nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2024‒07‒08
seven papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann, Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. The Gender Wage Gap over the Life Cycle: Evidence from Japan By Jau-er Chen; Minchung Hsu; Tomoe Naito
  2. Gender-Specific Transportation Costs and Female Time Use: Evidence from India’s Pink Slip Program By Yutong Chen; Kerem Coşar; Devaki Ghose; Shirish Mahendru; Sheetal Sekhri
  3. AI and Digital Technology: Gender Gaps in Higher Education By José Ignacio Conde-Ruiz; Juan José Ganuza; Manu García; Carlos Victoria
  4. Gender Differences in Tax Evasion: Evidence from Norwegian Administrative Data By Bjørkheim, Julie Brun; Nygård, Odd E.
  5. Keeping the Peace while Getting Your Way: Information, Persuasion and Intimate Partner Violence By Dan Anderberg; Rachel Cassidy; Anaya Dam; Wendy Janssens; Karlijn Morsink; Anouk van Veldhoven
  6. A Reproduction of "Do Female Officers Police Differently? Evidence from Traffic Stops" (American Journal of Political Science, 2021) By Yang, Dianyi; Huang, Leike
  7. Family and career: An analysis across Europe and North America By Luis Guirola; Laura Hospido; Andrea Weber

  1. By: Jau-er Chen (Senshu University, Tokyo, Japan); Minchung Hsu (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo, Japan); Tomoe Naito (Seikei University, Tokyo, Japan)
    Abstract: The gender wage gap is a persistent and pervasive issue that has received significant attention from economists, policymakers, and the general public. Despite efforts to close the gap, it remains a challenge to quantify and understand the sources of this disparity. In this paper, we aim to shed light on the gender wage gap over the life cycle, using data from the Basic Survey on Wage Structure (BSWS) in Japan. This data provides rich information on the wages of employees and offers a unique opportunity to examine the pattern of the gender wage gap across different age groups. The findings indicate that the wage gap widens significantly with age and is most pronounced among highly educated individuals. These results align with Goldin et al. (2017)’s research. Additionally, our study reveals that the gap for high-education worker lessens when controlling for managerlevel positions, suggesting that a significant portion of the wage gap for the high-education can be ascribed to the under-representation of women in these roles. Our quantile analysis also demonstrates that the growing wage.
    Keywords: Life-cycle earnings, Gender earnings gap, Japan
    Date: 2024–02
  2. By: Yutong Chen; Kerem Coşar; Devaki Ghose; Shirish Mahendru; Sheetal Sekhri
    Abstract: Reducing gender-specific commuting barriers in developing countries has complex and diverse effects on women’s labor dynamics. We study a program that offers free bus rides for women in several Indian states (the Pink Slip program) using a synthetic difference-in-differences approach to shed light on labor supply and time use decisions of women. We observe decreased bus expenses and time saved on travel. Skilled employed women increase labor supply, while low-skill married women shift focus to household chores. Unemployed women intensify job searches, yet overall employment rates remain unchanged. Our findings highlight that alleviating commuting costs does not uniformly boost women’s labor participation, as gender roles and societal norms continue to shape outcomes.
    JEL: J16 J22 R41
    Date: 2024–05
  3. By: José Ignacio Conde-Ruiz; Juan José Ganuza; Manu García; Carlos Victoria
    Abstract: This article examines gender gaps in higher education in Spain from 1985 to 2023 in the context of technological advancements, particularly digitalization and artificial intelligence (AI). We identify significant disparities, with women overrepresented in health-related fields and underrepresented in STEM disciplines. This imbalance is concerning as STEM fields offer better employment prospects and higher salaries. We analyze university degrees' exposure to technological change through Routine Task Intensity (RTI) and AI exposure indices. Our findings show that women are more enrolled in degrees with high RTI, prone to automation, and less in degrees with high AI exposure, likely to benefit from technological advancements. This suggests technological change could widen existing labor market gender gaps. To address this, we recommend policies to boost female participation in STEM fields and adapt educational curricula to reduce routine tasks and enhance AI complementarities, ensuring equitable labor market outcomes amid technological change.
    Date: 2024–06
  4. By: Bjørkheim, Julie Brun (Dept. of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics); Nygård, Odd E. (Research Dept., Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Using the expenditure approach and administrative data on third-party reported donations, we estimate tax evasion by gender. While men are more prone to risk taking, we find no evidence of this transferring to income underreporting among the self-employed in Norway. Instead, self-employed women evade more than men. This tendency holds when controlling for sector affiliation and using household fixed effects and event study equivalents. We find that self-employed women face lower chances of penalty taxes and lighter penalties when caught, possibly due to biased predictive models, which may explain their higher evasion rates.
    Keywords: Tax Evasion and Avoidance; Gender; Tax Enforcement; Charity
    JEL: H25 H26 J16
    Date: 2024–06–18
  5. By: Dan Anderberg; Rachel Cassidy; Anaya Dam; Wendy Janssens; Karlijn Morsink; Anouk van Veldhoven
    Abstract: We study the effects on intimate partner violence (IPV) of new information received by women only, men only, or both, relevant to a high-stakes joint household decision. We model communication between spouses as Bayesian persuasion where disagreements elevate the risk of IPV. Our framework predicts that IPV will be lower when only one spouse is informed, compared to when both are, as the opportunity for persuasion by one spouse leads to more agreement. To test the model’s predictions we leverage an existing randomized controlled trial of an edutainment intervention addressing child marriage decisions for girls in rural Pakistan, targeted at men, women, or both. Our empirical findings confirm the prediction that the likelihood of IPV is highest when men and women are jointly targeted. Due to systematic gender differences in preferences, our persuasion model further predicts that marriage delays are largest when targeting men alone or jointly with women and smallest when targeting women alone, predictions that are also confirmed in the data.
    Keywords: gender, intimate partner violence, Bayesian persuasion, targeting, edutainment, field experiment
    JEL: J12 J16
    Date: 2024
  6. By: Yang, Dianyi; Huang, Leike
    Abstract: We reproduce Shoub, Kelsey, Katelyn E. Stauffer, and Miyeon Song (May 2021). "Do Female Officers Police Differently? Evidence from Traffic Stops, " with alternative specifications and interpretation of the results. While our reproduction confirms that female police officers are less likely to search drivers than male officers and female officers are more likely to find contraband upon a search, we re-evaluate the authors' claims on the equality of effectiveness between male and female officers and find that female officers in the dataset confiscated less contraband than male officers.
    Keywords: Police-Citizen Interaction, Feminism, Public Administration, Public Opinion, United States
    Date: 2024
  7. By: Luis Guirola (Banco de España); Laura Hospido (Banco de España, CEMFI and IZA); Andrea Weber (Central European University)
    Abstract: Using data for 17 countries in Europe and North America, we compare the career trajectories of mothers and fathers and of women and men without children across cohorts and at different points in their life cycle. There is wide cross-country variation in employment and earnings gaps at age 30. At age 50, however, employment gaps between mothers and non-mothers have closed in most countries. We also observe convergence in employment gaps between mothers and fathers by age 50, but these gaps do not close altogether. Motherhood gaps in earnings also close by age 50 between mothers and non-mothers, particularly among the highly educated. But there is strong persistence in earnings gaps between mothers and fathers even among highly educated parents. The main reasons for the remaining gaps at later stages in the life-cycle are part-time work among women and fatherhood premia as fathers’ earnings outperform non-fathers’ over their life-cycle.
    Keywords: gender gaps, employment, earnings, children
    JEL: J12 J13 J16 J21 J22
    Date: 2024–05

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