nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2023‒10‒02
38 papers chosen by
Steve Ross, University of Connecticut

  1. Commercial Real Estate Prices in Europe After COVID-19 By Martin Hoesli; Richard Malle
  2. Starting the school year on the right foot. Effects of a summer learning program targeting vulnerable students in Italy By Davide Azzolini; Martina Bazzoli; Sergiu C. Burlacu; Enrico Rettore
  3. Housing in Wyoming: Constraints and Solutions By Sarah Bui; Timothy Freeman; Ricardo Hausmann; Farah Kaddah; Lucas Lamby; Tim O'Brien; Eric S. M. Protzer
  4. Using Benefit Transfer to Estimate Housing Value Increases from Improved Water Clarity By Matthew Burlingame; Dennis Guignet; Matthew Heberling; Michael Papenfus
  5. The Impact of Private Schools, School Chains, and Public-Private Partnerships in Developing Countries By Lee Crawfurd; Susannah Hares
  6. The Intergenerational Transmission of Housing Wealth By N. Meltem Daysal; Michael F. Lovenheim; David N. Wasser
  7. Internal Migration, Remittances and Economic Development By Xiameng Pan; Chang Sun
  8. The Role of Firms and Job Mobility in the Assimilation of Immigrants: Former Soviet Union Jews in Israel By Arellano-Bover, Jaime; San, Shmuel
  9. Do Teachers' Labor Contracts Matter? By Aparicio Fenoll, Ainoa; Quaranta, Roberto
  10. Independent-School Competition and Sweden's Performance in TIMSS By Heller-Sahlgren, Gabriel
  11. The Age Gap in Mortgage Access By Natee Amornsiripanitch
  12. Immigration and Nationalism in the Long Run By Valentin Lang; Stephan A. Schneider
  13. Long-run effects of school spending. Evidence from exiting cohort size variation By Audun Langørgen; Sturla A. Løkken
  14. Learning from the Origins By Alexander Yarkin
  15. From Retributive to Restorative: An Alternative Approach to Justice By Anjali Adukia; Benjamin Feigenberg; Fatemeh Momeni
  16. Real Exchange Rates and the Earnings of Immigrants By Christian Dustmann; Hyejin Ku; Tanya Surovtseva
  17. Do Cops Know Who to Stop? Assessing Optimizing Models of Police Behavior with a Natural Experiment By David Abrams; Hanming Fang; Priyanka Goonetilleke
  18. Impacts of Certificate-of-need State Laws on Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities and Services By Shishir Shakya; Christine Bretschneider Fries
  19. Spatial Production Networks By Costas Arkolakis; Federico Huneeus; Yuhei Miyauchi
  20. Participatory Teaching Improves Learning Outcomes: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Tanzania By Martina Jakob; Konstantin Büchel; Daniel Steffen; Aymo Brunetti
  21. Agglomeration or Market Access? The Defining Factors of Firms' Location Choice By Dennis Gaus; Georg Hirte
  22. Adolescent Refugee Girls’ Secondary Education in Ethiopia: An Empirical Analysis of Multiple Vulnerabilities in Low-Resource Displacement Settings By Shelby Carvalho
  23. How to Measure Student Absenteeism in Low- and Middle-Income Countries By David Evans; Amina Mendez Acosta
  24. Monitoring the SDGs in Pomorskie region, Poland By MROZOWSKA Sylwia
  25. Atlanta's Predominately Black Neighborhoods, 2000-2020: Demographic Changes and Characteristics of Whites Who Moved In By Lakshmi Pandey; Glenwood Ross; David L. Sjoquist
  26. Distributional Equity in the Employment and Wage Impacts of Energy Transitions By Ben Gilbert; Hannah Gagarin; Ben Hoen
  27. An Experimental Evaluation of Deferred Acceptance: Evidence from Over 100 Army Officer Labor Markets By Jonathan M.V. Davis; Kyle Greenberg; Damon Jones
  28. Local power: understanding the adoption and design of county wind energy regulation By Lerner, Michael
  29. Are You Okay? Effects of a National Peer-Support Campaign on Mental Health By Nicole Black; Lachlan Deer; David W. Johnston; Johannes S. Kunz
  30. Italy's National Recovery and Resilient Plan: Will it Narrow the North-South Productivity Gap? By L. Mauro; F. Pigliaru
