nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2024‒04‒29
53 papers chosen by
Steve Ross, University of Connecticut

  1. Neighborhood Revitalization and Residential Sorting By Matthew Staiger; Giordano Palloni; John Voorheis
  2. Discrimination During Eviction Moratoria By Alina Arefeva; Kay Jowers; Qihui Hu; Christopher Timmins
  3. Housing Speculation, GSEs, and Credit Market Spillovers By Natee Amornsiripanitch; Philip E. Strahan; Song Zhang; Xiang Zheng
  4. Examining the Predictors of School Exclusion for Māori and Pākehā Learners By Steve Agnew; Tom Coupé; Cassia Hingston
  5. Real estate prices and land use regulations: Evidence from the law of heights in Bogotá By Diego Buitrago-Mora; Miquel-Àngel Garcia-López
  6. Peer Effects on Violence: Experimental Evidence from El Salvador By Lelys Dinarte-Diaz
  7. On the Spatial Allocation of College Seats: Human Capital Production and the Distribution of Skilled Labor By Yang, Yu (Alan)
  8. Bridging the innovation gap. AI and robotics as drivers of China’s urban innovation By Andrés Rodríguez-Pose; Zhuoying You;
  9. Predictors of School Exclusion in New Zealand: The Implications for Pacific Learners Receiving English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Support By Steve Agnew; Tom Coupé; Cassia Hingston
  10. The Impact of the Prehistoric Out-of-Africa Migration on Cultural Diversity By Oded Galor; Marc Kemp; Daniel C. Wainstock
  11. Birds of a Feather Earn Together. Gender and Peer Effects at the Workplace By Julián Messina; Anna Sanz-de-Galdeano; Anastasia Terskaya
  12. Using Images as Covariates: Measuring Curb Appeal with Deep Learning By Ardyn Nordstrom; Morgan Nordstrom; Matthew D. Webb
  13. The Propensity for Patenting in the Italian Regions By Leogrande, Angelo
  14. Non-Taxation of imputed rent: A gift to Scrooge ? Evidence from France By Montserrat Botey; Guillaume Chapelle
  15. Beyond grades: Raising the visibility and impact of PISA data on students’ well-being By Marta Cignetti; Mario Piacentini
  16. Regional productivity differences in the UK and France - from the micro to the macro By Bridget Kauma; Giordano Mion
  17. Local Crime and Prosocial Attitudes: Evidence from Charitable Donations By Carlo Perroni; Kimberly Scharf; Sarah Smith; Oleksandr Talavera; Linh Vi
  18. Urban vacancy in Europe: A synthetic review and research agenda By van Heur, Bas
  19. Millennials and Older Gen Zers Made Significant Wealth Gains in 2022 By Ana Hernández Kent; Lowell R. Ricketts
  20. The impact of obesity on human capital accumulation: Exploring the driving factors By Raquel Carrasco; Diego González-González
  21. Who Benefits from Remote Schooling? Self-Selection and Match Effects By Jessie Bruhn; Christopher Campos; Eric Chen
  22. Meatpacking Concentration: Implications for Supply Chain Performance By López, Rigoberto A.; Seoane, Luis
  23. Knowledge Workers across the Italian Regions By Leogrande, Angelo
  24. The consequences of financial frictions on urbanization By David Gomtsyan
  25. Informed job entry: Does labour market information speed job-taking in Mozambique? By Ricardo Santos; Sam Jones; Gimelgo Xirinda
  26. Not in My Backyard? The Local Impact of Wind and Solar Parks in Brazil By Fabian Scheifele; David Popp
  27. Beyond Sight: Exploring the Impact of a Multifaceted Intervention on Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors towards Persons with Visual Impairment By Sergiu Burlacu; Davide Azzolini; Federico Podestà
  28. Teamwork and Spillover Effects in Performance Evaluations By Enzo Brox; Michael Lechner
  29. Experimental Evidence on Group Size Effects in Network Formation Games By Choi, S.; Goyal, S.; Guo, F.; Moisan, F.
  30. Bankruptcy Lawyers and Credit Recovery By Brian Jonghwan Lee
  31. Gentrification, displacement, and income trajectory of incumbents By Pierre-Loup Beauregard
  32. The Missing Link? Using LinkedIn Data to Measure Race, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in Employment Outcomes at Individual Companies By Alexander Berry; Elizabeth M. Maloney; David Neumark
  33. Helping Students to Succeed – The Long-Term Effects of Soft Commitments and Reminders By Raphael Brade; Oliver Himmler; Robert Jaeckle; Philipp Weinschenk
  34. Import shocks and voting behavior in Europe revisited By Backes, Annika; Müller, Steffen
  35. Skill Premium in Sweden, 1900–1950 By Heikkuri, Suvi
  36. Geospatial Multidimensional Poverty Gap in India: A rural and urban decomposition analysis By Gupta, Pallavi
  37. Drivers of home care agency closure: evidence from England By Allan, Stephen
  38. The Social Multiplier of Pension Reform By Emre Oral; Simon Rabaté; Arthur Seibold
  39. Unintended Consequences of the Home Affordable Refinance Program By Phoebe Tian; Chen Zheng
  40. A RHOMOLO assessment of 2014-2027 cohesion policy By Tryfonas Christou; Abian Garcia Rodriguez; Tillmann Heidelk; Nicholas Lazarou; Philippe Monfort; Simone Salotti
  41. Diversity in Teams: Collaboration and Performance in Experiments with Different Tasks By Darova, Ornella; Duchene, Anne
  42. Public Attitudes Towards Immigration in Canada: Decreased Support and Increased Political Polarization By Mohamadian, Mehdi; Javdani, Mohsen; Heroux-Legault, Maxime
  43. Effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on the labor market outcomes of women with children in Mexico By Juarez, Laura; Villaseñor, Paula
  44. New empirical findings about the interaction between Public Employment Agency and private search effort By Makoto WATANABE; Christian Holzner
  45. Gender Differences in High-Stakes Performance and College Admission Policies By Andreu Arenas; Caterina Calsamiglia
  46. Privacy-Protected Spatial Autoregressive Model By Danyang Huang; Ziyi Kong; Shuyuan Wu; Hansheng Wang
  47. “I Love It” Versus “I Recommend It”: The Impact of Implicit and Explicit Endorsement Styles on Electronic Word-of-Mouth Persuasiveness By J. Liao; S. He; W. Feng; R. Filieri
  48. Income Receipt, Economic Activities, and Health: Evidence from Ambulance Transport Patterns By Yoko Ibuka; Junya Hamaaki
  49. Misallocation and manufacturing TFP in Colombia By Camacho, Adriana; Conover, Emily; Scrimgeour, Dean
  50. The Dynamic Effects of Local Labor Market Shocks on Small Firms in The United States By Mr. Philip Barrett; Sophia Chen; Ms. Li Lin; Miss Anke Weber
  51. Schooling and Political Activism in the Early Civil Rights Era By Daniel Aaronson; Mark Borgschulte; Sunny Liu; Bhashkar Mazumder
  52. Understanding and addressing socioeconomic participation gaps in Higher Education in England By Paul Martin
  53. Reflections on the Performance of Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) and the Need for their Revitalization on the lines of Enhanced Access and Service Excellence (EASE) By Kumar B, Dr Pradeep Kumar B

  1. By: Matthew Staiger; Giordano Palloni; John Voorheis
    Abstract: The HOPE VI Revitalization program sought to transform high-poverty neighborhoods into mixed-income communities through the demolition of public housing projects and the construction of new housing. We use longitudinal administrative data to investigate how the program affected both neighborhoods and individual residential outcomes. In line with the stated objectives, we find that the program reduced poverty rates in targeted neighborhoods and enabled subsidized renters to live in lower-poverty neighborhoods, on average. The primary beneficiaries were not the original neighborhood residents, most of whom moved away. Instead, subsidized renters who moved into the neighborhoods after an award experienced the largest reductions in neighborhood poverty. The program reduced the stock of public housing in targeted neighborhoods but expanded access to housing vouchers in other, lower-poverty neighborhoods. Spillover effects on the poverty rates of other neighborhoods were small and dispersed throughout the city. Our estimates imply that cities that revitalized half of their public housing stock reduced the average neighborhood poverty rate among all subsidized renters by 4.1 percentage points.
