nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2015‒03‒22
nine papers chosen by

  1. A Tale of Two Latin American Congresses. Towards a Comparative Study of Institutionalization and Effectiveness By Mariano Tommasi; Valeria Palanza; Carlos Scartascini
  2. Using Labor Productivity Change Estimates as an Input for X-Factors in Price-Cap Regulation By Martín Rossi
  3. An E-platform for Supporting Sustainability Developments with Special Reference to Latin America By Novelli, Emanuele; Scherschel, Claus; Schiefer, Gerhard
  4. Solar PV Planning Toward Sustainable Development in Chile: Challenges and Recommendations By Claudio A Agostini; Shahriyar Nasirov; Carlos Silva
  5. An Earned Income Tax Proposal for Chile By Claudio A Agostini; Marcela Perticara; Javiera Selman
  6. Social Protection and Private Coping Strategies During Recessions: Evidence from Chile By Julio Guzman
  7. Over Indebtedness and Depression: Sad Debt or Sad Debtors? By Daniel Hojman; Alvaro Miranda; Jaime Ruiz-Tagle
  8. Brazil and China: Two Routes of Economic Development By Laura Policardo; Lionello F. Punzo; Edgar J. Sánchez Carrera
  9. Crecimiento y segmentación del empleo en el Perú, 2001-2011. By Jaramillo, Miguel; Sparrow, Bárbara