  31. Entrepreneurship and the Efficiency Effects of Migration By Gustavo González
  32. Team ties, embeddedness, and turnover intentions: integrating social networks and field theory By Sahoo, MadhuBala; Janardhanan, Niranjan S.; Ekkirala, Srinivas
  33. Sub-national disparities in the global mobility of academic talent By Aliakbar Akbaritabar; Maciej J. Dańko; Xinyi Zhao; Emilio Zagheni
  34. Combining GPS Tracking and Surveys for a Mode Choice Model: Processing Data from a Quasi-Natural Experiment in Germany By Heike Link; Dennis Gaus; Neil Murray; Maria Fernanda Guajardo Ortega; Flavien Gervois; Frederik von Waldow; Sofia Eigner
  35. Integrated Intermediation and Fintech Market Power By Greg Buchak; Vera Chau; Adam Jørring
  36. Crisis accommodation in Australia: now and for the future By Batterham, Deb; Tually, Selina; Coram, Veronica; McKinley, Kelly; Kolar, Violet; McNelis, Sean; Goodwin-Smith, Ian
  37. Market Response to Racial Uprisings By Bocar A. Ba; Roman Rivera; Alexander Whitefield
  38. Foreign Investment and Local Enterprise: Navigating the Tightrope of FDI Inflows and Homegrown Entrepreneurship By Yeboah, Samuel; Boateng Prempeh, Kwadwo

  1. By: Martin Hoesli (University of Geneva; University of Aberdeen; Swiss Finance Institute;); Richard Malle (Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM); BNP Paribas - Real Estate)
    Abstract: We analyze the behavior of commercial real estate prices after the COVID-19 pandemic, emphasizing differences across property types. For that purpose, we use national and city level direct real estate data for the 10 largest countries in terms of market capitalization, as well as listed real estate data. We find that the recent rise in interest rates and geopolitical instability have affected prices differently across sectors. Industrial properties benefited from the pandemic although prices declined significantly in 2022. Residential properties continued their upward price trend and have been the best-performing property type during the last two decades. Retail real estate continued its downward price trajectory. Thus far, office markets do not appear to be significantly affected by structural changes in the sector. Finally, data for listed real estate markets in Europe suggest that markets bottomed out in early 2023.
    Keywords: Commercial real estate prices; Europe; COVID-19; Industrial; Residential
    JEL: R33 G12 G23
    Date: 2023–08
  2. By: Davide Azzolini; Martina Bazzoli; Sergiu C. Burlacu; Enrico Rettore
    Abstract: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a summer learning program for vulnerable students across ten cities in Italy (N=1, 038). The program had two components: educational workshops in small groups (88 hours) and personalized tutoring (12 hours). Results indicate significant improvements in reading comprehension and marginally in grammar. Improvements in arithmetic and geometry are smaller albeit significant when aggregated into a single mathematics score. Effects were most pronounced among primary school students and among students with special needs or from vulnerable environments. The program compensated for summer learning loss, as treatment group students returned to school in September with higher learning levels than before the summer, while the control group experienced learning setbacks, predominantly in mathematics. While the study clearly shows that students start the new year with a higher level of competencies, it does not definitively establish the lasting impact of these effects. An explorative analysis of noncognitive skills provides conflicting insights: an increase in students' interest in acquiring new competencies suggests potential enduring effects, but the emergence of dissatisfaction with traditional school activities and heightened school-related stress raises concerns about reduced engagement with conventional schooling.