    Keywords: Neighborhood Revitalization, Place-Based Policies, Segregation
    JEL: I38 R23 R28
    Date: 2024–03
  2. By: Alina Arefeva; Kay Jowers; Qihui Hu; Christopher Timmins
    Abstract: We provide evidence of intensified discriminatory behavior by landlords in the rental housing market during the eviction moratoria instituted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data collected from an experiment that involved more than 25, 000 inquiries of landlords in the 50 largest cities in the United States in the spring and summer of 2020, our analysis shows that the implementation of an eviction moratorium significantly disadvantaged African Americans in the housing search process. A housing search model explains this result, showing that discrimination is worsened when landlords cannot evict tenants for the duration of the eviction moratorium.
    JEL: J15 R31 R38
    Date: 2024–03
  3. By: Natee Amornsiripanitch; Philip E. Strahan; Song Zhang; Xiang Zheng
    Abstract: In 2021, the U.S. Treasury reduced Government Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs) exposure to speculative mortgages. As a result, GSE purchases fell by about 20 percentage points. The policy reduced credit to speculative investors in housing, but increased credit to unaffected parts of the conforming-mortgage market. Banks responded by reallocating provision of speculative mortgage credit across their local markets, which in turn affected their provision of small business credit. These adjustments are most pronounced where banks do not own branches. The results suggest that banks manage credit provision not only in a macro sense – the focus of most research – but also market-by-market.
    JEL: G28
    Date: 2024–03
  4. By: Steve Agnew (University of Canterbury); Tom Coupé (University of Canterbury); Cassia Hingston
    Abstract: The sample used for this study followed an entire cohort of over 40, 000 students through their compulsory education in New Zealand. A previously developed econometric model explaining higher rates of school exclusions for Pacific learners (an ethnic group over-represented in lower SES, higher rates of SEN, and greater rates of school exclusion) is applied to a large cohort of indigenous Māori and Pākehā learners in this study. Significant variables in the model that predict Pākehā learner school exclusion are very similar to those predicting Māori learner school exclusion. However, after accounting for variables identified in the literature as correlated with school exclusion, Māori learners are still more likely to be excluded, are more likely to be excluded more often, and are more likely to be excluded earlier than their Pākehā peers. One possible explanation of this result is that the Pygmalion Effect of teachers having lower expectations of Māori students (Blank et al, 2016) may also contribute to higher rates of school exclusion. Māori students have previously reported lower rates of belonging at school. One implication of this may be the need for a cheaper, faster way for families or advocates to appeal the decision made to exclude a learner by local principals or Boards of Trustees. This is in contrast to the current system of recourse through the court system, which can be an expensive and time-consuming process.
    Keywords: School exclusion; ethnicity, Māori, indigenous people
    JEL: I21 I24 I28 J15
    Date: 2024–03–01
  5. By: Diego Buitrago-Mora (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona); Miquel-Àngel Garcia-López (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB)
    Abstract: Between 2015 and 2017, the Law of Heights (Policy-562) regulated areas of urban renewal in specific locations of Bogotá (Colombia). Using a novel dataset based on detailed information at the block level between 2008 and 2017, we study whether this policy affected real estate prices. Our empirical strategy compares the price per square meter before and after Policy562 in treated blocks and in control blocks with similar pre-treatment traits. Results show that prices increased more in treated blocks than in the rest of the city. We also provide evidence that results are heterogeneous from a temporal, land use and strata point of view.
    Keywords: Real estate prices, land regulations
    JEL: R14 R31 R58
    Date: 2023
  6. By: Lelys Dinarte-Diaz
    Abstract: Globally, 150 million adolescents report being victims of or engaging in peer-to-peer violence in and around school. One strategy to reduce this risk is to occupy youth in after-school programs (ASP). Yet, the question remains: how does peer group composition affect the effectiveness of an ASP? I address this question by randomly assigning youths to either a control, homogeneous, or heterogeneous peer group within an ASP implemented in El Salvador. I find that, unlike homo-geneous groups, heterogeneous peer groups do help students avoid violence. These results are relevant to public policy discussions on optimal group composition for violence reduction programs
    Keywords: peer effects, violence, integration, tracking, after-school programs
    JEL: I29 K42 Z13
    Date: 2024
  7. By: Yang, Yu (Alan)
    Abstract: How to allocate college seats across regions is an important yet largely neglected issue. It may imply a policy tradeoff between efficiency in aggregate human capital production and equality of opportunities for people growing up in different places. Furthermore, the flow of college attendance, resulting from the geography of college seats, also impacts the spatial distribution of skilled workers through post-college migration and regional inequality in future development. This paper studies this tradeoff between efficiency and multidimensional inequality in the spatial allocation of college seats by focusing on the province-based college admission quotas in China, the largest college market in the world. Combining national administrative data and surveys, I estimate a structural model of college and migration choice under quota constraints, together with a measurement model that can recover the nationally comparable distribution of pre-college human capital in each province. There are substantial skill gaps between college applicants across provinces, but this disparity is not well reflected in the allocated admission quotas. A purely merit-based nationwide admission increases aggregate human capital at the cost of worse college opportunities and substantially more severe brain drain in less developed regions, while equalized admission leads to the opposite outcome. Comparing the current quota system against the efficiency-equality frontier suggests that China places a larger policy weight toward a more equalized spatial supply of skilled labor.
