nep-acc New Economics Papers
on Accounting and Auditing
Issue of 2017‒09‒24
six papers chosen by

  1. The development of corporate tax structures in the European Union from 1998 to 2015 - Qualitative and quantitative analysis By Bräutigam, Rainer; Spengel, Christoph; Stutzenberger, Kathrin
  2. Y’a-t-il vraiment un besoin pour changer de referentiel comptable au Maroc? la prétendue value relevance des normes comptables IFRS By Ahsina, Khalifa; Taouab, Omar
  3. Comparability of financial reports: A literature review of most recent studies By Pantic, B.
  4. Identifying the provisioning policies of Belgian banks By Emrah Arbak
  5. How the European Commission and European countries fight VAT fraud By Tomasz Michalik
  6. Potentielle Risikofaktoren für die Erhöhung der Betriebsprüfungswahrscheinlichkeit - Eine analytische und empirische Untersuchung auf Basis der E-Bilanz-Taxonomie 6.0 - By Henselmann, Klaus; Haller, Stefanie

  1. By: Bräutigam, Rainer; Spengel, Christoph; Stutzenberger, Kathrin
    Abstract: Ongoing tax reform processes, competitive pressures and the consequences of the financial and sovereign debt crisis have considerably shaped the tax systems of the Member States of the European Union in the last two decades. Our paper combines a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the development of European tax structures based on a unique and comprehensive dataset for the EU-25 Member States between 1998 and 2015. Especially among the EU-15 Member States, we still find evidence for the often-cited trend of tax rate cut cum tax base broadening. In this context, we identify interest deduction limitation rules and loss provisions as main drivers of tax base broadening. Furthermore, the quantitative analysis of effective tax burden scenarios shows that Member States seem to additionally rely on an increased taxation of dividends to balance possible revenue losses associated with reduced corporate income tax rates.
    Keywords: Tax Policy,Corporate Taxation,European Union
    JEL: H20 H25 K34
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Ahsina, Khalifa; Taouab, Omar
    Abstract: The adoption of IFRS aims to improve the quality of accounting, thus increasing its value to stakeholders. But often the adoption of these standards did not originate from an internal need of the emergent’s countries but are usually offered by international financial institutions that require "IFRS label" to align with the best practices of developed countries. The question that arises in this research is to know, beyond the motivations African companies to adopt IFRS; Ahsina (2012) and Sy and Tinker (2013), is that IFRS are of top quality local standards? A review of abundant literature was conducted in developed countries, but did not decide categorically on the superiority of IFRS by local standards. By cons, There are few studies on emerging markets as the Moroccan financial market, hence the usefulness of this work. This article is based on a model of price and yields developed by Amir et al (1993), Barth and Clinch (1996) and Harris and Muller (1999). This is to achieve association studies between market values and financial information from the national database by incorporating the differential amount resulting from the application of IFRS. The findings emerged from the study suggest that the informational relevance of IFRS is low for both models; the R2 is less than 30% for the first model and 10% for the second model. Thus, the obligation to adopt IFRS standards imposed by the AMF and the central bank of Morocco on the recommendations by international financial institutions, is not timely, since it did not leads to the production of more relevant financial information and of good quality.
    Keywords: IFRS, Value relevance, Local Accounting Standards (LAS), Emerging countries.
    JEL: M41
    Date: 2017–05–03
  3. By: Pantic, B.
    Abstract: Financial statement comparability has for a long time been one of the main points of interest of financial accounting research. Recent studies and particularly those that followed De Franco et al.’s (2011) influential paper were mostly focused on putting to use the results of the financial reporting process to measure the level of accounting comparability and thus the comparability of financial results between companies. This working paper makes a short survey of recent studies that measure comparability of financial statements. As such it describes and comments on four important studies that introduced measuring concept for this problem. Second part of the research deals with classification of recent different streams of literature in this field. In conclusion, It also sums up what has already been achieved in comparability research.
