nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2023‒10‒09
forty-nine papers chosen by
Steve Ross, University of Connecticut

  1. Peer Effects Heterogeneity and Social Networks in Education By Livia Shkoza; Derya Uysal; Winfried Pohlmeier
  2. Returning to the City Center: The spread of teleworking and urban structure By IHARA Ryusuke
  3. Floating Population: Migration With(Out) Family and the Spatial Distribution of Economic Activity By Clément Imbert; Joan Monras; Marlon Seror; Yanos Zylberberg
  4. The Fast, the Slow, and the Congested: Urban Transportation in Rich and Poor Countries By Prottoy A. Akbar; Victor Couture; Gilles Duranton; Adam Storeygard
  5. Urban Renewal and Inequality: Evidence from Chicago’s Public Housing Demolitions By Milena Almagro; Eric Chyn; Bryan Stuart
  6. Evidence on the Determinants and Variation of Idiosyncratic Risk in Housing Markets By Lydia Cheung; Jaqueson K. Galimberti; Philip Vermeulen
  7. Suspended from Work and School? Impacts of Layoff Events and Unemployment Insurance on Student Disciplinary Incidence By Acton, Riley; Khafaji-King, Jo Al; Smith, Austin C.
  8. The Impact of Racial Segregation on College Attainment in Spatial Equilibrium By Victoria Gregory; Julian Kozlowski; Hannah Rubinton
  9. Equal Price for Equal Place? Demand-Driven Racial Discrimination in the Housing Market By Lepinteur, Anthony; Menta, Giorgia; Waltl, Sofie R.
  10. The Effects of Racial Segregation on Intergenerational Mobility: Evidence from Historical Railroad Placement By Eric Chyn; Kareem Haggag; Bryan Stuart
  11. The Effects of Mass Transit System on Urban Population Distribution:Evidence from Wuhan By Se-il MUN; Lei QIN; Yue ZHOU
  12. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Academic Achievement of Elementary and Junior High School Students: Analysis using administrative data from Amagasaki City By ASAKAWA Shinsuke; OHTAKE Fumio; SANO Shinpei
  13. Race and the Income-Achievement Gap By Bacic, Ryan; Zheng, Angela
  14. Evaluating Alternative Strategies for Traffic Reduction in Los Angeles By Bento, Antonio M; Hall, Jonathan D; Heilmann, Kilian
  15. The Fiscal Effect of Immigration: Reducing Bias in Influential Estimates By Michael A. Clemens
  16. The Effect of Immigration Policy on Founding Location Choice: Evidence from Canada's Start-up Visa Program By Saerom (Ronnie) Lee; Britta Glennon
  17. Girls’ Education at Scale By David K. Evans; Amina Mendez Acosta; Fei Yuan
  18. Labor mobility preconditions for the regional economic integration: Pros and cons from Macedonian perspective By Marjan Petreski; Despina Tumanoska
  19. Bit by Bit: Colocation and the Death of Distance in Software Developer Networks By Moritz Goldbeck
  20. Spreading active transportation: peer effects and key players in the workplace By Mathieu Lambotte; Sandrine Mathy; Anna Risch; Carole Treibich
  21. How not to Reduce Commission Rates of Real Estate Agents: Evidence From Germany By Julius Stoll
  22. Spreading active transportation: peer effects and key players in the workplace By Mathieu Lambotte; Sandrine Mathy; Anna Risch; Carole Treibich
  23. Exploiting discontinuities in secondary school attendance to evaluate value added By Jack Britton; Damon Clark; Ines Lee
  24. Contexts of Convenience: Generalizing from Published Evaluations of School Finance Policies By Danielle V. Handel; Eric A. Hanushek
  25. Reorientation and rocket launchers? Regional insights into Russia's wartime economy By Lauri, Vesala
  26. Replication of Hamel & Wilcox-Archuleta (2022): "Black Workers in White Places: Daytime Racial Diversity and White Public Opinion" By Gretton, Jeremy; Roemer, Tobias; Schlüter, Elmar
  27. How to Recruit Teachers for Hard-to-Staff Schools: A Systematic Review of Evidence from Low- And Middle-Income Countries By David Evans; Amina Mendez Acosta
  28. New Data and Methods for Estimating Regional Truck Movements By Dion, Francois PhD; Yang, Mingyuan; Patire, Anthony PhD
  29. When is psychological safety helpful in organizations? A longitudinal study By Higgins, Monica; Dobrow, Shoshana R.; Weiner, Jennie Miles; Liu, Haiyang
  30. Participatory Teaching Improves Learning Outcomes: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Tanzania By Martina Jakob, Konstantin Buechel, Daniel Steffen, Aymo Brunetti
  31. Lighting the path forward? The impact of rural road construction on structural transformation in India: new evidence from the PMGSY Scheme and two complementary natural experiments By Thomas Kurian
  32. Price Discrimination and Mortgage Choice By Jamie Coen; Anil K Kashyap; May Rostom
  33. Government Investments and Entrepreneurship By Joao Ricardo Faria; Laudo Ogura; Mauricio Prado; Christopher J. Boudreaux
  34. Regulatory Arbitrage or Random Errors? Implications of Race Prediction Algorithms in Fair Lending Analysis By Daniel Greenwald; Sabrina T. Howell; Cangyuan Li; Emmanuel Yimfor
  35. The Mundlak Spatial Estimator By Badi H. Baltagi
  36. Local Priority Mechanisms By Joseph Root; David S. Ahn
  37. Ethnic conflict: the role of ethnic representation By Bhalotra, Sonia; Clots-Figueras, Irma; Iyer, Lakshmi
  38. Urban mobility management:from complexity to sustainability By Sarah Ferehoun; Chorouk Drissi El Bouzaidi; Fadoua Laghzaoui; Jihad Jamï
  39. Regulatory Arbitrage and Loan Location Decisions by Multinational Banks By Asli Demirgüç-Kunt; Bálint L. Horváth; Harry Huizinga
  40. Immigration, Female Labour Supply and Local Cultural Norms By Jessen, Jonas; Schmitz, Sophia; Weinhardt, Felix
  41. Spreading active transportation: peer effects and key players in the workplace By Mathieu Lambotte; Sandrine Mathy; Anna Risch; Carole Treibich
  42. Partisan Alignment, Insurgency and Public Safety: Evidence from the Indian Red-corridor By Ashani Amarasinghe; Pushkar Maitra; Yuchen Zhongs
  43. Sex- and gender-based differences in the migration process: a systematic literature review By Athina Anastasiadou; Jisu Kim; Asli Ebru Şanlitürk; Helga de Valk; Emilio Zagheni
  44. College Networks and Re-employment of Displaced Workers By Ben Ost; Weixiang Pan; Douglas A. Webber
  45. Privately-Owned versus Shared Automated Vehicle: The Roles of Utilitarian and Hedonic Beliefs By Fatemeh Nazari; Yellitza Soto; Mohamadhossein Noruzoliaee
  46. Analysis of the digital transformation in the public transport sector Case of ‘Etuspay’ electronic payment in the Wilaya of Tiaret By Ladjouzi Soumiya; Abbache Mounsif
  47. Your Friends, Your Credit: Social Capital Measures Derived from Social Media and the Credit Market By Jesse Bricker; Geng Li
  48. The Limits of Educational Attainment in Mitigating Occupational Segregation Between Black and White Workers By Ashley Jardina; Peter Q. Blair; Justin Heck; Papia Debroy
  49. Improving School Management in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review By Gautam Anand; Aishwarya Atluri; Lee Crawfurd; Todd Pugatch; Ketki Sheth

  1. By: Livia Shkoza (University of Konstanz, GSDS); Derya Uysal (University of Munich, CESifo); Winfried Pohlmeier (University of Konstanz, CASCB, ICEA)
    Abstract: This study focuses on the role of heterogeneity in network peer effects by accounting for network-specific factors and different driving mechanisms of peer behavior. We propose a novel Multivariate Instrumental Variable (MVIV) estimator which is consistent for a large number of networks keeping the individual network size bounded. We apply this approach to estimate peer effects on school achievement exploiting the network structure of friendships within classrooms. The empirical evidence presented is based on a unique network dataset from German upper secondary schools. We show that accounting for heterogeneity is not only crucial from a statistical perspective, but also yields new structural insights into how class size and gender composition affect school achievement through peer behavior.