    Keywords: Place-based college admission, human capital, spatial sorting, regional inequality
    JEL: I23 I24 J24 J61 R23
    Date: 2024–03–01
  8. By: Andrés Rodríguez-Pose; Zhuoying You;
    Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics are revolutionising production, yet their potential to stimulate innovation and change innovation patterns remains underexplored. This paper examines whether AI and robotics can spearhead technological innovation, with a particular focus on their capacity to deliver where other policies have mostly failed: less developed cities and regions. We resort to OLS and IV-2SLS methods to probe the direct and moderating influences of AI and robotics on technological innovation across 270 Chinese cities. We further employ quantile regression analysis to assess their impacts on innovation in more and less innovative cities. The findings reveal that AI and robotics significantly promote technological innovation, with a pronounced impact in cities at or below the technological frontier. Additionally, the use of AI and robotics improves the returns of investment in science and technology (S&T) on technological innovation. AI and robotics moderating effects are often more pronounced in less innovative cities, meaning that AI and robotics are not just powerful instruments for the promotion of innovation but also effective mechanisms to reduce the yawning gap in regional innovation between Chinese innovation hubs and the rest of the country.
    Keywords: AI, robotics, China, technological innovation, territorial inequality
    Date: 2024–04
  9. By: Steve Agnew (University of Canterbury); Tom Coupé (University of Canterbury); Cassia Hingston
    Abstract: This study analysed a cohort of over 43, 000 students from their first day of school in 2008 to the end of their compulsory schooling in New Zealand in 2018. Data was collected from a range of linked national datasets collated by Stats NZ, New Zealand's official data agency. Variables were categorised into demographic, socioeconomic status (SES), learning support, family climate and parental education categories. These categories and the variables within them were identified in a review of the school exclusion literature. Pacific learners, a group over-represented in school exclusion rates in New Zealand were compared to Pākehā (New Zealand European) learners. Regression analysis established that once variables identified in the literature were accounted for, there was no significant difference in rates of exclusion between Pacific and Pākehā learners. One of the key explanatory variables for the higher rates of Pacific learner school exclusion is receiving English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) support. In this research, receiving ESOL support is suggested to be a proxy for identifying a student with language difficulties. The level of ESOL funding provided to schools, as well as how the funding is applied within each school to address ESOL Pacific learner needs is then discussed.
    Keywords: School exclusion; Pacific learners, ESOL
    JEL: I21 I24 I28 J15 J18
    Date: 2024–03–01
  10. By: Oded Galor; Marc Kemp; Daniel C. Wainstock
    Abstract: Evidence suggests that the prehistoric out-of-Africa Migration has impacted the degree of intra-population genetic and phenotypic diversity across the globe. This paper provides the first evidence that this migration has shaped cultural diversity. Leveraging a folklore catalogue of 958 oral traditions across the world, we find that ethnic groups further away from East Africa along the migratory routes have lower folkloric diversity. This pattern is consistent with the compression of genetic, phenotypic, and phonemic traits along the out-of-Africa migration routes, setting conditions for the emergence and proliferation of differential cultural diversity and economic development across the world.
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Julián Messina (University of Alicante & IZA); Anna Sanz-de-Galdeano (University of Alicante & IZA); Anastasia Terskaya (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB)
    Abstract: Utilizing comprehensive administrative data from Brazil, we investigate the impact of peer effects on wages, considering both within-gender and cross-gender dynamics. Since the average productivity of both individuals and their peers is unobservable, we estimate these values using worker fixed effects while accounting for occupational and firm sorting. Our findings reveal that within-gender peer effects have approximately twice the influence of cross-gender peer effects on wages for both males and females. Furthermore, we observe a reduction in the disparity between these two types of peer effects in settings characterized by greater gender equality.
    Keywords: Peer effects; Gender; Matched employer-employee data; Identity; Wage determination
    JEL: J16 J24 J31 M12 M54
    Date: 2023
  12. By: Ardyn Nordstrom; Morgan Nordstrom; Matthew D. Webb
    Abstract: This paper details an innovative methodology to integrate image data into traditional econometric models. Motivated by forecasting sales prices for residential real estate, we harness the power of deep learning to add "information" contained in images as covariates. Specifically, images of homes were categorized and encoded using an ensemble of image classifiers (ResNet-50, VGG16, MobileNet, and Inception V3). Unique features presented within each image were further encoded through panoptic segmentation. Forecasts from a neural network trained on the encoded data results in improved out-of-sample predictive power. We also combine these image-based forecasts with standard hedonic real estate property and location characteristics, resulting in a unified dataset. We show that image-based forecasts increase the accuracy of hedonic forecasts when encoded features are regarded as additional covariates. We also attempt to "explain" which covariates the image-based forecasts are most highly correlated with. The study exemplifies the benefits of interdisciplinary methodologies, merging machine learning and econometrics to harness untapped data sources for more accurate forecasting.
    Date: 2024–03
  13. By: Leogrande, Angelo
    Abstract: In this article I analyzed the propensity for patenting in Italian regions through the use of ISTAT-BES data. The static analysis shows the presence of a significant gap between the northern regions and the southern regions in the period between 2004 and 2019. The econometric analysis applied with panel models highlights the relationships that the propensity to patent has with respect to the determinants of innovation systems at regional level. The results are critically discussed with economic policy recommendations.
    Keywords: Innovation, Innovation and Invention, Management of Technological Innovation and R&D, Technological Change, Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
    JEL: O30 O31 O32 O33 O34
    Date: 2024–03–24
  14. By: Montserrat Botey; Guillaume Chapelle (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, THEMA)
    Abstract: The dramatic rise in wealth inequalities has generated debates on the oppor- tunity to tax wealth (Piketty, 2014; Garbinti et al., 2017). Increasing housing prices are, to a great extent, driving these widening wealth disparities. This paper examines the potential redistributive impact of taxing imputed rents, which usually are exempt from income taxation. We estimate tax savings and their distribution between households in France by using a fiscal simulator that Landais et al. (2011) developed. We find that while net imputed rents represent 7% of national net income, their nontaxation amounts to hidden fiscal spending (i.e., tax expenditures) totaling up to 11 billion euros annually. This indicates that nontaxation is the largest public spending directed at homeowners, bene- fiting mostly the oldest and wealthiest households. Replacing the property tax with imputed rent taxation could favor the youngest and poorest households, who went through a steady decline in their homeownership rates over the past few decades.
    Keywords: Housing, Wealth, Imputed Rents, Taxation , Inequalities
    JEL: H23 R38 D31 I31 I32
    Date: 2023
  15. By: Marta Cignetti; Mario Piacentini
    Abstract: Students are much more than their grades. Beyond performing well in school, students must learn to manage their relationships with others, confront stress, find purpose in what they do, and deal with a series of factors oftentimes beyond their control – all of this, during a particularly sensitive period of their lives. How they do across all these dimensions of life shapes their well-being, which in turn affects their school performance and their life outcomes beyond school. In 2015, PISA broke new ground by including indicators of student well-being alongside traditional measures of academic performance. However, the data on student well-being often remain overshadowed by country and economy scores in mathematics, science, and reading - traditionally considered the primary outputs of PISA.This paper presents a proposal to increase the visibility and policy impact of PISA indicators on well-being, by organising them in thematic areas and presenting them through data visualisations that respond to the needs of different kinds of users. The proposed PISA dashboard on students’ well-being has the potential to offer policy makers, educators, parents, and other stakeholders a comparative perspective on how well schools are fostering the essential foundations for students to lead fulfilling lives.
