nep-acc New Economics Papers
on Accounting and Auditing
Issue of 2016‒09‒18
seven papers chosen by

  1. Les déterminants du délai d’audit et ses implications en termes de fiabilité et de pertinence de l’information financière: un essai de validation dans le contexte français By Khoufi Nouha; Habib Affes
  2. Multinational firms and tax havens By Gumpert, Anna; Hines Jr, James R; Schnitzer, Monika
  3. Tax Cuts, Tax Expenditures, and Comprehensive Tax Reform: Federal Income Tax Reform in the United States, 1961-1986 By Seiichiro Mozumi
  4. Pension Saving Responses to Anticipated Tax Changes: Evidence from Monthly Pension Contribution Records By Claus Thustrup Kreiner; Søren Leth-Petersen; Peer Ebbesen Skov
  5. Whose Balance Sheet is this? Neural Networks for Banks’ Pattern Recognition By Carlos León; José Fernando Moreno; Jorge Cely
  6. Misreporting Trade: Tariff Evasion, Corruption, and Auditing Standards By Derek Kellenberg; Arik Levinson
  7. International financial reporting standards and private firms’ access to bank loans By Benjamin Balsmeier; Steven Vanhaverbeke

  1. By: Khoufi Nouha (LEAT - Laboratoire d'Electronique, Antennes et Télécommunications - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Habib Affes (LEAT - Laboratoire d'Electronique, Antennes et Télécommunications - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Les déterminants du délai d'audit et ses implications en termes de fiabilité et de pertinence de l'information financière: un essai de validation dans le contexte français Laboratoire Gouvernance, Finance et Comptabilité GFC : 2 Résumé Dans le contexte actuel de remise en question de la qualité, et donc de l'utilité, de l'information financière diffusée par les entreprises cotées, la durée d'intervention des commissaires aux comptes représente une composante majeure du délai d'annonce des résultats annuels. En effet, un long délai d'intervention constitue un élément de fiabilité des résultats publiés. Toutefois, une annonce trop tardive des résultats enlève à la pertinence de l'information financière. Le recours à des données de panel sur un échantillon de 250 observations entreprises-années durant la période allant de 2010 à 2014 examine comment la réalité du terrain impose aux auditeurs un arbitrage serré entre pertinence qui suppose une certification et une publication rapide de l'information financière et fiabilité qui suppose un délai minimal permettant aux auditeurs d'accomplir les diligences requises de la mission. Les résultats de la recherche n'appuient pas les hypothèses d'efficience associées à la complexité et au risque de la mission d'audit. Elles semblent privilégier les aspects institutionnels dans l'explication du délai d'audit. Mots clés : Délai d'audit, qualité de l'information financière, les pressions politico-institutionnelles, divulgation des résultats, coûts d'agence,
    Keywords: qualité de l’information financière,les pressions politico-institutionnelles,divulgation des résultats,Délai d’audit,coûts d’agence
    Date: 2016–05–20
  2. By: Gumpert, Anna; Hines Jr, James R; Schnitzer, Monika
    Abstract: Multinational firms with operations in high-tax countries can benefit the most from reallocating taxable income to tax havens, though this is sufficiently diffcult and costly that only 20.4 percent of German multinational firms have any tax haven affiliates. Among German manufacturing firms, a one percentage point higher foreign tax rate is associated with a 2.3 percent greater likelihood of owning a tax haven affiliate. This is consistent with tax avoidance incentives, and contrasts with earlier evidence for U.S. firms. The relationship is less strong for firms in service industries, possibly reflecting the difficulty of reallocating taxable service income.
    Keywords: multinational firms; tax havens
    JEL: F23 H87
    Date: 2016–09
  3. By: Seiichiro Mozumi (Faculty of Economics, Keio University)
    Abstract: In the United States since the 1930s, the Treasury Department and tax experts has attempted to accomplish a "one package" comprehensive tax reform program to create a simpler, fairer, and more equitable federal income tax system with sufficient ability to raise revenue. However, their attempts to accomplish the kind of tax reform have always failed except in 1986. This paper picks up three episodes of federal tax reform to demonstrate the Treasury's and tax experts' significant effort to accomplish a "one package" comprehensive tax reform, and the process in and for which they failed and succeeded: Federal tax reform of 1964, 1978, and 1986. In the meantime, through examining the three episodes, this paper explores how Congress had seriously considered the kind of comprehensive tax reform that the Treasury and tax experts proposed after World War II.
    Keywords: "one package" comprehensive tax reform, Stanley S. Surrey
    JEL: H2 N42
    Date: 2016–08–24
  4. By: Claus Thustrup Kreiner (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen); Søren Leth-Petersen (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen); Peer Ebbesen Skov (Auckland University of Technology)
    Abstract: A Danish tax reform, decided in May 2009 and taking effect from the beginning of 2010, lowered the marginal tax rate on top bracket taxable income from 63% to 56%. Because contributions to pension accounts are tax deductible, the reform provided an incentive to increase pension contributions before the change in taxation. Using high frequency panel data, we document an increase in pension contributions in the second half of 2009 in response to the anticipated change in taxation, and that this led to an increase in total savings.
    Date: 2016–09–09
  5. By: Carlos León (Banco de la República de Colombia); José Fernando Moreno (Banco de la República de Colombia); Jorge Cely (Banco de la República de Colombia)
    Abstract: The balance sheet is a snapshot that portraits the financial position of a firm at a specific point of time. Under the reasonable assumption that the financial position of a firm is unique and representative, we use a basic artificial neural network pattern recognition method on Colombian banks’ 2000-2014 monthly 25-account balance sheet data to test whether it is possible to classify them with fair accuracy. Results demonstrate that the chosen method is able to classify out-of-sample banks by learning the main features of their balance sheets, and with great accuracy. Results confirm that balance sheets are unique and representative for each bank, and that an artificial neural network is capable of recognizing a bank by its financial accounts. Further developments fostered by our findings may contribute to enhancing financial authorities’ supervision and oversight duties, especially in designing early-warning systems. Classification JEL: C45, C53, G21, M41
    Keywords: supervised learning, machine learning, artificial neural networks, classification
    Date: 2016–09
  6. By: Derek Kellenberg; Arik Levinson
    Abstract: In official international trade statistics, annual commerce between every pair of countries is reported twice: once by the importing country and once by the exporter. These double reports provide an opportunity for audit. In principle, the two reported trade values should differ systematically only by transport costs, because the values reported by importers include freight and insurance. But in practice, after controlling for distance and other standard trade costs, the remaining gaps between importer- and exporter-reported trade vary systematically with GDP, tariffs and taxes, auditing standards, corruption, and trade agreements, suggesting that firms intentionally misreport trade data. These misreports have implications for trade agreements and domestic fiscal policy, and for empirical assessments of the efficacy of those policies.
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2016–09
  7. By: Benjamin Balsmeier; Steven Vanhaverbeke
    Abstract: Prior research has focused on publicly listed firms when examining the economic consequences of adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). This study extends the literature by examining the ability of private firms to attract bank loans through the use of IFRS. Based on firm-level data from 25 countries, we show that private firms that voluntarily use IFRS are associated with a higher propensity to attract debt from foreign banks. We find no such association when examining their relationships with domestic banks. Supplementary analyses show that the results are mainly driven by private firms operating in countries with strong regulatory enforcement. The findings suggest that, conditional on adequate enforcement, the use of IFRS provides useful information for foreign non-relationship banks.
    Keywords: International Financial Reporting Standards, Private Firms, Debt, Enforcement
    Date: 2016–08

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