    Keywords: financial statements, comparability, IFRS, literature review,
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Emrah Arbak (European Commission, Directorate-General for Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union, FISMA E.2)
    Abstract: Loan loss reserves make up an essential part of a bank’s soundness and more generally its viability. An under-provisioned reserve account implies that capital ratios may overstate a bank’s ability to absorb future losses. For this reason, both supervisory authorities and investors regularly assess the adequacy of the loan loss provisions alongside the more popular capital ratios. The aim of the paper is to identify what motivates the loss provisioning policies employed by Belgian banks, especially whether banks use provisioning to inter-temporally smooth their earnings or capital positions. Owing to the relatively long data series, the paper also investigates whether the introduction of the IAS-39 "incurred loss" accounting standards or the onset of the financial crisis in 2008/9 had any impact on the provisioning decisions. The results show that provisioning practices of Belgian banks have been rather tightly linked to future losses, although the relationship has weakened considerably after the introduction of the IAS-39 standards and, to a lesser extent, after the financial crisis. There is also evidence that Belgian banks might have used provisioning decisions to manage their current earnings and to some extent to signal future profitability, although the latter motive also appears to have weakened after the introduction of IAS-39 standards.
    Keywords: Belgian credit institutions; loan loss provisioning; event-based provisioning; forwardlooking provisioning; earnings-smoothing; cyclical provisioning; implementation of international accounting standards.
    JEL: C23 G14 G21 G28 M41
    Date: 2017–08
  5. By: Tomasz Michalik
    Abstract: The VAT gap, both on the European Union scale and that of particular member states (though not all of them) appeals to the imagination and awakens many extreme emotions. For it is difficult to accept that the level is so significant, and – what is more – in recent years it has narrowed quite insignificantly despite attempts to limit it. In the popular understanding, this gap is quite often identified exclusively with the consequences of fraud, but it has many more component elements, many of which have nothing to do with abuse. Still, this doesn’t change the face that it is precisely fraud and abuse that constitute a particularly significant element of the VAT gap.
    Keywords: Value Added Tax, tax fraud, tax evasion, tax non-compliance, tax avoidance, EU, Poland
    JEL: H26 H25
    Date: 2017–06
  6. By: Henselmann, Klaus; Haller, Stefanie
    Abstract: Das Gesetz zur Modernisierung des Besteuerungsverfahrens (StModernG) gestattet es der deutschen Finanzverwaltung die Daten der sog. E-Bilanz (§ 5b EStG) in ihrem fiskalischen Risikomanagement-System auszuwerten. Dies kann zur gezielten Auswahl von Unternehmen für eine spätere Betriebsprüfung genutzt werden. Details zur Ausgestaltung des Risikomanagement-Systems auf Basis der E-Bilanz-Datensätze sind bislang nicht bekannt. Der Beitrag identifiziert mögliche Risikofaktoren, deren Auftreten in einer vom Steuerpflichtigen einge¬reichten E-Bilanz dazu führen könnte, dass sein Unternehmen im Risikomanagement-System der Finanzverwaltung als risikoreich eingestuft wird. Als Risikofaktoren gelten dabei Sachverhalte oder Umstände, die Indizien für eine erhöhte Fehleranfälligkeit oder für aggressive Steuervermeidungsstrategien sind. Alle XBRL-Tags der E-Bilanz Taxonomie 6.0 werden in Hinblick auf solche Risiken analysiert und klassifiziert. Die Ergebnisse werden durch strukturierte Expertenbefragungen auf ihre Relevanz für die Praxis der Betriebsprüfung hin validiert.
    Keywords: Risk Management,Risk Factors,Tax Audit,Taxation,XBRL,Taxonomy,Risikomanagement,Besteuerung,Betriebsprüfung,E-Bilanz,Deutschland
    JEL: H25 H26 K34 M41 M42
    Date: 2017

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