    Date: 2024–04–12
  16. By: Bridget Kauma (University of Sussex); Giordano Mion (ESSEC Business School)
    Keywords: Firm-level dataset, Merging, BSD, FAME, VAT, FICUS, FARE, Productivity, Markups, UK, France, regional disparities, density
    JEL: R12 D24
    Date: 2023–11
  17. By: Carlo Perroni (University of Warwick); Kimberly Scharf (University of Nottingham); Sarah Smith (University of Bristol); Oleksandr Talavera (University of Birmingham); Linh Vi (Aston University)
    Abstract: Combining longitudinal postcode-level data on charitable donations made through a UK giving portal with publicly available data on local crime and neighborhood characteristics, we study the relationship between local crime and local residents' charitable giving and we investigate the possible mechanisms underlying this relationship. An increase in local crime corresponds to a sizeable increase in the overall size of unscheduled charitable donations. This effect is mainly driven by the responses of female and gender unclassified donors. Donation responses also reflect postcode variation in socio-economic characteristics, levels of mental health, and political leanings, but mainly so for female and gender-unidentified donors.
    Keywords: Charitable Donations, Prosocial Behavior, Crime
    JEL: H41 D64 D91 J15
    Date: 2024–04
  18. By: van Heur, Bas
    Abstract: Although still a niche within established disciplines, research on urban vacancy has boomed in recent decades, with different research communities investigating different dimensions of vacancy. However, these communities rarely communicate with each other, leading to parallel debates, different conceptual vocabularies and diverging empirical foci. This becomes particularly problematic in the current era, which is best characterized not simply as an ’urban age’, but as one in which city regions find themselves at the heart of economic, ecological and societal crises that are reshaping our world. Vacant spaces can be understood as symptoms of these crises, but also as actually existing and potential sites for experimentation, prefiguring new and more sustainable ways of urban living. To develop this perspective conceptually and empirically, the current paper offers a synthetic review of the existing literature, with a specific focus on the European context. Cutting across different research domains, the paper concludes by proposing an interdisciplinary research agenda on urban vacancy.
    Date: 2024–03–26
  19. By: Ana Hernández Kent; Lowell R. Ricketts
    Abstract: The wealth of U.S. millennials and older Gen Zers grew at an unusually fast pace from 2019 to 2022, with real estate gains driving overall asset growth.
    Keywords: wealth; millennials; Generation Z; real estate
    Date: 2024–02–26
  20. By: Raquel Carrasco; Diego González-González
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of childhood obesity on the academic performance and human capital accumulation of high school students using data from Spain. To address potential endogeneity issues, we exploit the exogenous variation in obesity within peer groups. Specifically, we use the prevalence of obesity by gender in students’ classes as an instrumental variable for individual obesity. The results indicate that obesity has a negative impact on academic achievement, particularly on general scores for girls, cognitive abilities as measured by CRT scores, financial abilities, and English grades for both boys and girls. In addition, we found a negative impact of obesity on girls’ mathematics scores, while boys experienced a positive impact. We identify several key drivers of these effects, including teacher bias, psychological well-being, time preferences, and expectations related to labor market discrimination. Our analysis sheds light on the multiple influences of childhood obesity on academic outcomes and highlights the need for targeted interventions.
    Date: 2024–04
  21. By: Jessie Bruhn; Christopher Campos; Eric Chen
    Abstract: We study the distributional effects of remote learning. Our approach combines newly collected data on parental preferences with administrative data from Los Angeles. The preference data allow us to account for selection into remote learning while also studying selection patterns and treatment effect heterogeneity. We find a negative average effect of remote learning on reading (–0.14σ) and math (–0.17σ). Notably, we find evidence of positive learning effects for children whose parents have the strongest demand for remote learning. Our results suggest an important subset of students who currently sort into post-pandemic remote learning benefit from expanded choice.
    Date: 2023
  22. By: López, Rigoberto A.; Seoane, Luis
    Abstract: The meatpacking industry is a crucial intermediary between ranchers and the downstream supply chain, and concentration within the industry has significant implications for stakeholders in terms of competition and transmission of efficiencies. Due to constraints on the efficient transportation of live animals over long distances, ranchers primarily operate within regional markets. In this paper we provide new knowledge about the degree of regional concentration in the beef packing industry and propose a model to examine its impact on the wholesale farm-price spread. Findings indicate a significant increase in concentration across all regions, with some regions experiencing up to a 300 percent rise in the Herfindahl index, although concentration levels vary considerably among the different regions.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2024–04
  23. By: Leogrande, Angelo
    Abstract: In the following article I take into consideration the role of knowledge workers in the Italian regions. The analysed data refers to the ISTAT-BES database. The metric analysis consists of an in-depth analysis of the trends of the regions and macro-regions, followed by clustering with the k-Means algorithm, the application of machine learning algorithms for prediction, and the presentation of an econometric model with panel methods date. The results are also critically discussed in light of the North-South divide and the economic policy implications.
    Date: 2024–03–29
  24. By: David Gomtsyan (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: Weak financial institutions may affect developing countries due to slowing the much-needed construction process of residential housing. Using novel data collected from Nairobi, I document considerable variation in the construction duration of new residential buildings, with about 40% of buildings started in 2009 still unfinished in 2018. To understand the role of financial development in cities and urbanization, I develop a model with financial frictions in which households construct individual housing units. Quantitative exercises show that improvements in credit provision can substantially speed up the expansion of the housing stock and increase the city's density by enabling the construction of taller buildings.
    Abstract: Des institutions financières faibles peuvent affecter les pays en développement en ralentissant le processus de construction des logements résidentiels dont ils ont tant besoin. En utilisant de nouvelles données collectées à Nairobi, notre étude met en évidence des variations considérables dans la durée de construction des nouveaux bâtiments résidentiels. 40% des bâtiments commencés en 2009 sont toujours inachevés en 2018. Pour comprendre le rôle du développement financier dans l'urbanisation, nous avons développé un modèle avec des frictions financières dans lequel les ménages construisent des unités de logements individuels. Les exercices quantitatifs montrent que l'amélioration de l'offre de crédit peut considérablement accélérer l'expansion du parc immobilier, et augmenter la densité de la ville en permettant la construction d'immeubles plus hauts.