    Keywords: network heterogeneity; peer effects; multivariate instrumental variables; minimum distance estimation; school achievement;
    JEL: D85 L14 I21 C30 C36
    Date: 2023–09–06
  2. By: IHARA Ryusuke
    Abstract: How does telecommuting affect urban structure? This paper presents a new economic geography (NEG) model with inter-regional commuting. In a two-region model, workers choose their regions of residence and workplaces. Residing outside of the working region increases commuting costs, but reduces housing costs. The widespread use of telework reduces inter-regional commuting costs, which disperses the distribution of residents and promotes the concentration of employment. Such a change in labor distribution can improve social welfare. Applying the model to the Urban Employment Areas in Japan, the following simulation analysis is conducted. First, the values of commuting and transportation costs are calibrated to explain the actual distribution of workers and employment between core and suburban regions. Then, the impact on urban structure of lower commuting costs due to the widespread use of telework is simulated. In addition, the impact of changes in productivity due to the introduction of telework is also examined.
    Date: 2023–09
  3. By: Clément Imbert; Joan Monras; Marlon Seror; Yanos Zylberberg
    Abstract: This paper argues that migrants’ decision to bring their dependent family members shapes their consumption behavior, their choice of destination, and their sensitivity to migration barriers. We document that in China: (i) rural migrants disproportionately move to expensive cities; (ii) in these cities they live without their family and in poorer housing conditions; and (iii) they remit more, especially when living without their family. We then develop a quantitative general equilibrium spatial model in which migrant households choose whether, how (with or without their family), and where to migrate. We estimate the model using plausibly exogenous variation in wages, housing prices, and exposure to family migration costs. We use the model to estimate migration costs and relate them to migration policy. We find that hukou policies protect workers in large, expensive, and high income cities at the expense of rural households, who use remittances to overcome some of these costs.
    Keywords: migration; remittances; economic geography; spatial equilibrium
    JEL: R12 J61 O15
    Date: 2023–08–30
  4. By: Prottoy A. Akbar; Victor Couture; Gilles Duranton; Adam Storeygard
    Abstract: We assemble a new global database on motor vehicle travel speed in over 1, 200 large cities in 152 countries. We then estimate comparable city-level indices of travel speed and congestion. Most of the variation in urban travel speed is across countries, not within. National income per capita explains most of this cross-country variation in speed. In rich countries, urban travel is roughly 50% faster than in poor countries. To investigate the link between economic development and mobility, we develop an urban model with endogenous travel, road infrastructure, and land area. The model provides an exact decomposition of how city size, infrastructure, and topography contribute to explaining why urban travel is faster in richer countries. We find that richer countries are faster, mainly because their cities have more major roads and wider land areas. These effects operate by increasing uncongested speed, not by reducing congestion.
    JEL: O18 R41
    Date: 2023–08
  5. By: Milena Almagro; Eric Chyn; Bryan Stuart
    Abstract: This paper studies one of the largest spatially targeted redevelopment efforts implemented in the United States: public housing demolitions sponsored by the HOPE VI program. Focusing on Chicago, we study welfare and racial disparities in the impacts of demolitions using a structural model that features a rich set of equilibrium responses. Our results indicate that demolitions had notably heterogeneous effects where welfare decreased for low-income minority households and increased for White households. Counterfactual simulations explore how housing policy mitigates negative effects of demolitions and suggest that increased public housing site redevelopment is the most effective policy for reducing racial inequality.
    Keywords: Urban Renewal; Inequality; Segregation; Endogenous Neighborhood Change
    JEL: R23 R28 I31
    Date: 2023–09–13
  6. By: Lydia Cheung; Jaqueson K. Galimberti; Philip Vermeulen (University of Canterbury)
    Abstract: Using around one million repeat sales, we show that idiosyncratic risk in real house price appreciation varies considerably across houses. We find that idiosyncratic risk is timevarying, depends negatively on the initial house price, varies across locations, and reduces as the holding period of the house increases. We find that risk is priced in expected returns across all these dimensions, except location. The variation in idiosyncratic risk by location can be explained by variations in market thinness and information quality across markets. Risk is related to macroeconomic credit conditions and financial regulation. The higher risk for cheaper houses is associated with valuation uncertainty and financial vulnerability of homeowners. The risk-return relationship across initial house prices depends on the current state of the market. During busts of the housing cycle, the distribution of house prices widens and cheaper houses depreciate faster than more expensive houses, leading to an inverted riskreturn relationship.
    Keywords: Idiosyncratic risk, house prices, housing markets
    JEL: G1 R1
    Date: 2023–09–01
  7. By: Acton, Riley (Miami University); Khafaji-King, Jo Al (New York University); Smith, Austin C. (Bates College)
    Abstract: We examine the impact of local labor market shocks and state unemployment insurance (UI) policies on student discipline in U.S. public schools. Analyzing school-level discipline data and firm-level layoffs in 23 states, we find that layoffs have little effect on discipline rates overall. However, effects differ across the UI benefit distribution. At the lowest benefit level ($265/week), a mass layoff increases out-of-school suspensions by 4.5%, with effects dissipating as UI benefits increase. Effects are consistently largest for Black students - especially in predominantly White schools - resulting in increased racial disproportionality in school discipline following layoffs in low-UI states.
