nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2015‒02‒22
eight papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. One goal, many paths: Policy proposals for universal access to broadband in Brazil By Gomes, André Moura; Cordeiro, Pedro Antero Braga; Araújo, Pedro Lucas da Cruz Pereira
  2. Tackling social exclusion : evidence from Chile By Carneiro, Pedro; Galasso, Emanuela; Ginja, Rita
  3. The changing patterns of financial integration in Latin America By Didier, Tatiana; Moretti, Matias; Schmukler, Sergio L.
  4. How well do we understand sovereign debt crisis? Evidence from Latin America By Ludwig, Maximilian
  5. Student Behaviour and Use of Class Time in Brazil, Chile and Mexico: Evidence from TALIS 2013 By Gabriela Miranda; Fundação Carlos Chagas; Julie Bélanger
  6. La no reversión de la fortuna en el largo plazo: geografía y persistencia espacial de la prosperidad en Colombia, 1500- 2005 By Adolfo Meisel Roca
  7. Duración del desempleo en Colombia: género, intensidad de búsqueda y anuncios de vacantes By Luis Eduardo Arango; Ana María Ríos
  8. El acceso a programas de transferencias de ingreso de la población de menores recursos en Uruguay By Andrés Dean; Andrea Vigorito

  1. By: Gomes, André Moura; Cordeiro, Pedro Antero Braga; Araújo, Pedro Lucas da Cruz Pereira
    Abstract: The purpose is to introduce policy proposals for universal access to broadband, assessing the hypothetical implementation of instruments suggested by the sectoral literature to Brazil. The methodology is based on the analysis of the literature on policies for universal access and broadband plans in the context of Latin America and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the discussion of its effects on related sectoral indicators. Then, the impact of the application of three approaches to universal access policies on indicators of broadband access is estimated: (i) incentive to service offers through allocation of funds for infrastructure deployment in underserved areas, (ii) demand-side stimulus using direct subsidies and (iii) service tax relief. Finally, the expected effects of each policy are compared and a hybrid model to maximize the social benefit of each approach is suggested.
    Keywords: Broadband,Policy,Universalization,Brazil
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Carneiro, Pedro; Galasso, Emanuela; Ginja, Rita
    Abstract: This paper studies an innovative welfare program in Chile that combines a period of frequent home visits to households in extreme poverty, with guaranteed access to social services. Program impacts are identified using a regression discontinuity design, exploring the fact that program eligibility is a discontinuous function of an index of family income and assets. The analysis finds strong and lasting impacts of the program on the take-up of subsidies and employment services. These impacts are concentrated among families who had little access to the welfare system prior to the intervention.
    Keywords: Poverty Monitoring&Analysis,Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Gender and Law,Social Inclusion&Institutions,Health Systems Development&Reform
    Date: 2015–01–01
  3. By: Didier, Tatiana; Moretti, Matias; Schmukler, Sergio L.
    Abstract: This paper describes how Latin America and the Caribbean has been integrating financially with countries in the North and South since the 2000s. The paper shows that the region is increasingly more connected with the rest of the world, even relative to gross domestic product. The region's connections with South countries have been growing faster than with North countries, especially during the second half of the 2000s. Nevertheless, North countries continue to be the region's principal source and receiver of flows. The changes reflect significant increases in portfolio investments, syndicated loans, and mergers and acquisitions. Growth of greenfield investments has been more subdued after the initial high level. Greenfield investments in the region have been in sectors in which the source country has a comparative advantage, not where the receiver country has an advantage. Mergers and acquisitions have been in sectors in which the receiver country has a comparative advantage.
    Keywords: Investment and Investment Climate,Debt Markets,Mutual Funds,Emerging Markets,Bankruptcy and Resolution of Financial Distress
    Date: 2015–02–01
  4. By: Ludwig, Maximilian
    Abstract: In recent years, the number of theoretical models on sovereign default exploded. I take a step back and investigate how good our current theoretical understanding of real world sovereign debt crisis really is. This is done by deriving implications that are hard wired into our models and comparing the evolution of nearly 20 sovereign debt crises in Latin America with them. I find that the available models capture aspects of virtually all crises, yet there are only a few crisis that are fully consistent with the available models.