    Keywords: summer learning loss, summer learning program, Italy, achievement gap, RCT
    JEL: I24
    Date: 2023–09
  3. By: Sarah Bui; Timothy Freeman; Ricardo Hausmann (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Farah Kaddah (Growth Lab); Lucas Lamby (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Tim O'Brien (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Eric S. M. Protzer (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: Quantitative evidence supports the contention that Wyoming’s housing market is constrained, to a greater degree than many other parts of the US. Prices are persistently above expectations given economic fundamentals in most parts of the state, and the supply of new housing in Wyoming is on average less responsive to price increases than in other US counties. This has undermined natural population growth and contributed to a low amount of population density close to city centers in Wyoming, as compared to other US cities with comparable population levels. Importantly, this phenomenon is not simply the result of pandemic-era economic frictions. The evidence shows that these constraints have durably persisted in Wyoming. This housing constraint weighs heavily on the broader Wyoming’s economy, and chokes off growth in new industries that could add to the Wyoming economy beyond its natural resource base. Businesses consistently report a lack of access to workforce as a leading problem that ultimately results from a lack of housing. Some businesses have even tried to create their own housing for employees, and news reports abound of teachers and nurses who secure jobs in Wyoming communities but then have to leave because they cannot find housing. Key problems behind Wyoming’s housing constraints include excessive regulations concerning housing density and insufficient investment in arterial infrastructure. We suggest a portfolio of policy changes for the state of Wyoming to explore in order to solve its housing constraints.
    Keywords: wyoming, housing market, deregulation, arterial infrastructure
    Date: 2023–04
  4. By: Matthew Burlingame; Dennis Guignet; Matthew Heberling; Michael Papenfus
    Abstract: This study provides step-by-step guidance for practitioners and local stakeholders on how to use existing study results to conduct benefit transfer, and ultimately make informed predictions of how improvements in lake water clarity may benefit surrounding communities. The procedures are demonstrated using a publicly available meta-dataset developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and a subsequent meta-analysis that synthesizes the literature of how improvements in water clarity impacts home values. The benefit transfer procedures are demonstrated using a case study of 14 large lakes in Kosciusko County, Indiana. Lake-specific average increases in home values, as well as the value of the housing stock in aggregate, are calculated for illustrative improvements in lake water clarity. This analysis provides a critical bridge to better connect high-quality, academic research with real-world policy analysis, and ultimately serves to better equip local governments and stakeholders to make more informed policy and land use decisions. Key Words: benefit transfer; hedonic; meta-analysis; property value; lake; water clarity
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Lee Crawfurd (Center for Global Development); Susannah Hares (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: How should governments and donors engage with the growing private sector in education in developing countries? Enrolment in private schools now exceeds 50 percent at the primary level in many major urban centres across Africa and Asia. Whilst the majority of these schools are small and independently owned and operated, much policy attention has focused on chains or networks of private schools, and on public-private partnerships, as routes for public and philanthropic engagement. In this paper, we review the evidence on the effects of individual private schools, private school chains, and public-private partnerships (PPPs) on learning, equity, and efficiency. We adopt a comprehensive search strategy for eligible studies, with transparent search criteria. We build on and update prior reviews by Ashley et al. (2014) and Aslam et al. (2017). The search resulted in over 100 studies on low-cost private schools and PPPs, with a large majority being on low-cost private schools. We also provide original analysis of five datasets on school chains. Though some private school students do achieve better learning outcomes, much of this advantage is due to selection of wealthier or better motivated students. What true positive value-added remains is typically small and insufficient to help children achieve meaningfully better learning goals or life outcomes. The very poorest children do not access private schools. School chains are not a major part of education systems and have limited growth potential, making them peripheral in solving the twin challenges of enrolment and learning. Public-private partnerships have shown limited value in improving quality but may represent a low-cost means of increasing access to school. Given the reality that private schools educate a large share of students in many countries, more evidence is needed on how governments can best support these children.