    Keywords: Urban growth, Housing investment, Financial frictions, Croissance urbaine, Investissement résidentiel, Frictions financières
    Date: 2024–03–25
  25. By: Ricardo Santos; Sam Jones; Gimelgo Xirinda
    Abstract: High youth unemployment rates and long school-to-work transition times pose a threat to low-income countries' sustainable growth prospects. Using a randomized control trial experiment conducted in Mozambique, we find strong evidence that providing information on wages and unemployment reduces the time that university graduate job-seekers take to become employed, with different levels of efficacy depending on the type of information provided.
    Keywords: School-to-Work, Labour, Information, Randomized controlled trial
    Date: 2024
  26. By: Fabian Scheifele; David Popp
    Abstract: Support from local citizens is important for the scale-up of renewable energy. We investigate the impact of utility-scale wind and solar parks on employment, GDP and public finances in Brazilian municipalities using a difference-in-differences design with matching. We find a positive employment impact of 1-1.5 jobs/MW in the 15 months preceding the commissioning of a solar park, when the park is under construction, but no impacts thereafter. For wind, we find no employment impacts during the construction phase and potentially a small impact of 0.2-0.25 jobs/MW in the 12 months following commissioning. In the year after commissioning, GDP increases 23% for an average sized solar park and 12% for an average sized wind project. The impacts only decrease slightly in the following years. We also find significant persistent fiscal revenue impacts in wind compared to only a one-time tax revenue increase in solar at the time of construction. Our results provide different implications for policymakers that want to advocate for renewable energy in their towns. While for solar, the main benefit constitutes a short-term increase in low-skilled employment and public revenues, wind energy provides more long-term financial benefits but less local employment opportunities.
    JEL: E24 H71 J21 O13 O14 Q52
    Date: 2024–03
  27. By: Sergiu Burlacu; Davide Azzolini; Federico Podestà
    Abstract: We evaluate a multi-faceted intervention aimed at improving social inclusion and reducing prejudice against individuals with visual impairment. The intervention, randomly assigned to upper-secondary school students, consists of an awareness-raising activity and a simulationbased inter-group contact activity. While we find positive effects on knowledge of visual impairment, perspective-taking and empathic concerns, and general societal attitudes toward persons with visual impairment, no improvements are observed in terms of implicit attitudes or multidimensional attitudes. Moreover, the intervention does not improve outcomes measured through incentivized choices, such as the willingness to pay for social interaction with persons with visual impairment, beliefs regarding their performance and outcomes in various domains, and altruism towards them. The evidence suggests that assessing impacts only on knowledge and general attitudes, as is commonly done in the literature, may not suffice to determine the extent to which such interventions are successful at improving social inclusion for persons with visual or other forms of impairment.
    Keywords: Disability, Social Inclusion, Discrimination, Inter-group contact
    JEL: I24 I31 J14 J18 P36
    Date: 2024–04
  28. By: Enzo Brox; Michael Lechner
    Abstract: This article shows how coworker performance affects individual performance evaluation in a teamwork setting at the workplace. We use high-quality data on football matches to measure an important component of individual performance, shooting performance, isolated from collaborative effects. Employing causal machine learning methods, we address the assortative matching of workers and estimate both average and heterogeneous effects. There is substantial evidence for spillover effects in performance evaluations. Coworker shooting performance, meaningfully impacts both, manager decisions and third-party expert evaluations of individual performance. Our results underscore the significant role coworkers play in shaping career advancements and highlight a complementary channel, to productivity gains and learning effects, how coworkers impact career advancement. We characterize the groups of workers that are most and least affected by spillover effects and show that spillover effects are reference point dependent. While positive deviations from a reference point create positive spillover effects, negative deviations are not harmful for coworkers.
    Date: 2024–03
  29. By: Choi, S.; Goyal, S.; Guo, F.; Moisan, F.
    Abstract: This paper presents experimental evidence on games where individuals can unilaterally decide on their links with each other. Linking decisions give rise to directed graphs. We consider two classes of situations: one, benefits flow along the direction of the network paths (one-way flow), and two, when the benefits flow on network paths without regard to the direction of links (two-way flow). Our experiments reveal that in the one-way flow model subjects create sparse networks whose distance grows and efficiency falls as group size grows; by contrast, in the two-way flow model subjects create sparse and small world networks whose efficiency remains high in both small and large groups. We show that a bounded rational model that combines myopic best response with targeting a most connected individual provides a coherent account of our experimental data.
    Keywords: Data, Group Size, Network Formation, Network Games, Networks
    Date: 2024–03–26
  30. By: Brian Jonghwan Lee
    Abstract: The author studies how bankruptcy law firm advertisements affect credit recovery of households in financial distress. Exploiting the border discontinuity strategy associated with the geographic unit in which local TV advertisements are sold, the author empirically uncovers bankruptcy filings and credit recovery related to exogenous variations in bankruptcy law firm advertisements. The author first documents a significant advertising effect on filing rates and shows that advertising-induced filers are similar to existing filers. The author then finds a positive effect of advertisements on credit outcomes including credit score, new homeownership, and foreclosure. The author interprets these findings as evidence that lawyers address information frictions in households’ assessment of the bankruptcy option.
    Keywords: Personal bankruptcy; lawyers; intermediaries; advertising
    JEL: G51 K35 M37
    Date: 2024–04–08
  31. By: Pierre-Loup Beauregard
    Abstract: Gentrification is associated with rapid demographic changes within inner-city neighborhoods. While many fear that gentrification drives low-income people from their homes and communities, there is limited evidence of the consequences of these changes. I use Canadian administrative tax files to track the movements of incumbent workers and their income trajectory as their neighborhood gentrifies. I exploit the timing at which neighborhoods gentrify in a matched staggered event-study framework. I find no evidence of displacement effects, even for low socioeconomic status households. In fact, families living in gentrifying neighborhoods are more likely to stay longer. I suggest that this might be related to tenant rights protection laws. When they endogenously decide to leave, low-income families do not relocate to worse neighborhoods. Finally, I find no adverse effects on their income trajectory, suggesting no repercussions on their labor market outcomes.
    Date: 2024–03
  32. By: Alexander Berry; Elizabeth M. Maloney; David Neumark
    Abstract: Stronger enforcement of discrimination laws can help to reduce disparities in economic outcomes with respect to race, ethnicity, and gender in the United States. However, the data necessary to detect possible discrimination and to act to counter it is not publicly available – in particular, data on racial, ethnic, and gender disparities within specific companies. In this paper, we explore and develop methods to use information extracted from publicly available LinkedIn data to measure the racial, ethnic, and gender composition of company workforces. We use predictive tools based on both names and pictures to identify race, ethnicity, and gender. We show that one can use LinkedIn data to obtain reasonably reliable measures of workforce demographic composition by race, ethnicity, and gender, based on validation exercises comparing estimates from scraped LinkedIn data to two sources – ACS data, and company diversity or EEO-1 reports. Next, we apply our methods to study the race, ethnic, and gender composition of workers who were hired and those who experienced mass layoffs at two large companies. Finally, we explore using LinkedIn data to measure race, ethnic, and gender differences in promotion.