    Keywords: school discipline, layoffs, unemployment insurance
    JEL: I24 J63 J65
    Date: 2023–09
  8. By: Victoria Gregory; Julian Kozlowski; Hannah Rubinton
    Abstract: This paper seeks to understand the forces that maintain racial segregation and the implications for the Black-White gap in college attainment. We incorporate race into an overlapping-generations spatial-equilibrium model with neighborhood spillovers. The model incorporates race in three ways: (i) a Black-White wage gap, (ii) an amenity externality—households care about the racial composition of their neighbors—and (iii) an additional barrier to moving for Black households. These forces quantitatively account for all of the racial segregation and 80% of the Black-White gap in college attainment in the data for the St. Louis metro area. Counterfactual exercises show that all three forces are quantitatively important. The presence of spillovers and externalities generates multiple equilibria. Although St. Louis is in the segregated equilibrium, there also exists an integrated equilibrium with a lower college gap, and we analyze a transition path between the two.
    Keywords: Income inequality; Neighborhood segregation; Education; Racial disparities
    JEL: J15 O18 J24
    Date: 2023–08–03
  9. By: Lepinteur, Anthony (University of Luxembourg); Menta, Giorgia (LISER); Waltl, Sofie R. (University of Cambridge)
    Abstract: Participants to an online study in Luxembourg are presented with fictitious real-estate advertisements and tasked to make an offer for each of them. A random subset is also shown sellers' names that are strongly framed to signal their origins. Our randomised procedure allows us to conclude that, keeping everything else constant, a seller with a sub-Saharan African surname is systematically offered lower prices. Our most conservative estimates suggest that the average racial appraisal penalty is equal to roughly EUR 20, 000. This figure is highly heterogeneous and can amount up to around EUR 58, 000. Last, we provide evidence suggesting that this appraisal bias may very well pass through onto the final sales price and that it may be due to statistical discrimination.
    Keywords: racial discrimination, housing, randomised online experiment
    JEL: J15 R21 R31
    Date: 2023–08
  10. By: Eric Chyn; Kareem Haggag; Bryan Stuart
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence on the causal impacts of citywide racial segregation on intergenerational mobility. We use an instrumental variable approach that relies on plausibly exogenous variation in segregation due to the arrangement of railroad tracks in the 19th century. Our analysis finds that higher segregation reduces upward mobility for Black children from households across the income distribution and White children from low-income households. Moreover, segregation lowers academic achievement while increasing incarceration and teenage birth rates. An analysis of mechanisms shows that segregation reduces government spending, weakens support for antipoverty policies, and increases racially conservative attitudes among White residents.
    Keywords: Race; Inequality; Intergenerational Mobility; Segregation; Discrimination
    JEL: J15 J62 J71 R31
    Date: 2023–09–05
  11. By: Se-il MUN; Lei QIN; Yue ZHOU
    Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate empirically how station spacing affects the density along the transit line and the compactness of the urban area. We derive the population density equation as a function of station spacing, based on urban economics model of residential land use. We estimate the population density equation using data for grids in Wuhan, China. Based on the estimated equation, we conduct counterfactual simulations for several cases of station spacing to evaluate the extent to which shorter station spacing contributes to land use compactness.
    Keywords: Microcredit; Mass Transit System; Compact land use; Station spacing; Population distribution
    JEL: R14 R21 R31 R42
    Date: 2023–09
  12. By: ASAKAWA Shinsuke; OHTAKE Fumio; SANO Shinpei
    Abstract: This study examines the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on academic achievements in mathematics and Japanese language among public elementary and junior high school students from grades 1 to 8. Using data from the Amagasaki City Survey of Academic Achievement and Life Conditions from 2018 to 2021, this study compares the growth in the academic achievement of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cohorts 7 and 19 months after the school closure using the difference-in-differences method. The findings indicate that the negative impact of the pandemic on academic achievement was more pronounced in math compared to Japanese language, both at 7 months and 19 months after the closure. Math scores showed a considerable decline of 0.129 standard deviations (SD) and 0.251 SD at 7 and 19 months after the closure, respectively, while Japanese language scores only worsened slightly by 0.006 SD and 0.062 SD during the same periods. Further, the negative effects on Japanese language scores were more significant in younger grades, whereas math scores were consistently affected across all grades.
    Date: 2023–09
  13. By: Bacic, Ryan (McMaster University); Zheng, Angela (McMaster University)
    Abstract: A large literature documents a positive correlation between parental income and child test scores. In this paper, we study whether this relationship, the dependence of the cognitive skills of children on the socioeconomic resources of their parents, varies across race. Using education data linked to tax records, we find that the income-achievement gap is small for East Asian children while significantly larger for Indigenous children. School-level factors explains a large portion of the variation in the gap across race. Our results suggest that the large income-achievement gap for Indigenous students may be rooted in inequality in special needs status.
    Keywords: test scores, income-achievement gaps, race
    JEL: I20 I24 J15
    Date: 2023–09
  14. By: Bento, Antonio M; Hall, Jonathan D; Heilmann, Kilian
    Abstract: Traffic congestion is a major problem in large cities worldwide. This project uses high-frequency data from the Los Angeles metropolitan area combined with an instrument that varies spatially and temporally to estimate the causal impact of an additional vehicle mile traveled on travel times. Specifically, the research team exploits the network structure of the Los Angeles highway system and uses crashes on close alternative routes as exogenous shocks to traffic demand. To do so, the team relies on Google Maps to determine the ideal route and alternatives for over 19, 000 real-world commutes. The researchers estimate that at peak times an additional trip reduces speed by, on average, 0.22%. They find the optimal toll at peak times is 33 cents per mile, with the toll being lower, even zero, off-peak. The researchers show how this toll varies over space and time, as well as report on its distributional effects. This toll would more than double highway speeds during peak times and only requires reducing vehicle miles traveled (VMT) at the peak by 10%. The resulting social welfare gains are over two billion dollars per year. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Big Data, Congestion, Tolls
    Date: 2023–09–01
  15. By: Michael A. Clemens (Center for Global Development; IZA; CReAM/UCL)
    Abstract: Immigration policy can have important net fiscal effects that vary by immigrants’ skill level. But mainstream methods to estimate these effects are problematic. Methods based on cash-flow accounting offer precision at the cost of bias; methods based on general equilibrium modeling address bias with limited precision and transparency. A simple adjustment greatly reduces bias in the most influential and precise estimates: conservatively accounting for capital taxes paid by the employers of immigrant labor. The adjustment is required by firms’ profit-maximizing behavior, unconnected to general equilibrium effects. Adjusted estimates of the positive net fiscal impact of average recent U.S. immigrants rise by a factor of 3.2, with a much shallower education gradient. They are positive even for an average recent immigrant with less than high school education, whose presence causes a present-value subsidy of at least $128, 000 to all other taxpayers collectively.