    Keywords: private schools, chains, PPPs, developing countries
    JEL: I25 I28 H52 O15
    Date: 2021–12–16
  6. By: N. Meltem Daysal; Michael F. Lovenheim; David N. Wasser
    Abstract: Rising wealth inequality has spurred an increased interest in understanding how and why wealth is correlated across generations. We exploit plausibly exogenous variation in housing wealth driven by home price changes in different areas to isolate the causal impact of parental housing wealth during different childhood periods on children’s long-run wealth accumulation. Using population-level Danish administrative data, we find that 27% and 25% of each Krone of parental housing wealth change during early-childhood is transmitted to children’s overall and housing wealth in adulthood, respectively. The corresponding transmission rates for parental housing wealth changes during middle-childhood are 25% and 15%, with a transmission to non-housing wealth of 10%. There is little evidence of transmission of parental housing wealth changes that occur during the teenage years. Examining mechanisms, we find that parental housing wealth changes in early and middle-childhood lead to modest increases in adult children’s home ownership, educational attainment, and earnings. However, earnings and education can explain only 20-30% of the intergenerational transmission of parental wealth gains during these periods. We argue that the transmission of parental housing wealth changes in childhood are driven in large part by changes to unobserved household environment and parental behaviors that are passed on to children and shape their savings behavior in adulthood.
    JEL: D31 J62
    Date: 2023–09
  7. By: Xiameng Pan; Chang Sun
    Abstract: We develop a quantitative spatial equilibrium model with endogenous migration and remittance decisions within households to examine the joint effect of migration and remittances on economic development. We apply the model to internal migration in China. Counterfactual analysis of the calibrated model shows that the presence of remittances increases migration and welfare, reduces regional inequality and facilitates structural change. Compared to a conventional single-person migration model, our household model suggests a larger reduction in regional inequality and stronger reallocation of employment from agriculture to manufacturing and services in response to the decline in migration costs over the period of 2000 to 2010.
    Keywords: remittances, migration, structural change, spatial equilibrium
    JEL: O10 R10 R20
    Date: 2023
  8. By: Arellano-Bover, Jaime (Yale University); San, Shmuel (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
    Abstract: We study how job mobility, firms, and firm-ladder climbing can shape immigrants' labor market success. Our context is the migration of former Soviet Union Jews to Israel during the 1990s. This setting presents unique institutional features—including the lack of barriers posed by migration regulations—and rich data availability. Differential sorting across firms and differential pay-setting within firms both explain important shares of immigrant-native wage gap levels and dynamics. Immigrants are persistently more mobile than natives and faster at climbing the firm ladder. We uncover a novel, sizable job utility immigrant-native gap when incorporating non-wage amenities into the analysis.
    Keywords: immigrants, firms, job mobility, firm ladder, assimilation
    JEL: J31 J61 F22
    Date: 2023–08
  9. By: Aparicio Fenoll, Ainoa (University of Turin); Quaranta, Roberto (Collegio Carlo Alberto)
    Abstract: Previous literature on the effect of tenured and tenure-track vs. non-tenure-track professors on students' performance at university finds contrasting results. Our paper is the first to test whether tenured/tenure-track and non-tenure-track teachers differently affect students' performance at school. We use data on standardized test scores of a representative sample of primary and secondary school students in Italy and information on their Italian and mathematics teachers' labor contracts. Controlling for class- and subject-fixed effects, we find that non-tenure-track teachers decrease students' performance by 0.21 standard deviation. This detrimental effect is fully explained because non-tenure-track teachers are less experienced. In line with previous findings on the adverse effects of teachers' absences, non-tenure-track teachers are also associated with 0.1 standard deviation worse student performance when their contracts last less than a year.
    Keywords: teachers, labor contracts, students' performance, standardized tests
    JEL: J41 H52
    Date: 2023–08
  10. By: Heller-Sahlgren, Gabriel (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effects of independent-school competition on Sweden’s performance in TIMSS, an international low-stakes test in mathematics and science among students in year 8. Exploiting variation in independent-school enrolment shares across counties over time, it finds that increasing competition has improved TIMSS scores, an impact that appears only after 2003 and is driven by for-profit schools. The results suggest that competition both slowed down Sweden’s performance decline between 1995 and 2011 as well as contributed to its improving scores between 2011 and 2019. A simulation based on the estimates indicates that Sweden’s average score in TIMSS 2019 would have been 20 points, or 0.24 standard deviations, lower without the expansion of the independent-school sector.
