nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2016‒05‒28
eight papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Investors perspectives on barriers to renewables deployment in Chile By Claudio Agostini; Shahriyar Nasirov; Carlos Silva
  2. Corrección del sesgo de selección muestral en la probabilidad de demandar educación universitaria en Colombia By Carlos Giovanni González Espitia; Jhon James Mora Rodríguez; Cecilia Albert Verdú
  3. Inequality, Distributive Beliefs and Protests: A Recent Story from Latin America By Patricia Justino; Bruno Martorano
  4. Prices and Competition: Evidence from a Social Program By Emilio Aguirre; Pablo Blanchard; Fernando Borraz; Joaquín Saldain
  5. From the “Great Inflation” to the “Great Moderation” in Peru: A Time Varying Structural Vector Autoregressions Analysis By Castillo, Paul; Montoya, Jimena; Quineche, Ricardo
  6. Brazil, Preservation of Forest and Biodiversity By Paunić, Alida
  7. Efectos de corto plazo de la ley de interrupción voluntaria del embarazo en Uruguay sobre los nacimientos By José-Ignacio Antón; Zuleika Ferre; Patricia Triunfo
  8. The impact of ex-ante subsidies to researchers on researcher's productivity: Evidence from a developing country By Aboal, Diego; Tacsir, Ezequiel

  1. By: Claudio Agostini (Escuela de Gobierno, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez); Shahriyar Nasirov; Carlos Silva
    Date: 2015–02
  2. By: Carlos Giovanni González Espitia; Jhon James Mora Rodríguez; Cecilia Albert Verdú
    Abstract: El objetivo de este documento es analizar la demanda de educación universitaria y sus determinantes en Colombia. Para ello, se utilizan modelos de elección discreta robustos que tienen en cuenta el sesgo de selección muestral, debido a que la heterogeneidad no observada de los estudiantes que terminan el bachillerato, que está correlacionada con la decisión de demandar educación universitaria. Los resultados muestran la corrección del sesgo de selección y que la probabilidad de demandar educación universitaria en Colombia está condicionada por características propias de algunos grupos sociales.
    Keywords: Demanda de educación, modelos de elección discreta, sesgo deselección.
    JEL: I20 J12 C35
    Date: 2015–09–01
  3. By: Patricia Justino; Bruno Martorano
    Abstract: This paper analyses the role of perceptions of inequality and distributive beliefs in motivating people to engage in protests. The paper focuses on the case of Latin America, where an interesting paradox has been observed: despite considerable reductions in inequality, most countries in Latin America have experienced increases in protests and civil unrest in the last decade. In order to understand this paradox, we analyse the relationship between inequality and protests in recent years in Latin America, using micro-level data on individual participation in protests in 2010, 2012 and 2014. The results show that civil protests are driven by distributive beliefs and not by levels of inequality because individual judgments and reactions are based on own perceptions of inequality that may or may not match absolute levels of inequality. The results also point to the important role of government policy in affecting perceptions of inequality and ensuring social and political stability.
    Keywords: Perception of inequality, inequality, distributive beliefs, protests, Latin America
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Emilio Aguirre (Ministerio de Desarrollo Social); Pablo Blanchard (Ministerio de Desarrollo Social); Fernando Borraz (Banco Central del Uruguay and Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República); Joaquín Saldain (Banco Central del Uruguay)
    Abstract: We use a micro-price dataset to analyze the impact on prices of a social program in Uruguay that allow the beneficiaries to purchase food, beverages and cleaning items exclusively in certain small retailers. We find that the beneficiaries pay significantly higher prices in relation to prices in other retailers. We find this result for the whole country with the exception of areas with the highest retailer density in the capital city, Montevideo.