    JEL: F22 H68 J61
    Date: 2023–02–21
  16. By: Saerom (Ronnie) Lee; Britta Glennon
    Abstract: To spur entrepreneurship and economic growth, an increasing number of countries have introduced immigration policies that provide visas to skilled entrepreneurs. This paper investigates whether these policies influence the founding location choice of immigrant founders, by leveraging the introduction of Canada's Start-up Visa Program in 2013. We demonstrate that this immigration policy increased the likelihood that U.S.-based immigrants have a start-up in Canada by 69%. Our results show that Asian immigrants (who have a higher representation in Canada than in the U.S.) are disproportionately more likely to migrate to Canada to start their businesses, whereas Hispanic immigrants (who have a smaller representation in Canada than in the U.S.) are less inclined to do so. We also find that this propensity varies with the size of co-ethnic immigrant communities in the origin location. Overall, our study unveils the importance of immigration policies in determining founding location choice and has important implications for countries competing for global talent.
    JEL: F20 F22 J60 M13
    Date: 2023–08
  17. By: David K. Evans (Center for Global Development); Amina Mendez Acosta (Center for Global Development); Fei Yuan (Harvard University)
    Abstract: Many educational interventions boost outcomes for girls in settings where girls face educational disadvantages, but which of those interventions are proven to function effectively at large scale? In contrast to earlier reviews, this review focuses on large-scale programs and policies—those that reach at least 10, 000 students—and on final school outcomes such as completion and student learning rather than intermediate school outcomes such as enrollment and attendance. Programs and policies that have boosted school completion or learning at scale across multiple countries include school fee elimination, school meals, making schools more physically accessible, and improving the quality of pedagogy. Other interventions, such as providing better sanitation facilities or safe spaces for girls, show promising results but either have limited evidence across settings or focus on intermediate educational outcomes (such as enrollment) or post-educational outcomes (such as income earning) in their evaluations. These and other areas with limited or no evidence demonstrate many opportunities for education leaders, partners, and researchers to continue innovating and testing programs at scale. We discuss three considerations for incorporating evidence-based solutions into local education policies—constraints to girls’ education, potential solutions, and program costs—as well as lessons for scaling programs effectively.
    Keywords: education; gender; girls’ education; inequality
    JEL: I21 I24 J16 O15
    Date: 2021–10–19
  18. By: Marjan Petreski; Despina Tumanoska
    Date: 2023–09
  19. By: Moritz Goldbeck (ifo Institute & LMU Munich)
    Abstract: Digital work settings potentially facilitate remote collaboration and thereby decrease geographic frictions in knowledge work. Here, I analyze spatial collaboration patterns of some 191 thousand software developers in the United States on the largest code repository platform GitHub. Despite advanced digitization in this occupation, developers are geographically highly concentrated, with 79.8% of users clustering in only ten economic areas, and colocated developers collaborate about nine times as much as non-colocated developers. However, the colocation effect is much smaller than in less digital social or inventor networks, and apart from colocation geographic distance is of little relevance to collaboration. This suggests distance is indeed less important for collaboration in a digital work setting while other strong drivers of geographic concentration remain. Heterogeneity analyses provide insights on which types of collaboration tend to colocate: the colocation effect is smaller within larger organizations, for high-quality projects, among experienced developers, and for sporadic interactions. Overall, this results in a smaller colocation effect in larger economic areas.
    Keywords: geography; digitalization; networks; knowledge economy; colocation;
    JEL: L84 O18 O30 R32
    Date: 2023–09–05
  20. By: Mathieu Lambotte (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Sandrine Mathy (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Anna Risch (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Carole Treibich (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: We investigate the role of peer effects at the work place on the individual choice of transportation mode. We collect original data through an online survey on networks and sustainable behaviors among 334 individuals working in ten laboratories of the University of Grenoble Alps in February 2020. Using a linear-in-means model for binary outcomes and distinguishing endogenous and exogenous peer effects, correlated effects and network endogeneity, we find that peers have a significant and positive effect on individual active transportation mode's choice. We show that in our setting, a simulated policy or intervention would be almost twice more effective in spreading active transportation mode through social spillover effects if it targets key players rather than random individuals.
    Keywords: Peer effects, Social network, Workplace, Transportation choice, Key players
    Date: 2022–06–02
  21. By: Julius Stoll
    Abstract: This paper studies a recent legal reform in Germany, which aims to lower commission rates of real estate agents by raising the cost salience of sellers. I find that the reform has backfired and real estate agents have exploited the transition to increase their commission rates. The findings document that in some regions real estate agents increase their commission by up to 2 percentage points, adding over € 6, 000 in transaction cost to the average home sale. As explicit collusion is unlikely in this setting, I argue that this arbitrary increase points to seller ignorance instead. To verify if and why sellers fail to induce price competition, I run a pre-registered survey experiment with 1, 062 real estate agents. Although commission rates should be negotiated independently for each sale, the survey confirms that 85% of sellers do not attempt to negotiate lower commission rates. The randomized experimental questions suggest that real estate agents may cater to the low willingness of sellers to negotiate by providing misleading reference commission rates and shrouding the economic incidence for sellers.
    Date: 2023–09–20
  22. By: Mathieu Lambotte (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Sandrine Mathy (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Anna Risch (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Carole Treibich (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: We investigate the role of peer effects at the work place on the individual choice of transportation mode. We collect original data through an online survey on networks and sustainable behaviors among 334 individuals working in ten laboratories of the University of Grenoble Alps in February 2020. Using a linear-in-means model for binary outcomes and distinguishing endogenous and exogenous peer effects, correlated effects and network endogeneity, we find that peers have a significant and positive effect on individual active transportation mode's choice. We show that in our setting, a simulated policy or intervention would be almost twice more effective in spreading active transportation mode through social spillover effects if it targets key players rather than random individuals.