    Keywords: Independent-school competition; Student performance; TIMSS
    JEL: I20 L33
    Date: 2023–09–05
  11. By: Natee Amornsiripanitch
    Abstract: This paper uses data on millions of single-borrower mortgage applications to study the relationship between applicant age and mortgage application outcomes. Conditional on a rich set of applicant, property, and loan characteristics, mortgage refinance applications submitted by older borrowers are associated with higher rejection probabilities. This pattern holds within lender and across loan types. Rejection probability increases smoothly with age and accelerates in old age. The acceleration is slower for female applicants. Inability to maintain properties may contribute as older applicants are more likely to be rejected for insufficient collateral. Lastly, using the loan-level pricing adjustment identification strategy, I find similar empirical relationships between borrower age and coupon rate on home purchase and refinance mortgages that were sold to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Taken at face value, age appears to be an equally important correlate of mortgage application outcomes as race and ethnicity. Overall, the results suggest that older individuals systematically face higher barriers to mortgage access. Potential explanations are discussed.
    Keywords: Aging; Mortgage; Housing; Inequality; Credit Access
    JEL: G21 J1 D63
    Date: 2023–02–28
  12. By: Valentin Lang; Stephan A. Schneider
    Abstract: During recent waves of immigration, support for nationalist parties has increased in many countries, but the political backlash against immigration differs strongly across regions. We identify an underlying cause for these differences by studying how local experience with immigration shapes nationalist sentiment and electoral reactions to current immigration in the long run. Our analysis draws on a natural experiment in post-war Germany, where a short-term demarcation of occupation zones led to a discontinuous and quasi-exogenous distribution of forced migrants. Across this border, the population share of migrants differed by 12 percentage points. Applying a spatial regression discontinuity design, we combine historical migration records with panel data at the municipality level for the 1925-2021 period. The results reveal a substantially weaker backlash against contemporary immigration in regions where more migrants settled in the late 1940s. This historical experience reduces the nationalist backlash by about 20 percent. High levels of immigration activate this effect over a period of at least 70 years. To study the mechanisms, we conduct a geocoded survey with a randomized experiment and open-ended questions in the study region. We find that both family history and local collective memory of successful immigrant integration contribute to these effects. The results of the randomized experiment are consistent with the natural experiment, revealing how experience with immigration can curb nationalism.
    Keywords: migration, nationalism, persistence, voting behavior
    JEL: D72 O15
    Date: 2023
  13. By: Audun Langørgen; Sturla A. Løkken (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the long-term effects of local government education spending on child outcomes, including income, educational attainment, and family formation in adulthood. We propose a novel identification strategy which exploits quasirandom variation in demographic trends when there is strong inertia in local government spending on compulsory schooling. Specifically, size of the exiting cohort that finishes compulsory schooling just before entry of the treated cohort is used as a source of exogenous variation. First, we show that exiting cohort size displays a significantly positive effect on per-pupil spending during school years of the treated cohort. Second, we argue that causal effects of school spending can be identified by utilizing exiting cohort size to instrument for school spending. In implementing this strategy, school spending is found to exhibit sizable and significant effects on income in adulthood for boys, with estimates that are relatively large for children from low- and middle-income families. By comparison, the effects of education spending are small and insignificant for girls.
    Keywords: Education spending; School inputs; Compulsory schooling; Cohort size; Child outcomes; Local public finance
    JEL: H42 H7 I2 J12 J62
    Date: 2023–08
  14. By: Alexander Yarkin
    Abstract: How do political preferences and voting behaviors respond to information coming from abroad? Focusing on the international migration network, I document that opinion changes at the origins spill over to 1st- and 2nd-generation immigrants abroad. Local diasporas, social media, and family ties to the origins facilitate the transmission, while social integration at destination weakens it. Using the variation in the magnitude, timing, and type of origin-country exposure to the European Refugee Crisis of 2015, I show that salient events trigger learning from the origins. Welcoming asylum policies at the origins decrease opposition to non-Europeans and far-right voting abroad. Transitory refugee flows through the origins send abroad the backlash. Data from Google Trends and Facebook suggests elevated attention to events at the origins and communication with like-minded groups as mechanisms. Similar spillovers following the passage of same-sex marriage laws show the phenomenon generalizes beyond refugee attitudes.