    JEL: J15 J16 J7
    Date: 2024–03
  33. By: Raphael Brade; Oliver Himmler; Robert Jaeckle; Philipp Weinschenk
    Abstract: To study whether a soft commitment device can help students succeed, we conduct a randomized field experiment and follow a cohort of tertiary students over six years. Students can commit to following their recommended study program structure, and they receive reminders each semester. This easily implementable, low-cost intervention is highly effective: it increases the five-year graduation rate (+15 percentage points) and reduces time to graduation (-0.42 semesters), driven by reduced dropout and an increase in credits obtained per semester. The effects are stronger for suspected procrastinators. A treatment only reminding students to follow the program structure has limited effects.
    Keywords: commitment device, reminders, higher education, randomized field experiment
    JEL: I21 I23 C93 D90 D91
    Date: 2024
  34. By: Backes, Annika; Müller, Steffen
    Abstract: We provide first evidence for the long-run causal impact that Chinese imports to European regions had on voting outcomes and revisit earlier estimates of the short-run impact for a methodological reason. The fringes of the political spectrum gained ground many years after the China shock plateaued and, unlike an earlier study by Colantone and Stanig (2018b), we do not find any robust evidence for a short-run effect on far-right votes. Instead, far-left and populist parties gained in the short run. We identify persistent long-run effects of import shocks on voting. These effects are biased towards populism and, to a lesser extent, to the far-right.
    Keywords: globalization, import shocks, populism, voting behavior
    JEL: D72 F6 J2
    Date: 2024
  35. By: Heikkuri, Suvi (Unit for Economic History, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: This paper documents the evolution of wage differentials between skilled and unskilled workers in Sweden throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Using newly digitized data on income taxes, this paper demonstrates that the skill premium decreased throughout 1900–1950, and most rapidly from 1930 onward. This is similar to the fall in skill premium documented by Goldin and Katz for the United States. However, unlike in the United States, the fall in skill premia in Sweden cannot be attributed to a supply shock of high school graduates. Rather, this paper shows that incomes of the low- and unskilled increased faster than those for more-skilled. Despite of similar technological change and rapid economic development, Sweden did not exhibit a comparable rise in high school education as the United States. The paper suggests other mechanisms for the falling skill premium in Sweden, such as informal schooling, emigration, and trade union activity.
    Keywords: Skill premium; industrialization; Sweden; income inequality
    JEL: J24 J30 N34
    Date: 2024–04–04
  36. By: Gupta, Pallavi
    Abstract: This paper examines the geographical distribution of multidimensional poverty in rural and urban India for the year 2021, utilising secondary data sourced from the NITI Aayog report 2021 based on the NFHS-4 dataset. The 2021 MPI, based on Alkire and Foster methodology, encompasses three dimensions—health, education, and standard of living—comprising twelve indicators. An in-depth analysis of interstate deprivation across diverse indicators within the rural and urban Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) highlights heightened levels of deprivation in economically challenged states like Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Jharkhand. A comprehensive decomposition analysis has been undertaken to identify the principal contributors to multidimensional poverty. The outcomes emphasise the critical role of health as a pivotal dimension, with nutrition emerging as the foremost factor influencing the overall MPI in both rural and urban contexts. These findings underscore the necessity for targeted policies aimed at poverty eradication, with a specific focus on strategic interventions in health and nutrition. The insights offer valuable perspectives for development planners and policymakers, contributing to a nuanced understanding of the intricate patterns of multidimensional poverty across Indian states.
    Keywords: multidimensional poverty index (MPI), rural and urban poverty, spatial pattern of poverty, deprivation, decomposition of poverty, NFHS-4.
    JEL: I32 I38 J11
    Date: 2023–10–07
  37. By: Allan, Stephen
    Abstract: Context: Hundreds of thousands of people in England with long-term care needs are supported by more than 10, 000 home care agencies. However, little is known about the market dynamics of home care supply, either in England or internationally. Objective: To understand the reasons for home care agency closure in England. Method: Regression analysis of the future status of home care agencies open in the period 2015–2017 using a panel dataset of 98% of all agencies registered to provide care in England. Measures of quality, competition and other local area demand and supply factors, e.g. population, needs and rurality, were included in the analysis. Instrumental variable methods were used to address endogeneity in the relationship between closure and both competition and quality. Findings: Fourteen point two per cent of home care agencies had closed one year after observation, with some differences observed by region. Regression analysis confirmed that higher competition and lower quality significantly increased closure likelihood. A new agency locating immediately next to the average provider would increase the likelihood of closure of the existing agency by a quarter. Independent agencies and those which supported a local population with higher needs had significantly reduced chance of closure. Limitations: There were data limitations to the analysis, with no information on size of agencies and assumptions made on where they delivered care. Implications: Competitive effects in home care markets must be carefully considered given the importance of ensuring equitable access to care. The findings also confirm the importance of quality regulation in long-term care.
    Keywords: competition; quality; home care; business; closure; PR-PRU1217–21101
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2024–03–07
  38. By: Emre Oral; Simon Rabaté; Arthur Seibold
    Abstract: We study the influence of family members, neighbors and coworkers on retirement behavior. To estimate causal retirement spillovers between individuals, we exploit a pension reform in the Netherlands that creates exogenous variation in peers’ retirement ages, and we use administrative data on the full Dutch population. We find large spillovers in couples, primarily due to women reacting to their husband’s retirement choices. Consistent with homophily in social interactions, the influence of the average sibling, neighbor and coworker is modest, but sizable spillovers emerge between similar individuals in these groups. Additional evidence suggests both leisure complementarities and the transmission of social norms as mechanisms behind retirement spillovers. Our findings imply that pension reforms have a large social multiplier, amplifying their overall impact on retirement behavior by 40%.
    Keywords: retirement, pension reform, social networks, spillover, peer effects
    JEL: D91 H55 J26
    Date: 2024
  39. By: Phoebe Tian; Chen Zheng
    Abstract: We study the unintended effects of the Home Affordable Refinance Program (HARP) on mortgage borrowers. Originally designed to help financially distressed borrowers refinance after the 2008–09 global financial crisis, HARP inadvertently amplified the market power of incumbent lenders by introducing a cost differential between incumbents and their competitors. To assess the welfare implications of this cost advantage, we develop and estimate a structural model of dynamic refinancing decisions with lenders’ offers arising from a search and negotiation process. Our findings reveal that although the cost asymmetry was rectified by a 2013 policy, it still resulted in a welfare loss exceeding the impact of search frictions
    Keywords: Financial institutions
    JEL: G21 G51 L51
    Date: 2024–04
  40. By: Tryfonas Christou (European Commission - JRC); Abian Garcia Rodriguez (European Commission - JRC); Tillmann Heidelk (European Commission – DG REGIO); Nicholas Lazarou (European Commission - JRC); Philippe Monfort (European Commission – DG REGIO); Simone Salotti (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The European cohesion policy aims to achieve balanced and sustainable development by reducing disparities between the European Union (EU) regions. The macroeconomic impact of the policy materialises through both short-term (mostly demand-side) and long-term (supply-side) effects. General equilibrium models such as RHOMOLO can be used to assess these effects. The budget allocated to cohesion policy for the period 2014-2020 is €356 billion (€405 billion with REACT-EU) and €376 billion for the period 2021-2027. This Insight summarises the results of an analysis that takes into account the funds allocated in two consecutive programming periods, as financial support is never interrupted between them. By 2030, each euro invested in the 2014-2020 and 2021-2027 programmes will have generated 1.3 euros of additional GDP in the EU, and will have almost tripled in 2043. Cohesion policy promotes internal convergence and reduces regional disparities not only at the EU level, but also within Member States.