    Keywords: Peer effects, Social network, Workplace, Transportation choice, Key players
    Date: 2022–06–14
  23. By: Jack Britton (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Damon Clark (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Ines Lee (Institute for Fiscal Studies)
    Date: 2023–07–19
  24. By: Danielle V. Handel; Eric A. Hanushek
    Abstract: Recent attention to the causal identification of spending impacts provides improved estimates of spending outcomes in a variety of circumstances, but the estimates are substantially different across studies. Half of the variation in estimated funding impact on test scores and over three-quarters of the variation of impacts on school attainment reflect differences in the true parameters across study contexts. Unfortunately, inability to describe the circumstances underlying effective school spending impedes any attempts to generalize from the extant results to new policy situations. The evidence indicates that how funds are used is crucial to the outcomes but such factors as targeting of funds or court interventions fail to explain the existing pattern of results.
    JEL: H4 I22 J24
    Date: 2023–09
  25. By: Lauri, Vesala
    Abstract: This policy brief examines regional economic development in Russia since the brutal invasion of Ukraine in February 2022. We focus on the logistics, construction, and industrial sectors as they are closely related to the structural changes in Russia's economy due to the war and sanctions. We examine available regional-level statistics concerning these sectors and form hypotheses for the regional variation observed. We also utilize official Russian publications and news items. We find that the shift in Russia's trade flows and sanctions related to trade logistics have had a limited effect on rerouting trade. This seems largely due to the constraints of existing infrastructure, logistical bottlenecks, and the robustness of Russian oil export volumes. Barring a few regions, infrastructure development related to the reorientation of the economy has no noticeable impact on construction. Construction growth in regions bordering Ukraine is driven by war-related construction. Militaryindustrial production seems to be the national driver for most fast-growing industrial sectors. Regional-level data reflects this high growth in many traditional military-industrial hubs.
    Keywords: Russia, regional economic development, logistics, trade, infrastructure, construction, industry, military industry, Ukraine, Russia-Ukraine war
    Date: 2023
  26. By: Gretton, Jeremy; Roemer, Tobias; Schlüter, Elmar
    Abstract: In this replication study, we revisit the main empirical claims of Hamel and Wilcox-Archuleta's (HW) 2022 study on the impact of daytime racial diversity on White Americans' voting behavior and racial attitudes. HW introduce a novel zip code level measure of racial diversity that accounts for the influx of Black workers during daytime, showing that conventional purely residential based measures often underestimate the true degree of experienced racial diversity. Using survey data from the CCES, their findings suggest a negative correlation between racial flux and White Americans' Democratic voting tendencies and a positive correlation with racial resentment and opposition to affirmative action, all while controlling for the residential share of Blacks in the zip code. We assess the replicability of these findings by: (1) replicating the main results using the provided replication code, (2) reconstructing the racial flux measure and survey from raw data, (3) conducting multiverse analyses, and (4) replicating the analysis using an alternative data source. Our replication validates the robustness and accuracy of HW's initial conclusions, emphasizing the role of daytime racial diversity in shaping White Americans' political and racial attitudes.
    Keywords: Racial Diversity, Racial Attitudes, Voting Behavior
    JEL: D72 J15
    Date: 2023
  27. By: David Evans (Center for Global Development); Amina Mendez Acosta (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: Education systems struggle to staff schools in rural areas or in areas with high concentrations of poverty. Potential policy solutions include financial incentives, mandatory rotations, and local recruitment drives, among others. First, this systematic review provides evidence on challenges with teacher staffing in certain types of schools. We observe lower teacher skill and higher teacher absence in rural areas in many countries. Second, the review synthesizes available experimental and quasi-experimental studies of government-implemented policies to increase the quantity or quality of teachers in hard-to-staff schools in low- or middle-income countries. Financial incentives—the most evaluated policies—are often effective at increasing the supply or reducing the turnover of teachers in hard-to-staff schools, and well-designed incentives can also increase the quality of teachers in these schools. Impacts on student outcomes are often positive. Although there are fewer evaluations, behavioral and informational interventions have been cost-effective in reducing vacancies in two countries.
    Keywords: education, teachers, hard-to-staff schools low- and middle-income countries
    JEL: I22 I24 I28 J38 J45 O15
    Date: 2021–10–29
  28. By: Dion, Francois PhD; Yang, Mingyuan; Patire, Anthony PhD
    Abstract: This report describes how current methods of estimating truck traffic volumes from existing fixed roadway sensors could be improved by using tracking data collected from commercial truck fleets and other connected technology sources (e.g., onboard GPS-enabled navigation systems and smartphones supplied by third-party vendors). Using Caltrans District 1 in Northern California as an example, the study first reviews existing fixed-location data collection capabilities and highlights gaps in the ability to monitor truck movements. It then reviews emerging data sources and analyzes the analytical capabilities of StreetLight 2021, a commercial software package. The study then looks at the Sample Trip Count and uncalibrated Index values obtained from three weigh-in-motion (WIM) and twelve Traffic Census stations operated by Caltrans in District 1. The study suggests improvements to StreetLight’s “single-factor” calibration process which limits its ability to convert raw truck count data into accurate traffic volume estimates across an area, and suggests how improved truck-related calibration data can be extracted from the truck classification counts obtained from Caltrans’ WIM and Traffic Census stations. The report compares uncalibrated StreetLight Index values to observed truck counts to assess data quality and evaluates the impacts of considering alternate calibration data sets and analysis periods. Two test cases are presented to highlight issues with the single-factor calibration process. The report concludes that probe data analytical platforms such as StreetLight can be used to obtain rough estimates of truck volumes on roadway segments or to analyze routing patterns. The results further indicate that the accuracy of volume estimates depends heavily on the availability of sufficiently large samples of tracking data and stable and representative month-by-month calibration data across multiple reference locations.
    Keywords: Engineering, Trucks, traffic volume, traffic counts, fleet management, weigh in motion, data collection, data quality
    Date: 2023–09–01
  29. By: Higgins, Monica; Dobrow, Shoshana R.; Weiner, Jennie Miles; Liu, Haiyang
    Abstract: Prior research has documented many benefits associated with team-level psychological safety. However, we know little about the boundary conditions of these findings, particularly how psychological safety operates at the organization level and if and when it is helpful over time. Here, we explore how organization-level psychological safety and another aspect of workplace climate, felt accountability, impacts organizational performance over time. Our study is situated in the New York City public school system, a context rife with uncertainty and calls for change, including immense pressure on teachers to improve student outcomes. Drawing on over 170, 000 survey responses from teachers in 545 schools across three years, our multilevel analyses unexpectedly show that psychological safety is not, on its own, “helpful” with regards to organizational performance over time. Indeed, the best combination occurred when psychological safety was relatively low and felt accountability was relatively high. Thus, these two dimensions of workplace climate appear to be interrelated in critical ways over time, albeit unexpectedly. We conclude with implications of our discoveries for future theory-building and research on psychological safety and felt accountability, and we propose new lines of research on the roles of interdependence and attention for studying psychological safety at the organization level.
