nep-acc New Economics Papers
on Accounting and Auditing
Issue of 2019‒01‒21
five papers chosen by

  1. What Happened to CIT Collection? Solving the Rates-Eveneues Puzzle By Gaetan Nicodeme; Antonella Caiumi; Ina Majewski
  2. Problems and solutions of accounting and evaluation of biological assets in Latvia By Iluta Arbidane; Iveta Mietule
  3. Republic of Poland; Technical Assistance Report-Revenue Administration Gap Analysis Program—The Value-Added Tax Gap By International Monetary Fund
  4. Household and Nonprofit Balance Sheets in the Financial Accounts of the United States By Elizabeth Ball Holmquist
  5. “Has the ECB’s Monetary Policy Prompted Companies to Invest or Pay Dividends?” By Lior Cohen; Marta Gómez-Puig; Simón Sosvilla-Rivero

  1. By: Gaetan Nicodeme; Antonella Caiumi; Ina Majewski
    Abstract: Despite sharp reductions in corporate income tax (CIT) rates worldwide, CIT revenues have not fallen dramatically in the last two decades. This paper investigates the recent developments in CIT in the European Union, by taking a closer look at the potential driving forces behind this puzzle. Using a unique dataset of national sectoral accounts, we decompose the CIT revenue to GDP ratio for the EU and find that while the decrease in the statutory rates has driven down tax collection, the effect was more than offset by a broadening of the taxable base and a slight increase in the size of the corporate sector. However, this result holds for the period 1995-2015 but not for the last decade where base broadening has not been able to match further cuts in rates.
    Keywords: corporate tax, implicit tax rate, tax reforms, incorporation, European Union
    JEL: E62 H25 O52
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Iluta Arbidane (Rezekne Academy of Technologies); Iveta Mietule (Rezekne Academy of Technologies)
    Abstract: Activities in the field of agriculture deal with plants and animals constituting biological assets of the sector. From the point of view of accounting and valuation, biological assets is a scarcely investigated topic in Latvia, as well the object of the research only in general terms is reflected in Latvian legislation. That leads to confusion and uncertainty in evaluation and accounting of biological assets in the practical accounting. The subject of the study: evaluation and accounting of biological assets. The aim of the study is to explore and analyse problems of accounting and evaluation of biological assets in Latvia and to propose solutions. One of the research tasks is to explore the current legal base for evaluation and accounting of biological assets provided in the national legislation, to evaluate how it complies with the international accounting standards and to analyse the experience of other countries. The challenging issues of evaluation and accounting of biological assets in Latvia are defined in the research, possible solutions for improving the quality of accounting of biological assets are developed proposing the necessary amendments to the legislation and revisions to the methodological documents. Methods of the research: monographic/descriptive method, document analysis, and graphical analysis.
    Keywords: biological assets,evaluation,accounting,agricultural
    Date: 2018–09–30
  3. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This report presents the results of applying the Revenue Administration Gap Analysis Program (RA-GAP) value-added tax (VAT) gap estimation methodology1 to Poland for the period 2010–16. The RA-GAP methodology employs a top-down approach for estimating the potential VAT base, using statistical data from national accounts on value-added generated in each sector. There are two main components to this methodology for estimating the VAT gap: 1) estimate the potential VAT collections for a given period; and 2) determine the accrued VAT collections for that period. The difference between the two values is the VAT gap. RA-GAP provides estimates of the two components of the tax gap: the compliance gap and the policy gap. The compliance gap is the difference between the potential VAT that could have been collected given the current policy framework and actual accrued VAT collections. The policy gap is the difference between the overall tax gap and the compliance gap. To put the level and trends of the compliance gap into context it is also necessary to analyze the level and trends of the overall tax gap and the policy gap.
    Date: 2018–12–07
  4. By: Elizabeth Ball Holmquist
    Abstract: This Note describes new supplemental tables in the Financial Accounts of the United States that provide separate balance sheets for households and nonprofit organizations.
    Date: 2019–01–04
  5. By: Lior Cohen (Department of Economics. Universidad de Barcelona.); Marta Gómez-Puig (Department of Economics and Riskcenter, Universidad de Barcelona.); Simón Sosvilla-Rivero (Complutense Institute for Economic Analysis, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on how the European Central Bank’s (ECB) monetary policies influenced non-financial firms. The paper’s two main contributions are, first, to shed light on non-financial firms’ decisions on leverage, and how the ECB’s conventional and unconventional policies may have affected them. Second, the paper also examines how these policies influenced non-financial firms’ decisions on capital allocation – primarily capital spending and shareholder distribution (for example, dividends and shares repurchases). Towards this end, we use an exhaustive and unique dataset comprised of income statements and balance sheets of leading non-financial firms that operate in the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). The main results suggest that ECB’s monetary policies have encouraged firms to raise their debt burden especially after the global recession of 2008. Finally, the ECB’s policies, mainly after 2011, seem to have also stimulated non-financial firms to allocate more resources towards not only capital spending but also shareholder distribution
    Keywords: ECB’s monetary policy, capital structure, leverage, quantitative easing, capital expenditure, dividend’s policy, shareholder yield. JEL classification:E52, E58, G31, G32.
    Date: 2019–01

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