analía; Dellavalle, Rocío; Zanino, Carolina
  6. Justicia, Redistribución y Evasión Fiscal. By María José Arteaga Garavito
  7. Climate change and impacts on family farming in the North and Northeast of Brazil By Haroldo Machado Filho; Cássia Moraes; Paula Bennati; Renato de Aragão Rodrigues; Marcela Guilles; Pedro Rocha; Amanda Lima; Isadora Vasconcelos

  1. By: Alberto Palloni (IPC-IG); Laetícia De Souza (IPC-IG); Letícia Junqueira Marteleto (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "This One Pager summarises the key results found in Palloni, de Souza and Marteleto (2016). That study estimates the magnitude and direction of effects of parental and sibling smoking on adolescent smoking behaviour in Brazil, the most populous country in Latin America, where the smoking epidemic is in the early to intermediate stages". (...)
    Keywords: Familial effects, youth, smoking, Brazil
    Date: 2016–08
  2. By: Luis Henrique Paiva (IPC-IG); Fábio Veras Soares (IPC-IG); Flavio Cireno (IPC-IG); Iara Azevedo Vitelli Viana (IPC-IG); Ana Clara Duran (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Targeted conditional cash transfer programmes linked to human development objectives started in the 1990s in Latin America and have spread worldwide, having been adopted in 64 countries. While the targeting dimension of these programmes has become increasingly more accepted in different policy, practitioner and academic circles, their conditional component still elicits significant controversy. What are the independent effects of conditionalities, beyond the income effect of cash transfers?". (?)
    Keywords: effects, conditionality monitoring, educational outcomes, evidence, Bolsa Família, programme
    Date: 2016–06
  3. By: Luis Henrique Paiva (IPC-IG); Fábio Veras Soares (IPC-IG); Flavio Cireno (IPC-IG); Iara Azevedo Vitelli Viana (IPC-IG); Ana Clara Duran (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Conditional cash transfer programmes have been increasingly adopted by several lowand middle-income countries. Despite this overall acceptance, conditionalities remain under scrutiny regarding their possible independent effects on educational and health indicators. This paper is an ecological study of conditionalities in Brazil's Bolsa Família programme. As programme coverage (taken as a proxy of cash transfers) and monitoring and enforcement of the educational conditionalities (proxy of conditionalities) are not correlated at the municipal level, this study fits a number of different ordinary least square (OLS) and growth-curve models to explain variations in drop-out rates and school progression in basic education in public schools across municipalities". (?)
    Keywords: effects, conditionality, monitoring, educational outcomes, evidence, Brazil, Bolsa Família programme
    Date: 2016–06
  4. By: Eric Avis; Claudio Ferraz; Frederico Finan
    Abstract: Political corruption is considered a major impediment to economic development, and yet it remains pervasive throughout the world. This paper examines the extent to which government audits of public resources can reduce corruption by enhancing political and judiciary accountability. We do so in the context of Brazil’s anti-corruption program, which randomly audits municipalities for their use of federal funds. We find that being audited in the past reduces future corruption by 8 percent, while also increasing the likelihood of experiencing a subsequent legal action by 20 percent. We interpret these reduced-form findings through a political agency model, which we structurally estimate. Based on our estimated model, the reduction in corruption comes mostly from the audits increasing the perceived threat of the non-electoral costs of engaging in corruption.
    JEL: H41 H77 H83 K42 O1 O38 O43 O54
    Date: 2016–07
  5. By: Calero, Analía; Dellavalle, Rocío; Zanino, Carolina
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to deepen the analysis of time-use data for better public policy. From the Survey on unpaid work and time use (INDEC, 2013) of Argentina it is seen that women spend on average a higher number of hours in unpaid work than their male counterparts, even when they are actively participating in the labor market. The largest gap is verified in time spent caring for people. This problem is not unrelated to what happens in other countries in Latin America and poses the challenge of designing specific care policies to reconcile work and family life, in a labor market based on a family model that has changed.
    Keywords: Uso del Tiempo; Economía del Cuidado; Perspectiva de Género
    JEL: J7 J71 J78
    Date: 2015–08
  6. By: María José Arteaga Garavito (Division of Economics, CIDE)
    Abstract: Este trabajo analiza teóricamente la relación entre justicia, medida como el papel que juegan factores meritocráticos (talento) versus azarosos (suerte) en la determinación del ingreso, y evasión fiscal en economías en donde la probabilidad de detectar la evasión es baja. Se presenta un modelo estático, basado en Alesina y Angeletos (2005), el cual toma en cuenta las decisiones de los agentes, quienes tienen la posibilidad de evadir un porcentaje de su ingreso, y del gobierno, quien fija la tasa de impuestos de acuerdo al criterio del votante mediano. El resultado principal es que es factible la existencia de múltiples equilibrios y la relación entre injusticia, redistribución y evasión es positiva. Por ejemplo: 1) impuestos relativamente bajos, menor injusticia, menor evasión y mayor desigualdad antes de impuestos (México) y 2) impuestos relativamente altos, mayor injusticia, mayor evasión y menor desigualdad (Perú). Es decir, dada una expectativa de impuestos alta y una probabilidad alta de no ser detectado, la evasión será mayor y los incentivos a esforzarse menores y, por lo tanto, políticas redistributivas son ex post óptimas.
    Keywords: impuestos, justicia, redistribución, evasión fiscal, informalidad, desigualdad
    JEL: H2 H71 D31 E62 P16
    Date: 2016–06
  7. By: Haroldo Machado Filho (IPC-IG); Cássia Moraes (IPC-IG); Paula Bennati (IPC-IG); Renato de Aragão Rodrigues (IPC-IG); Marcela Guilles (IPC-IG); Pedro Rocha (IPC-IG); Amanda Lima (IPC-IG); Isadora Vasconcelos (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "The starting point for this study was the consideration of future climate change scenarios and their uncertainties. The paper presents the global projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) and compares them with regional scenarios (downscaling) developed by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais?INPE), with a focus on two main IPCC scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and two main global models (MIROC and Hadley Centre) for the periods 2011?2040 and 2041?2070. It aims to identify the main trends in terms of changes in temperature and precipitation for the North and Northeast regions of Brazil (more specifically, in the Amazon, semi-arid and cerrado biomes)."(?)
    Keywords: Climate change, impacts, family farming, North, Northeast, Brazil
    Date: 2016–05

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