    Keywords: psychological safety; felt accountability; workplace climate; organizational culture; education; longitudinal
    JEL: J50
    Date: 2022–03–01
  30. By: Martina Jakob, Konstantin Buechel, Daniel Steffen, Aymo Brunetti
    Abstract: Participatory teaching methods have been shown to be more successful than traditional rote learning in high-income countries. It is, however, less clear if they can help address the learning crisis in low- and middle-income countries, where classes tend to be large and teachers have fewer resources at their disposal. Based on a field experiment with 440 teachers from 220 schools in Tanzania, we use official standardized student examinations to assess the impact of a pedagogy-centered intervention. A five-day in-service teacher training on participatory and practice-based methods improved students’ test scores 18 months later by 0.15s. The additional provision of laptops with a learning software allowing teachers to refresh their content knowledge did not yield further learning gains for students. Complementary results from qualitative surveys and interviews suggest that the program was highly appreciated by different stakeholders, but that participants are unable to assess its impact along different dimensions, giving equally positive evaluations of its successful and its less successful elements.
    Keywords: productivity in education, participatory teaching, teacher content knowledge, computerassisted learning, development economics.
    JEL: C93 I21 J24 O15
    Date: 2023–10
  31. By: Thomas Kurian
    Abstract: 1 billion people worldwide live over 2 km from a paved road. Consequently, I investi-gate medium-run impacts of rural road construction on structural transformation in India- identifying how responsive such benefits are based on a) external market condi¬tions and b) in-village electrification. I leverage a regression discontinuity design and triple difference strategy, exploiting discontinuities in population-based eligibility and staggered rollout of the Indian PMGSY rural road program- which aimed to provided all-weather road (AWR) connectivity to 115, 000 villages nationwide. I combine the program with a unique natural experiment induced by the US fracking boom, which created a parallel agricultural commodity boom in the price of guar, a crop provid¬ing a necessary fracking input. I compare heterogeneous impacts of AWRs in villages with high and low-intensity exposure to the fracking boom, and separately investigate heterogeneity of roads by village electrification access, exploiting variable implemen-tation intensity of the nationwide RGGVY electrification program. My results im¬ply structural transformation benefits of AWRs are relatively unresponsive to village electrification, whereas external economic conditions can drastically influence these impacts. RD analysis showcases labor reallocation gains from AWRs were entirely concentrated in non-Boom villages- where roads caused a 12.1-7 percentage-point reduction in share of workers employed in agriculture, and 9.2-8 percentage-point in-creased share employed in non-agricultural manual labour. Conversely, AWRs caused significantly reduced (net zero) structural transformation benefits in boom villages. My findings are robust to multiple specification tests, varying electrification levels, and suggest substantial within-village heterogeneity, with largest discrepancies in new labor market entrants. A plausible mechanism is reduced out-migration impacts of AWRs in boom-villages. These results confirm theoretical predictions that local eco¬nomic conditions can drastically influence the impact of infrastructure investments suggesting the need for effective spatial and temporal targeting.
    Date: 2023
  32. By: Jamie Coen; Anil K Kashyap; May Rostom
    Abstract: We characterize the large number of mortgage offers for which people qualify in the United Kingdom. Very few pick the cheapest option, nonetheless the one selected is not usually noticeably more expensive. A few borrowers make very expensive choices. These are most common when the menu they face has many expensive options, and are most likely for high loan-to-value and loan-to-income borrowers. Young people and first-time buyers are more prone to making expensive choices. The dispersion in the mortgage menu is consistent with banks price discriminating for borrowers who might pick poorly, while competing for others who shop more effectively.
    JEL: D12 G21 G51 G53
    Date: 2023–09
  33. By: Joao Ricardo Faria; Laudo Ogura; Mauricio Prado; Christopher J. Boudreaux
    Abstract: How can governments attract entrepreneurs and their businesses? The view that new business creation grows with the optimal level of government investments remains appealing to policymakers. In contrast with this active approach, we build a model where governments may adopt a passive approach to stimulating business creation. The insights from this model suggest new business creation depends positively on factors beyond government investments--attracting high-skilled migrants to the region and lower property prices, taxes, and fines on firms in the informal sector. These findings suggest whether entrepreneurs generate business creation in the region does not only depend on government investments. It also depends on location and skilled migration. Our model also provides methodological implications--the relationship between government investments and new business creation is endogenously determined, so unless adjustments are made, econometric estimates will be biased and inconsistent. We conclude with policy and managerial implications.
    Date: 2023–09
  34. By: Daniel Greenwald; Sabrina T. Howell; Cangyuan Li; Emmanuel Yimfor
    Abstract: When race is not directly observed, regulators and analysts commonly predict it using algorithms based on last name and address. In small business lending—where regulators assess fair lending law compliance using the Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding (BISG) algorithm—we document large prediction errors among Black Americans. The errors bias measured racial disparities in loan approval rates downward by 43%, with greater bias for traditional vs. fintech lenders. Regulation using self-identified race would increase lending to Black borrowers, but also shift lending toward affluent areas because errors correlate with socioeconomics. Overall, using race proxies in policymaking and research presents challenges.
    JEL: C81 G21 G23 G28 J15
    Date: 2023–08
  35. By: Badi H. Baltagi (Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University, 426 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244)
    Abstract: The spatial Mundlak model first considered by Debarsy (2012) is an alternative to fixed effects and random effects estimation for spatial panel data models. Mundlak modelled the correlated random individual effects as a linear combination of the averaged regressors over time plus a random time-invariant error. This paper shows that if spatial correlation is present whether spatial lag or spatial error or both, the standard Mundlak result in panel data does not hold and random effects does not reduce to its fixed effects counterpart. However, using maximum likelihood one can still estimate these spatial Mundlak models and test the correlated random effects specification of Mundlak using Likelihood ratio tests as demonstrated by Debarsy for the Mundlak spatial Durbin model.
    Keywords: Mundlak Regression, Panel Data, Fixed and Random Effects, Spatial error model, Spatial Durbin model
    JEL: C33
    Date: 2023–09
  36. By: Joseph Root; David S. Ahn
    Abstract: We introduce a novel family of mechanisms for constrained allocation problems which we call local priority mechanisms. These mechanisms are parameterized by a function which assigns a set of agents -- the local compromisers -- to every infeasible allocation. The mechanism then greedily attempts to match agents with their top choices. Whenever it reaches an infeasible allocation, the local compromisers move to their next favorite alternative. Local priority mechanisms exist for any constraint so this provides a method of constructing new designs for any constrained allocation problem. We give axioms which characterize local priority mechanisms. Since constrained object allocation includes many canonical problems as special constraints, we apply this characterization to show that several well-known mechanisms, including deferred acceptance for school choice, top trading cycles for house allocation, and serial dictatorship can be understood as instances of local priority mechanisms. Other mechanisms, including the Boston mechanism, are not local priority mechanisms. We give necessary and sufficient conditions which characterize the local priority mechanisms that are group strategy-proof. As an application, we construct novel mechanisms for a natural variation of the house allocation problem where no existing class of mechanisms besides serial dictatorship would be applicable.