    Keywords: immigration, social networks, spillovers, political attitudes, integration
    JEL: O15 Z13 D72 D83 P00 J61 F22
    Date: 2023
  15. By: Anjali Adukia; Benjamin Feigenberg; Fatemeh Momeni
    Abstract: School districts historically approached conflict-resolution from a zero-sum perspective: suspend students seen as disruptive and potentially harm them, or avoid suspensions and harm their classmates. Restorative practices (RP) -- focused on reparation and shared ownership of disciplinary justice -- are designed to avoid this trade-off by addressing undesirable behavior without imparting harm. This study examines Chicago Public Schools' adoption of RP. We identify decreased suspensions, improved school climate, and find no evidence of increased classroom disruption. We estimate a 19% decrease in arrests, including for violent offenses, with reduced arrests outside of school, providing evidence that RP substantively changed behavior.
    JEL: I0 I20 I21 I24 J0 J01 J08 J18 K39
    Date: 2023–09
  16. By: Christian Dustmann; Hyejin Ku; Tanya Surovtseva
    Abstract: We relate origin-destination real price differences to immigrants’ reservation wages and their career trajectories, exploiting administrative data from Germany and the 2004 enlargement of the European Union. We find that immigrants who enter Germany when a unit of earnings from Germany allows for larger consumption at home settle for lower entry wages, but subsequently catch up to those arriving with less favourable exchange rates, through transition to better-paying occupations and firms. Similar patterns hold in the US data. Our analysis offers one explanation for the widespread phenomenon of immigrants’ downgrading, with new implications for immigrant cohort effects and assimilation profiles.
    Keywords: real exchange rate, reservation wage, immigrant downgrading, earnings assimilation
    JEL: J24 J31 J61 O15 O24
    Date: 2023
  17. By: David Abrams; Hanming Fang; Priyanka Goonetilleke
    Abstract: The standard economic model of police stops implies that the contraband hit rate should rise when the number of stops or searches per officer falls, ceteris paribus. We provide empirical corroboration of such optimizing models of police behavior by examining changes in stops and frisks around two extraordinary events of 2020: the COVID-19 pandemic onset and the nationwide protests following the killing of George Floyd. We find that hit rates from pedestrian and vehicle stops generally rose as stops and frisks fell dramatically. Using detailed data, we are able to rule out a number of alternative explanations, including changes in street population, crime, police allocation, and policing intensity. We find mixed evidence about the changes in racial disparities, and evidence that police stops do not decrease crime, at least in the short run. The results are robust to a number of different specifications. Our findings provide quantitative estimates that can contribute to the important goals of improving and reforming policing.
    JEL: J14 K0
    Date: 2023–08
  18. By: Shishir Shakya; Christine Bretschneider Fries
    Abstract: We investigate how the Certificate-of-need laws influence access to substance abuse treatment facilities in the United States. First, we use the National Directory of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Treatment Facilities dataset, which lists all federal, state, and local government facilities and private facilities that provide substance abuse treatment services in 2020. We also use Geocodio, a geocoding tool, to determine the precise locations of these facilities. Next, we develop a novel access index that accounts for both driving distance and travel time to measure the ease of reaching these facilities for individuals living at the population-weighted county centroids. Our findings indicate that counties located in states with Certificate-of-need laws have 10% lower access to substance abuse treatment services compared to their neighboring counties in states without such regulations. Key Words: Certificate-of-need laws, Substance abuse treatment services, Spatial accessibility
    Date: 2023
  19. By: Costas Arkolakis; Federico Huneeus; Yuhei Miyauchi
    Abstract: We use new theory and data to study how firms endogenously form production networks across regions and countries. Supplier and buyer relationships form depending on firms’ productivity and geographic location. We characterize the normative and positive properties of the spatial distribution of economic activity and welfare in general equilibrium. We calibrate the model using domestic and international firm-to-firm trade data from Chile. Both iceberg trade costs and search and matching frictions are important for aggregate trade flows and production networks. Endogenous formation of production networks leads to larger and more dispersed effects of international and intranational trade cost shocks.