  1. By: Mariano Tommasi (Department of Economics, Universidad de San Andres); Valeria Palanza (Universidad Catolica de Chile); Carlos Scartascini (Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo)
    Abstract: This paper is concerned with the characteristics, determinants and consequences of varying levels of congressional institutionalization. Our work can be traced back to the early work on congressional institutionalization done by Polsby (1968), which is complemented here by the game-theoretic notion that institutionalization is an equilibrium outcome that emerges from the beliefs and investments made by relevant political actors. The paper explores key characteristics and trends surrounding legislative careers and congressional assets such as organization and resources. It does so to uncover the effects of different belief systems and investment dynamics on levels of institutionalization and, ultimately, on policy outcomes. We approach our puzzle by analyzing two close yet contrasting cases: Argentina and Chile, which possess stark differences on many policy and institutional dimensions, despite relatively similar constitutional settings.
    Keywords: congress, Latin America, institutions
    Date: 2013–06
  2. By: Martín Rossi (Department of Economics, Universidad de San Andres)
    Abstract: In this paper I provide an estimate of labor productivity growth for the electricity distribution sector in Latin America, in the period 1994 to 2001. I report an annual rate of labor productivity change of about 6%. A comparison of the changes in prices and labor productivity reveals that, in most cases, final prices to customers did not fall to reflect the huge labor productivity gains that were achieved during the period under analysis.
    Keywords: stochastic frontiers, productivity, technical change
    JEL: O3
    Date: 2015–02
  3. By: Novelli, Emanuele; Scherschel, Claus; Schiefer, Gerhard
    Abstract: Due to raising pressures from civil society, consumers, businesses and public institutions, appropriate methodological, technological and organizational innovations acquired a central role for the establishment of global sustainable food supply chains. This paper presents an-line software able to support the implementation of sustainable policies for two highly traded products between Latina America and Europe that still raise environmental, social and economic concerns, namely soymeal and beef. The E-Platform propose itself as a synthesis of both scientific and management requirements, therefore combining complex analysis methods as life cycle analysis in the back-end and implementation and monitoring modules in the front-end. The system, currently in its test phase in Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, has its primary objectives in facilitating the implementation of new sustainable production policies, in opening access to new markets and in complying with stringent requirements minimizing the certification costs and time investments for the actors of the supply chain.
    Keywords: sustainability management, implementation, life cycle analysis, audit, information organization, Agribusiness,
    Date: 2014–10
  4. By: Claudio A Agostini (Escuela de Gobierno, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez); Shahriyar Nasirov; Carlos Silva
    Date: 2014–09
  5. By: Claudio A Agostini (Escuela de Gobierno, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez); Marcela Perticara; Javiera Selman
    Date: 2014–09
  6. By: Julio Guzman (Escuela de Gobierno, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez)
    Date: 2014–11
  7. By: Daniel Hojman; Alvaro Miranda; Jaime Ruiz-Tagle
    Abstract: In the last decades, consumer debt experienced a marked increase in the United States, Latin America and other emerging countries, spurring a debate about the real costs and benefits of household credit. This paper explores the psychological costs of over indebtedness. Using a unique dataset with detailed health and balance sheet information of a large sample of Chilean households we construct depression measures based on a questionnaire used in standardized medical diagnosis. We find causal evidence that over indebtedness increases depression and that the effect is large, comparable to half the effect of the loss of a family member. Most of the impact seems to be associated with non- mortgage debt -primarily consumer credit supplied by large retail chains- or late mortgage payments. We explore some of the behavioral and cognitive channels that make over indebtedness psychologically harmful. The probability of over indebtedness is found to be higher for individuals that exhibit self-regulation problems (gambling, smoking, drinking), leading to higher depression. This is a measure of the cost of debt explained by impulsivity in terms of an objective psychological well-being indicator. Individuals with higher numeracy skills are also associated with higher over indebtedness but -ceteris paribus- their overall depression measures are lower. Our findings suggest that self-control and cognitive abilities play a role in explaining sad debt.
    Date: 2013–11
  8. By: Laura Policardo; Lionello F. Punzo; Edgar J. Sánchez Carrera
    Abstract: We look at two emerging economies, Brazil and China, and propose an evaluation of their recent development in terms of growth performance and the evolution of income inequality. Our analysis therefore seems to be related to the well-known Kuznets-curve and theory. The latter, however, populates an inequality-growth plane with countries’ average-valued coordinates and draws far fetching predictions that have been repeatedly questioned. We claim that Kuznets’ traditional approach does not capture recent relevant phenomena characterizing such countries: namely, the presence of at least two distinct growth models. Empirical evidence and Cointegration analysis corroborate such results.
    Keywords: Economic Growth; Income Inequality; Time Series Analysis
    JEL: C23 D3 O11 O40
    Date: 2015–03
  9. By: Jaramillo, Miguel (Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE)); Sparrow, Bárbara (Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE))
    Abstract: La división entre empleo formal e informal es una característica notable del mercado laboral peruano. Las políticas implementadas para reducir el tamaño de la informalidad laboral, como la expansión del régimen para las microempresas y pequeñas empresas, no han tenido un efecto significativo. Este estudio indaga sobre los efectos del largo ciclo de expansión del empleo y de los ingresos en la última década. A través de datos de la ENAHO 2001-2010, se identifica de qué manera el desempeño del mercado laboral, las instituciones y las políticas han afectado la segmentación del mercado laboral durante este periodo. Además, se documenta el significado de la dualidad formal/informal en términos de indicadores de calidad del empleo. Los hallazgos muestran que, a pesar de un contexto demográfico exigente, el mercado laboral peruano ha logrado un desempeño positivo gracias a que el crecimiento del empleo ha superado el de la fuerza laboral, lo que ha producido una disminución de las tasas de desempleo y subempleo, así como mejoras en diversos indicadores de calidad del trabajo. Ello ha hecho posible una modesta reducción en el tamaño del sector informal y ha incrementado la movilidad del empleo informal al formal. Sin embargo, la segmentación sigue siendo una característica notable del mercado laboral peruano, debido a que el empleo en las microempresas continúa creciendo, aunque no a la misma velocidad que en las grandes empresas. El acceso a la seguridad social también dista mucho de ser el ideal. Por otro lado, ha habido un rápido crecimiento de los contratos a plazo fijo. Estos resultados sugieren que el dinamismo positivo del mercado laboral es insuficiente para reducir la informalidad en un plazo razonable.
    Keywords: Abuso de menores, Maltrato a menores, Violencia, Niños, Problemas sociales, Perú, Child abuse, Violence, Children, Social problems, Peru
    Date: 2014

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