    Date: 2023–09
  37. By: Bhalotra, Sonia (University of Warwick, CAGE); Clots-Figueras, Irma (University of Kent); Iyer, Lakshmi (University of Notre Dame)
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of the political representation of minority groups on the incidence of ethnic conflict in India. We code data on Hindu-Muslim violence and Muslim political representation in India and leverage quasi-random variation in legislator religion generated by the results of close elections. We find that the presence of Muslim legislators results in a large and significant decline in Hindu-Muslim conflict. The average result is driven by richer states and those with greater police strength. Our results suggest that the political empowerment of minority communities can contribute to curbing civil conflict.
    Keywords: conflict, violence, religion, political representation, police, close elections JEL Classification: D72, D74, J15
    Date: 2023
  38. By: Sarah Ferehoun (ENSI); Chorouk Drissi El Bouzaidi (UAE - Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi); Fadoua Laghzaoui (UAE - Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi); Jihad Jamï (UAE - Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi)
    Abstract: In many cities around the world, public transport faces problems such as congestion, delays, high costs and safety. With the rise of sustainable development, technology and rationalization, mobility management has taken on an increasingly demanding and complex role. The aim of this article is to highlight this gap, seeking to understand how mobility management can reconcile territorial requirements within a sustainable framework. To achieve this, a qualitative study was conducted, taking the case of the city of Marrakech as the most advanced in this field. To do so, observation, document analysis and semi-structured interviews with city authorities were completed. The results have been enabled to highlight the contribution of electric buses and their positive social, economic and ecological impact, as well as the contribution of local authorities' involvement in the sustainable approach through the introduction of electric buses. Based on these results, this paper can serve city managers and the various stakeholders involved in managing transport, as it contributes to enhancing urban mobility. This is why this paper identifies concrete measures analysis the situation of public transport in order to improve urban mobility, in particular by adopting more sustainable transport solutions such as electric buses.
    Abstract: Dans de nombreuses villes du monde, le transport public est confronté à des problèmes tels que la congestion, les retards, les coûts élevés et la sécurité. Avec l'avènement des principes du développement durable, de la technologie et de la rationalisation, la gestion de la mobilité est devenue de plus en plus exigeante et complexe. Cet article a pour objectif de traiter cette lacune, en étudiant comment le management de la mobilité peut concilier entre les exigences du territoire et les orientations durables. Pour ce faire, une étude qualitative a été menée en prenant le cas de la ville de Marrakech comme étant la plus avancée en la matière. L'observation, l'analyse des documents et des entretiens semi-directifs avec les responsables de la ville ont été réalisé, les résultats obtenus font ressortir l'apport des bus électriques et leur impact positif sur le volet social, économique et écologique, ainsi que l'apport de l'insertion des collectivités territoriales dans l'approche durable via la mise en place des bus électriques. Sur la base de ces résultats, ce papier met en évidence des recommandations et des pistes concrètes qui peuvent être mises en œuvre pour améliorer la mobilité, en particulier en adoptant des solutions de transport plus durables telles que les bus électriques.
    Keywords: Urban mobility, public transport, electric bus, sustainability, Marrakech, Mobilité urbaine, transport public, bus électrique, durabilité
    Date: 2023–08–29
  39. By: Asli Demirgüç-Kunt (Center for Global Development); Bálint L. Horváth (University of Arizona); Harry Huizinga (Tilburg University and CEPR)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of international differences in capital regulation on multinational banks’ loan origination location decisions. International loan location decisions represent a key banking margin that has previously not been examined in the literature on regulatory arbitrage by banks. Our estimation relies on within-loan contribution variation in location options for individual multinational banks that participate in a syndicated loan. We examine how the loan location choice and the intensity of regulatory arbitrage are affected by borrower transparency. We find that greater borrower transparency to a local bank establishment makes loan location at this establishment more likely, and that regulatory arbitrage is more intense in the case of more transparent borrowers.
    Keywords: Regulatory arbitrage, capital regulations, loan origination
    JEL: G21 G38
    Date: 2023–04–11
  40. By: Jessen, Jonas (IZA); Schmitz, Sophia (Federal Institute for Population Research); Weinhardt, Felix (European University Viadrina, Frankfurt / Oder)
    Abstract: We study the local evolution of female labour supply and cultural norms in West Germany in reaction to the sudden presence of East Germans who migrated to the West after reunication. These migrants grew up with high rates of maternal employment, whereas West German families mostly followed the traditional breadwinner-housewife model. We find that West German women increase their labour supply and that this holds within households. We provide additional evidence on stated gender norms, West-East friendships, intermarriage, and child care infrastructure. The dynamic evolution of the effects on labour supply is best explained by local cultural learning.
    Keywords: cultural norms, local learning, gender, immigration
    JEL: J16 J21 D1
    Date: 2023–09
  41. By: Mathieu Lambotte; Sandrine Mathy; Anna Risch; Carole Treibich (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Date: 2022–06–06
  42. By: Ashani Amarasinghe; Pushkar Maitra; Yuchen Zhongs
    Abstract: Better economic outcomes can prevail when governments at different levels of hierarchy are politically aligned. This often happens because upper level governments are more willing to transfer resources to, and invest in public goods in, aligned constituencies, where the elected candidate belongs to the party in power. In this paper we examine whether such political alignment causally affects public safety. We consider the case of the Naxalite insurgency in India, an issue of significant public safety and security. We focus on close elections using a regression discontinuity (RD) design, which allows us to examine the causal impact of electing a (state ruling party) aligned candidate at the constituency level. Our RD estimates show that the election of an aligned candidate leads to a significant reduction in the incidence of violence. We find that the benefits of alignment are amplified where politically aligned constituencies are spatially clustered. Examining the role of local natural resource activity, i.e., mining, as an underlying mechanism, we find that this negative effect is driven by constituencies close to mining areas. These findings confirm the relevance of political alignment in delivering public safety within constituencies, and the potential role played by local mining activity.