    Date: 2023–02
  20. By: Martina Jakob; Konstantin Büchel; Daniel Steffen; Aymo Brunetti
    Abstract: Participatory teaching methods have been shown to be more successful than traditional rote learning in high-income countries. It is, however, less clear if they can help address the learning crisis in low- and middle-income countries, where classes tend to be large and teachers have fewer resources at their disposal. Based on a field experiment with 440 teachers from 220 schools in Tanzania, we use official standardized student examinations to assess the impact of a pedagogy-centered intervention. A five-day in-service teacher training on participatory and practice-based methods improved students' test scores 18 months later by 0.15 SD. The additional provision of laptops with a learning software allowing teachers to refresh their content knowledge did not yield further learning gains for students. Complementary results from qualitative surveys and interviews suggest that the program was highly appreciated by different stakeholders, but that participants are unable to assess its impact along different dimensions, giving equally positive evaluations of its successful and its less successful elements.
    Keywords: productivity in education, participatory teaching, teacher content knowledge, computer-assisted learning, development economics
    JEL: C93 I21 J24 O15
    Date: 2023–09–05
  21. By: Dennis Gaus; Georg Hirte
    Abstract: As research indicates a gap between complex scientific measures of accessibility and simpler proxies used by firms, this paper analyses the impact of several market access indicators on the location decision of firms. It compares the role of inter- and intra-industry agglomeration as proxies of access with a newly developed gravity-based indicator incorporating transport distances and industry relations. The estimation results of a nested mixed multinomial logit model, based on a sample of 110, 083 German firms, provide evidence that agglomeration effects play an essential role in firms’ location choice, whereas the complex market access measure does not have a significant impact. This outcome holds true for large as well as small and medium sized enterprises and is confirmed in several robustness checks. Thus, the paper provides guidance to further research on companies’ location decisions, highlighting that access indicators should be chosen specifically for the scientific context, as well as to firms to make more efficient location choices from the perspective of market access.
    Keywords: Transportation, accessibility, location choice, agglomeration, market access
    JEL: L14 O18 R12 R32
    Date: 2023
  22. By: Shelby Carvalho (Harvard University; The Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: Refugee girls are one of the most marginalized groups in the world when it comes to school participation, with girls half as likely to enroll in secondary school as their male peers. Gender disparities can be made worse by conflict and displacement and increase as children get older. As many low- and middle-income host countries move toward more inclusive models of refugee education, it’s critical to identify barriers that may differentially limit refugee girls’ inclusion. This paper uses two unique household surveys in Ethiopia to examine household and community factors shaping participation in secondary school. The findings suggest that the magnitude and sources of disadvantage vary across groups. Domestic responsibilities at home and concerns about safety in the community are more likely to limit secondary school participation for refugee girls compared to boys and host community girls, while other factors including parental education and exposure to gender-based violence are less likely to differ between refugees and host communities. These findings have implications for policies targeting girls’ education for both refugees and host communities.
    Keywords: education, gender, refugees, displacement, education in emergencies, sub-Saharan Africa, Ethiopia
    JEL: F22 I21 I24 J16 O15 N37
    Date: 2022–01–13
  23. By: David Evans (Center for Global Development); Amina Mendez Acosta (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: Student attendance at school is a necessary condition for learning and for other schooling benefits, yet absenteeism is a significant issue for students in many countries. Policies, programs, and research seeking to reduce absenteeism need to measure it accurately. This article describes seven different methods to measure student absenteeism, all used in at least one of 27 recently published studies in low- and middle-income countries. It also synthesizes evidence on the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, drawing on 17 studies that compare methods. We find that official school attendance records—a relatively cheap, nonintrusive method—often result in similar statistics as unannounced spot checks, but there are enough exceptions that policymakers and researchers may initially need to complement school records with spot checks. Student reports often understate absenteeism, and caregiver reports even more so. We discuss implications for researchers and for policymakers to improve measurement in education systems.