    JEL: E65 F34 H63
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Gabriela Miranda; Fundação Carlos Chagas; Julie Bélanger
    Abstract: Teachers in Brazil, Chile and Mexico report having high percentages of students with behavioural problems in their classes. Especially in Brazil, teachers report spending large amounts of time keeping order in the classroom. Besides potentially significantly reducing instructional time and students’ opportunities to lean, student misbehaviour can also influence attracting and retaining teachers. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate factors associated with time that lower secondary teachers report spending keeping order in the classroom and factors associated with these teachers’ reports of student behavioural problems in their class. It is based on in-depth analyses from the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS 2013) data from Brazil, Chile and Mexico. Some of the major findings show that aspects of initial teacher education, professional development and teacher professional collaboration are associated with the time that lower secondary teachers report spending keeping order in the classroom, while participation among stakeholders in schools is negatively associated with student behavioural problems in the classroom.<BR>Au Brésil, au Chili et au Mexique, les enseignants font état d’importants pourcentages d’élèves ayant des problèmes de comportement dans leurs classes. Au Brésil plus particulièrement, les enseignants indiquent consacrer beaucoup de temps au maintien de l’ordre en classe. En plus de réduire potentiellement de façon significative le temps d’instruction et les opportunités d’apprentissage, les problèmes de comportement des élèves peuvent également avoir une incidence sur l’attrait de la profession d’enseignant et le maintien des enseignants déjà en poste. Cet article document entend donc étudier les facteurs associés au temps que les enseignants du premier cycle du secondaire indiquent consacrer au maintien de l’ordre en classe et les facteurs associés aux déclarations que font ces enseignants de comportements perturbateurs d’élèves dans leurs classes. Il se fonde sur des analyses approfondies des données de l’Enquête internationale de l’OCDE sur l’enseignement et l’apprentissage (TALIS 2013) pour le Brésil, le Chili et le Mexique. Parmi les principaux résultats, il apparaît que certains aspects de la formation initiale des enseignants, de leur formation continue et de leur collaboration professionnelle entre pairs présentent un lien avec le temps que les enseignants du premier cycle du secondaire indiquent consacrer au maintien de l’ordre en classe, tandis que la participation des différents acteurs de l’établissement présente une relation négative avec les problèmes de comportement des élèves en classe.
    Date: 2015–01–30
  6. By: Adolfo Meisel Roca
    Abstract: En este artículo se examina la tesis de la reversión de la fortuna propuesta por Acemoglu, Johnson y Robinson (2002) de acuerdo con la experiencia colombiana durante los últimos 500 años. Utilizando un total de 14 censos nacionales de población y el registro de los indígenas encomendados que había en 1559, se encuentra que la densidad demográfica de las regiones de Colombia ha mostrado una gran persistencia en el transcurso del tiempo. Por lo tanto, la evidencia indica que los lugares que fueron prósperos en torno al año 1500 siguen siéndolo hoy en día y viceversa. Estos resultados indican que las influencias a largo plazo de la geografía sobre las disparidades económicas regionales al interior de un país no son despreciables.** ABSTRACT: This paper examines the non-reversal of fortune thesis proposed by Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (2002) in the light of the Colombian experience over the last 500 years. Using a total of 14 national population censuses and the record of tributary Indians in 1559, it is found that the population density of Colombian regions presented a high degree of persistence through time. Thus, the evidence indicates that those places that were prosperous circa 1500 remain so today, and vice versa. These results indicate that the long run influences of geography on regional economic disparities within a country are not negligible.
    Keywords: Historia Económica Comparativa, Economía demográfica, Latinoamérica
    JEL: N16 J10 N36
    Date: 2014–10–15
  7. By: Luis Eduardo Arango; Ana María Ríos
    Abstract: En Colombia la tasa de desempleo femenina es más alta que la masculina. Al concentrarnos en la duración del desempleo, se verifica la hipótesis de que las mujeres comprometidas (i.e., casadas o en unión libre) tienen episodios de desempleo de mayor duración que los hombres de igual condición. Dados los efectos observados en las tasa de riesgo y en el tiempo de fallo, el ingreso de la pareja reduce el esfuerzo de búsqueda de un empleo tanto en hombres como en mujeres, pero esto se observa con mayor claridad en el caso de ellas. Allí está una de las causas del mayor desempleo femenino. No obstante, el efecto del ingreso de la pareja en la duración del desempleo de las mujeres, se reduce si en los hogares hay niños en su primera infancia. Contar con un mecanismo de divulgación de las vacantes que agilice el emparejamiento de firmas y trabajadores, reduce la duración del desempleo. El ciclo económico afecta la duración. El riesgo de salir del desempleo aumenta hasta los cuatro meses; pero una vez se alcanza este umbral el riesgo se reduce de manera dramática. Classification JEL: J64, J63.
    Date: 2015–02
  8. By: Andrés Dean (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Andrea Vigorito (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía)
    Abstract: The present document gathers the main results of a survey conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE). The survey was conducted in the framework of a cooperation agreement between the INE, the Social Development Ministry (MIDES) and Universidad e la República (UDELAR). The aim of this agreement was studying the access to cash transfers programs of sectors of the Uruguayan low income population. In the survey 15% of lower income households were interviewed by Encuesta Contínua de Hogares (the Urugayan national household survey) between February and may 2010 (first wave). Under this agreement, the households were interviewed again between October and November 2010 (second wave). Despite noticeable economic growth and significant efforts made in Uruguay in recent years to reduce poverty and extreme poverty, a significant number of households still have incomes below the minimum determined by the National Institute of Statistics, at the time facing hardship in other dimensions of well-being, such as housing, education and access to the health care system. For the purpose of providing new elements for the discussion on the evolution of the welfare and the scope of current policies of direct cash transfers to the most underprivileged sectors, this paper examines the access to social benefits by the Uruguayan 15% lower income population. Also, is a very exploratory analysis on the evolution of the socio-economic situation of recipient households of the cash transfer program Asignaciones Familiares-Plan de Equidad (AFAM-PE), based on the concatenation of the information generated in this study with administrative records of the social security system.
    Keywords: cash transfer programs, poverty, Uruguay
    JEL: I32 I38
    Date: 2015–01

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