    Keywords: Political alignment; Naxalite insurgency; public safety; India
    Date: 2023–09
  43. By: Athina Anastasiadou (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Jisu Kim (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Asli Ebru Şanlitürk (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Helga de Valk; Emilio Zagheni (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2023
  44. By: Ben Ost; Weixiang Pan; Douglas A. Webber
    Abstract: We provide the first evidence on the role of college networks in the re-employment of displaced workers. An extensive literature examines the consequences of layoffs, but the factors which facilitate re-employment are relatively under-studied. Using administrative data and a cross-cohort design, we find that network connections with actively-hiring employers increase the re-employment rate. This result is driven by re-employment at contact’s firms suggesting that a stronger network does not improve worker quality more broadly. These results suggest that college has the potential to improve employment outcomes beyond improved human capital and signaling.
    Date: 2023–06
  45. By: Fatemeh Nazari; Yellitza Soto; Mohamadhossein Noruzoliaee
    Abstract: Transportation systems will be likely transformed by the emergence of automated vehicles (AVs) promising for safe, convenient, and efficient mobility, especially if used in shared systems (shared AV or SAV). However, the potential tendency is observed towards owning AV as a private asset rather than using SAV. This calls for a research on investigating individuals' attitude towards AV in comparison with SAV to recognize the barriers to the public's tendency towards SAV. To do so, the present study proposes a modeling framework based on the theories in behavioral psychology to explain individuals' preference for owning AV over using SAV, built as a latent (subjective) psychometric construct, by three groups of explanatory latent constructs including: (i) desire for searching for benefits, i.e., extrinsic motive manifested in utilitarian beliefs; (ii) tendency towards seeking pleasure and joy, i.e., intrinsic motive reflected in hedonic beliefs; and (iii) attitude towards three configurations of shared mobility, i.e., experience with car and ridesharing, bikesharing, and public transit. Estimated on a sample dataset from the State of California, the findings can shed initial lights on the psychological determinants of the public's attitude towards owning AV versus using SAV, which can furthermore provide policy implications intriguing for policy makers and stakeholders. Of note, the findings reveal the strongest influential factor on preference for AV over SAV as hedonic beliefs reflected in perceived enjoyment. This preference is next affected by utilitarian beliefs, particularly perceived benefit and trust of stranger, followed by attitude towards car and ride sharing.
    Date: 2023–09
  46. By: Ladjouzi Soumiya (ENSM - Ecole nationale supérieure de management - pôle universitaire Koléa - Ecole nationale supérieure de management - pôle universitaire Koléa); Abbache Mounsif (ENSM - Ecole nationale supérieure de management - pôle universitaire Koléa - Ecole nationale supérieure de management - pôle universitaire Koléa)
    Abstract: The study we have conducted concerns the analysis of the digital transformation in the public transport sector. Hence, our problematic was articulated around the presentation of an inventory of fixtures as of the use of electronic payment "Etuspay" in urban public transport (buses) in the Wilaya of Tiaret. In order to do that, we used a quantitative methodthrough a survey of 50 inhabitants of the region. The results obtained show that public transport users adhere to the new "Etus pay" system and that the parameter of trust in this method hardly constitutes an obstacle to its use.
    Keywords: Public Transport Electronic Payment Etus Pay Bus Tiaret. JEL Classification Codes: R41 E42, Public Transport, Electronic Payment, Etus Pay, Bus, Tiaret. JEL Classification Codes: R41, E42
    Date: 2023–06–04
  47. By: Jesse Bricker; Geng Li
    Abstract: Chetty et al. (2022a) introduced an array of social capital measures derived from Facebook friendships and found that one of these indicators, economic connectedness (EC), predicted upward income mobility well. Bricker and Li (2017) proposed the average credit score of a community's residents as an indicator of local social trust. We show in this paper that the average credit scores are robustly correlated with EC, negatively correlated with the friending-bias measure introduced in Chetty et al. (2022b), and predict economic mobility to a comparable extent after controlling for EC. The consistency and complementarity between these two indicators, despite being derived from individuals' activities in distinct contexts, underscore trust as a crucial component of social capital and provide insights that are useful for understanding the formation and accumulation of social capital.
    Keywords: social trust; social capital; economic mobility; credit score
    JEL: D14 G10 G41 G50
    Date: 2023–07
  48. By: Ashley Jardina; Peter Q. Blair; Justin Heck; Papia Debroy
    Abstract: Past work has documented significant occupational segregation between Black and white workers in the U.S. labor force. Little work, however, has examined racial occupational segregation in recent years or by levels of education and then at the intersection of education and race. In this paper, we contribute to this literature by calculating a dissimilarity index to examine racial occupational segregation between 1980 and 2019, comparing Black and white workers with and without bachelor’s degrees and by developing a Monte Carlo simulation, where we compare the observed levels of segregation to predicted levels of racial occupational segregation by education under race-neutral conditions. First, we find that considerable racial occupation segregation in the labor market persists today regardless of educational attainment and that observed segregation is substantially higher than would be expected at random, conditional on educational attainment, gender, and geography. We compare the types of occupations in which Black and white workers are disproportionately situated, and we show that this segregation has significant consequences for wage inequality between Black and white workers with and without four-year degrees. Overall, our results show that racial occupational desegregation has stalled in the past two decades despite rising educational attainment amongst Black workers.
    JEL: J22 J24 J7
    Date: 2023–08
  49. By: Gautam Anand (Global School Leaders); Aishwarya Atluri (J-PAL South Asia); Lee Crawfurd (Center for Global Development); Todd Pugatch (Oregon State University; IZA); Ketki Sheth (University of Tennessee)
    Abstract: Improving school quality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is a global priority. One way to improve quality may be to improve the management skills of school leaders. In this systematic review, we analyze the impact of interventions targeting school leaders' management practices on student learning. We begin by describing the characteristics and responsibilities of school leaders using data from large, multi-country surveys. Second, we review the literature and conduct a meta analysis of the causal effect of school management interventions on student learning, using 39 estimates from 20 evaluations. We estimate a statistically significant improvement in student learning of 0.04 standard deviations. We show that effect sizes are not related to program scale or intensity. We complement the meta-analysis by identifying common limitations to program effectiveness through a qualitative assessment of the studies included in our review. We find three main factors which mitigate program effectiveness: (1) low take-up; (2) lack of incentives or structure for implementation of recommendations; and (3) the lengthy causal chain linking management practices to student learning. Finally, to assess external validity of our review, we survey practitioners to compare characteristics between evaluated and commonly implemented programs. Our findings suggest that future work should focus on generating evidence on the marginal effect of common design elements in these interventions, including factors that promote school leader engagement and accountability.
    Keywords: school management; school principals; head teachers; systematic review; meta-analysis
    JEL: I21 I25 I28
    Date: 2023–06–28

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