    Keywords: rhomolo, region, growth, cohesion policy
    JEL: C68 R13
    Date: 2024–03
  41. By: Darova, Ornella; Duchene, Anne
    Abstract: We run two field experiments on team diversity in a large undergraduate economics class. Small groups with random compositions are generated and assigned team tasks. In the first experiment, tasks are creative and complex, while in the second one they are more standard. We use a multidimensional measure of diversity based on gender, race, and migration status. We estimate its impact on teamwork quality and group performance. We find a significant U-shaped effect on teamwork quality in both experiments. However, the impact on performance depends on the type of task: it is positive for creative tasks, but negative for standard ones. We interpret these results as the consequence of two conflicting forces: diversity is a source of creativity, but it can hamper communication and coordination between team members. When tasks are creative, the first (positive) force dominates; for standard tasks, instead, communication challenges do. The U-shaped impact on teamwork quality suggests that faultlines – dividing lines that split a group into subgroups based on demographic characteristics – can cause inter-subgroup cohesion to break down, while very homogeneous or very heterogeneous groups collaborate better. These results allow us to build a comprehensive framework to better understand the impact of diversity on teamwork.
    Keywords: Diversity, Knowledge Production, Creativity, Teamwork, Education
    JEL: A22 I21 J15
    Date: 2024–01–15
  42. By: Mohamadian, Mehdi (Provincial Health Service Authority of British Columbia); Javdani, Mohsen (Simon Fraser University); Heroux-Legault, Maxime (University of British Columbia, Okanagan)
    Abstract: We explore the evolution and determinants of attitudes towards immigration in Canada, utilizing Canadian Election Studies surveys from 1988 to 2019. Our analysis indicates a notable trend: a consistent decrease in anti-immigrant sentiments until the mid-2000s, followed by a shift around 2008 towards gradually more negative attitudes towards immigration. To better understand the factors influencing these attitudes, we examine a comprehensive set of variables. While economic factors seem to have some association with these attitudes, our findings more significantly underscore the role of group-level socio-psychological factors. Additionally, our analysis identifies an emerging polarization along political party lines beginning around 2006. Assessing the relative impact of these factors, our analysis suggests that political party identification has become increasingly significant in influencing attitudes toward immigration.
    Keywords: public attitudes towards immigration, socio-psychological factors, social identity, immigration
    JEL: J15 D72 Z13
    Date: 2024–04
  43. By: Juarez, Laura; Villaseñor, Paula
    Abstract: This paper estimates the effects of having children at home on the labor market outcomes of women in Mexico during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings suggest that women with children at home experienced some additional negative impacts on their labor supply immediately after school and daycare closures, compared to women without children. However, such impacts began to revert in the third quarter of 2020. One year after the onset of the pandemic, women with children increased their labor supply relatively more than women without them, despite ongoing school closures, suggesting a dominance of a negative income effect. Effects by the age of children are consistent with the reopening of daycare centers in 2020 not schools. We also find suggestive evidence that, for women employed both before and one year into the pandemic, having children at home induces industry changes and slightly decreases their job formality.
    Keywords: Covid-19; coronavirus; female labor supply; school closures
    JEL: J13 J22
    Date: 2024–03–05
  44. By: Makoto WATANABE; Christian Holzner
    Abstract: The Public Employment Agency (PEA) helps unemployed to find work and mediates PEA-registered job vacancies to job seekers via vacancy referrals. Using the spatial and temporal variation resulting from the regional roll-out of the Hartz 3 reform we are able to show that Hartz 3, which changed the counseling process of unemployed, decreased the fraction of unemployed that received vacancy referrals, increased the job-finding probability of unemployed without vacancy referrals, left the job-finding probability of unemployed with vacancy referrals unaffected, and increased average wages of newly hired, previously unemployed. Since the existing literature is not able to explain this set of findings, we develop a simple theoretical directed search model, which does. It does so by considering the interaction between the private market and the intermediation provided by the PEA.
    Date: 2024–03
  45. By: Andreu Arenas (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB); Caterina Calsamiglia (ICREA & IPEG & IZA)
    Abstract: The Gale-Shapley algorithm is one of the most popular college allocation mechanism around the world. A crucial policy question in its setting is designing admission priorities for students, understanding how they disadvantage certain demographic groups, and whether these differences are related to differences in college performance potential (i.e., whether these differences are fair). Studying a policy change in Spain, we find a negative e_ect of increasing the wei0ght of standardized high-stakes exams on female college admission scores, driven by students expected to be at the top. The effect on admission scores does not affect enrolment, but the percentage of female students in the most selective degrees declines, along with their career prospects. Using data on college performance of pre-reform cohorts, we find that female students most likely to lose from the reform tend to do better in college than male students expected to benefit from the reform. The results show that rewarding high-stakes performance in selection processes may come along with gender differences unrelated to the determinants of subsequent performance.
    Keywords: College Admissions, High-stakes Exams, Algorithmic Fairness, Gender Gaps
    JEL: J16 I23 I24
    Date: 2023
  46. By: Danyang Huang; Ziyi Kong; Shuyuan Wu; Hansheng Wang
    Abstract: Spatial autoregressive (SAR) models are important tools for studying network effects. However, with an increasing emphasis on data privacy, data providers often implement privacy protection measures that make classical SAR models inapplicable. In this study, we introduce a privacy-protected SAR model with noise-added response and covariates to meet privacy-protection requirements. However, in this scenario, the traditional quasi-maximum likelihood estimator becomes infeasible because the likelihood function cannot be formulated. To address this issue, we first consider an explicit expression for the likelihood function with only noise-added responses. However, the derivatives are biased owing to the noise in the covariates. Therefore, we develop techniques that can correct the biases introduced by noise. Correspondingly, a Newton-Raphson-type algorithm is proposed to obtain the estimator, leading to a corrected likelihood estimator. To further enhance computational efficiency, we introduce a corrected least squares estimator based on the idea of bias correction. These two estimation methods ensure both data security and the attainment of statistically valid estimators. Theoretical analysis of both estimators is carefully conducted, and statistical inference methods are discussed. The finite sample performances of different methods are demonstrated through extensive simulations and the analysis of a real dataset.