    Keywords: Keywords: market structure, market power, prices, social program
    JEL: D4 I3 L1
    Date: 2015–12
  5. By: Castillo, Paul (Banco Central de Reserva del Perú); Montoya, Jimena (Banco Central de Reserva del Perú); Quineche, Ricardo (Banco Central de Reserva del Perú)
    Abstract: Over the last 30 years, the Peruvian economy has shown a dramatic decrease in the volatility of its macroeconomic aggregates. Following Primiceri (2005), Benati (2008) and Galí and Gambetti (2009), a Bayesian structural vector autoregression with time-varying parameters and variance covariance matrix of the innovations is used to analyse the underlying causes of Peruvian "Great Moderation". The Peruvian economy is modelled using real GDP growth, inflation and the rate of growth of M1 (money base). Our main results show: (1) Monetary policy has contributed significantly to the "Great Moderation" by reducing the volatility of its non-systematic component and by changing its reaction function to demand and supply shocks; (2) Structural reforms also contributed to reduce the responsiveness of GDP and inflation to demand and supply shocks; (3) During the period of high volatility, supply and policy shocks were the most important determinants of macroeconomic instability.
    Keywords: time varying coe¢ cients, multivariate stochastic volatility, Gibbs sampling, systematic monetary policy, monetary policy shocks, identi cation
    JEL: C15 C22 E23 E24 E31 E32 E47 E52 E58
    Date: 2016–04
  6. By: Paunić, Alida
    Abstract: Increased number of extinct, endangered species in South America, especially plants in Brazil and Equator, impose question of importance of Amazon forest. Its declining trend requires constant attention not just from population in Brazil, but as well as in region and world which have their interest in direct/ indirect monetary and non-monetary values. GDP decline can further deteriorate forest areas so it is of importance to diversify and strengthen energy inputs and work on different renewable strategies. Many projects are possible but all should rely on social justice, protecting women, low income groups by strategies of small loans, agriculture land given to small groups, guaranteed market, and help through education. Paper proposes projects of algae, new approach in tourism, and solar transport opportunities.
    Keywords: forest, biodiversity,renewables
    JEL: Q0 Q2
    Date: 2016–05–19
  7. By: José-Ignacio Antón (Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)); Zuleika Ferre (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República); Patricia Triunfo (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República)
    Abstract: En el año 2012 Uruguay introdujo un cambio normativo que permite la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo dentro de las primeras 12 semanas de gestación, en el caso de seguir cierto protocolo. Evaluamos el impacto de dicho cambio normativo en la cantidad y calidad de los nacimientos en el corto plazo. Usamos una metodología de diferencia-en-diferencias, el registro administrativo de todos los nacimientos ocurridos en el país entre 2010 y 2014, y una estrategia de identificación novedosa, basada en la condición de planificación de los embarazos. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la despenalización del aborto redujo en un 11% el número de nacimientos de las madres entre 20 y 34 años con educación secundaria. A su vez, para estas madres se observa una mejora en los controles prenatales y en el apgar de los recién nacidos.
    Keywords: aborto, Uruguay, fecundidad, diferencia en diferencias
    JEL: I12 I18 J13 J18
    Date: 2016–02
  8. By: Aboal, Diego (Centro de Investigaciones Económicas (CINVE), and Universidad ORT Uruguay, Montevideo, Uruguay); Tacsir, Ezequiel (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.)
    Abstract: In this paper we perform a short-run (two years after the programme) impact evaluation of a programme that provides ex-ante subsidies to researchers in Paraguay. The analysis of the effects of this type of subsidies, that are prevalent in Latin America, has received little attention in the literature. Thanks to the availability of data coming from electronic CVs of applicants we are able to analyse the impact of the programme in dimensions of researchers' productivity that have been mostly overlooked previously, such as technical production, own education, the training of other researchers and other dimensions of the bibliographic production different to published articles. We also provide estimations of the impact on quantity and quality of publications based on more traditional sources of data. We find some positive impacts of the programme. However, some of the results are not robust to alternative methods of estimation.
    Keywords: Economics of Science, Scientific Subsidies, Policy Impact Evaluation
    JEL: O30 O38 H43 C21
    Date: 2016–04–18

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