    Date: 2024–03
  47. By: J. Liao; S. He; W. Feng; R. Filieri (Audencia Business School)
    Abstract: Consumers usually endorse tourism products differently when sharing positive electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM). This research examines the relative persuasiveness of two endorsement styles, that is, explicit endorsement (e.g., ‘‘I recommend it'') and implicit endorsement (e.g., ‘‘I love it''). Drawing on the persuasion knowledge model, we propose that explicit endorsements are less persuasive than implicit endorsements because the former trigger stronger persuasion knowledge. We further argue that source trustworthiness mitigates the persuasion effect difference between the two endorsement styles. This article assesses these hypotheses across different sources (anonymous reviewers, friends, influencers), channels (online community, social commerce platform, social networking app), and products (hotels, restaurants) using secondary data analysis and two experiments. Three studies provide support for our hypotheses. By revealing the relationship between endorsement styles and eWOM persuasiveness, this article provides important implications for implementing effective product endorsement.
    Keywords: endorsement styles, electronic word-of-mouth, persuasion, source trustworthiness, persuasion knowledge, linguistic effects
    Date: 2024–04
  48. By: Yoko Ibuka (Faculty of Economics, Keio University); Junya Hamaaki (Faculty of Economics, Hosei University)
    Abstract: Studies suggest that mortality increases after income receipt. To examine whether the adverse effect of income on health is induced by economic activities and how certain economic activities are related to specific health conditions, we investigate withinmonth cycles in ambulance transport, utilizing detailed information on the locations of the origin and timing of the transports. Our analysis exploits the difference in the number of patients on the same day between payment and non-payment months, using the Japanese National Pension for the elderly that is distributed bi-monthly. We observe a 4.5% increase in ambulance transports on the day of pension payment, primarily attributed to heightened economic activities such as gambling or amusement, shopping, and dining out. We have suggestive evidence indicating that this increase in transport is linked to a relaxation in liquidity. These findings have implications for healthcare system preparedness and the optimal design of public benefit payment.
    Keywords: Emergency Medical Services, Social Security Payment, Time Stamp, Excess sensitivity
    JEL: H55 H75 I12
    Date: 2024–03–25
  49. By: Camacho, Adriana; Conover, Emily; Scrimgeour, Dean
    Abstract: Following Hsieh and Klenow (2009) this paper studies productivity dispersion in Colombian industrial establishments using the Colombian Annual Manufacturing Survey (AMS) from 1982 to 1998. We consider how much a hypothetical removal of firm-level distortions would increase manufacturing productivity in Colombia and compare it with the United States. We find that such a reallocation would increase manufacturing Total Factor Productivity (TFP) in Colombia around 15% more than in the United States in our baseline calibration. We find that distortions have been increasing over time. Productivity gains are larger if we use Colombia’s higher estimated elasticity of output with respect to capital. Furthermore we show that TFP is positively correlated with exporting status, age, size, and location in the Oriental region and the capital of the country.
    Keywords: reallocating factors of production; Colombia; Total Factor Productivity; manufacturing; misallocation
    JEL: O47 D24
    Date: 2024–03–04
  50. By: Mr. Philip Barrett; Sophia Chen; Ms. Li Lin; Miss Anke Weber
    Abstract: We use payroll data on over 1 million workers at 80, 000 small firms to construct county-month measures of employment, hours, and wages that correct for dynamic changes in sample composition in response to business cycle fluctuations. We use this to estimate the response of small firms' employment, hours and wages following tighter local labor market conditions. We find that employment and hours per worker fall and wages rise. This is consistent with the predictions of the response to a demand shock in the well-known “jobs ladder” model of labor markets. To check this interpretation, we show our results hold when instrumenting for local demand using county-level Department of Defense contract spending. Correction for dynamic sample bias is important -- without it, the hours fall by only one third as much and wages increase by double.
    Keywords: small firms; wages; hours; firm heterogeneity; privatesector establishment-level data; business cycle
    Date: 2024–03–22
  51. By: Daniel Aaronson; Mark Borgschulte; Sunny Liu; Bhashkar Mazumder
    Abstract: Does education lead to political engagement? The empirical literature is mixed. Theory suggests economic context matters. Individuals unable to take advantage of education in the labor market are more likely to engage in political activity. We find support for this channel during the rapid expansion of NAACP branches in the South around WWII. Branch growth was stronger where Black workers were denied returns to schooling due to Jim Crow occupational discrimination. We further show that a pre-1931 large-scale school construction program caused greater NAACP activity during the 1940s and 1950s when many former students were in their prime working years.
    Keywords: Education; Human capital
    JEL: I26 J7 N32
    Date: 2024–02–15
  52. By: Paul Martin (Centre for Education Policy and Equalising Opportunities, UCL Institute of Education, University College London)
    Abstract: The proportion of English school or college leavers who progress into HE has been increasing steadily over many decades (Crawford et al., 2016; Smith, 2018) and figures from the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) show that HE participation continued to increase in 2020 and 2021 during the height of the Covid-19 pandemic (UCAS, 2021a). More recently, UCAS has reported slight drops in application and acceptance figures for the 2022 and 2023 application cycles (UCAS, 2023), however any reduction in demand for HE during the remainder of the 2020s is likely to be at least offset by increasing numbers of 18 year olds within the population (Drayton et al., 2023). It is crucial that all young people, irrespective of their socioeconomic background, have a fair chance to access HE. If young people from poorer backgrounds are less able to access HE, this risks leading to the reproduction of inequalities across generations given that graduates earn more on average than their non-graduate counterparts (Britton et al., 2020), and also on average enjoy better health outcomes, longer life expectancies, a greater likelihood of civic engagement and a reduced likelihood of committing crime (Brennan et al., 2013).
    Keywords: higher education, widening participation
    JEL: I20 I24
    Date: 2024–04
  53. By: Kumar B, Dr Pradeep Kumar B
    Abstract: The decline in the Credit-Deposit Ratio in Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) over the years and the consequent increase in investment by RRBs in government securities and other approved securities clearly show that RRBs have deviated from their stated objective to a greater extent. In fact, RRBs are expected to cater to the credit needs of rural areas, and the lack of institutional organized credit supply in rural areas needs to be tackled with the active involvement of RRBs in the lending process. But, owing to the changes happening in the banking field especially since the onset of reforms, many RRBs have failed to live up to this spirit. Against this background, the Government of India has started attempts to reform the RRBs on the lines of the EASE (Enhanced Access and Service Excellence). With EASE being introduced to revitalize the RRBs in tune with technological changes and customer requirements, RRBs may be able to retain their position as the frontrunner of rural institutional finance in India.
    Keywords: Credit Deposit Ratio, Regional Rural Banks, EASE, Institutional Finance
    JEL: G21 G23
    Date: 2023–04–02

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