    Keywords: education, absenteeism, learning, measurement
    JEL: I20 I25 I32 O12
    Date: 2021–12–15
  24. By: MROZOWSKA Sylwia
    Abstract: The report presents the availability of data for monitoring the indicators proposed by the JRC, and illustrates the process of building a regional SDG monitoring system for the Pomorskie region. It assesses the Pomorskie region’s capacity to monitor the SDGs, identifying challenges encountered in the process, gaps to be addressed and strengths to build on. The publication was created as a result of the analytical work and in-depth cooperation and dialogue with the Department of Regional and Spatial Development of Office of the Marshal of the Pomorskie region and with the participation of units dealing with public statistics – Statistics Poland, Branch Gdańsk and the Centre for Sustainable Development of the University of Gdańsk.
    Date: 2023–07
  25. By: Lakshmi Pandey (Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University); Glenwood Ross (Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University); David L. Sjoquist (Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University)
    Abstract: In this report we address four questions. First, how do the characteristics of the census tracts in 2000 differ across the four quadrants? Second, how have these characteristics changed since 2000 for the four quadrants? Third, what are the characteristics of the Whites who moved into these predominately Black census tracts? Fourth, how do these characteristics compare with those of Whites who resided in these census tracts in 2000?
    Date: 2023–09
  26. By: Ben Gilbert; Hannah Gagarin; Ben Hoen
    Abstract: We use restricted-access, geocoded data on the near-universe of workers in 23 U.S. states in order to quantify the impact of wind energy development on local earnings and employment, by race, ethnicity, sex, and educational attainment. We find the largest relative impacts for workers without a high school education, or workers with a college education, in addition to other systematic differences across sub-populations. We compare these results to estimates using county aggregates of the worker-level data, such as can be obtained using publicly available data. We find that (a) county-level estimates are dramatically dampened relative to geocoded worker-level estimates, and (b) the degree of bias differs by sub-population such that qualitative comparisons of impacts are not consistent using restricted-access data versus county-level data for most sub-populations. We discuss implications for achieving equity goals within energy transition policies.
    JEL: Q4 Q42 Q43 R11 R12
    Date: 2023–08
  27. By: Jonathan M.V. Davis; Kyle Greenberg; Damon Jones
    Abstract: We present evidence from a randomized trial of the impact of matching workers to jobs using the deferred acceptance (DA) algorithm. Our setting is the U.S. Army’s annual many-to-one marketplace that matches 10, 000 officers to units. Officers and jobs are partitioned into over 100 distinct markets, our unit of randomization. Matching with DA reduced officers’ attrition in their first year in their new match by 16.7 percent, but we can rule out more than a 10 percent reduction in attrition by the end of their second year. Matching with DA had precise zero effects on performance evaluations and promotions. Although matching with DA increased truthful preference reporting by a statistically significant 10 percent, many officers matched by DA misreport their true preferences. We present new evidence suggesting that communication and coordination of preferences may limit the benefits of DA in matching markets where each side actively ranks the other.
    JEL: D47 J01 M5
    Date: 2023–08
  28. By: Lerner, Michael
    Abstract: The majority of U.S. states have set targets for renewable energy, but the prospects for meeting most of these goals hinge on the willingness of local governments to allow large-scale renewable energy projects in their communities. In this paper, I investigate how exposure to lobbying by wind developers and the actions of neighboring jurisdictions inform the adoption and design of rules for siting commercial wind farms. Using data collected from 1603 counties in 23 states, I find local policymakers are more likely to enact wind ordinances when they have more time to interact with wind developers and when neighboring counties have adopted wind ordinances or approved the construction of wind farms. I also observe that counties tend to adopt more stringent rules when more wind farms have been built in neighboring counties. This evidence suggests that efforts to scale up renewable energy generation may encounter increasing resistance from local governments.
    Keywords: climate change; comparative governance; developed countries; economic development; energy; innovation
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2022–03–01
  29. By: Nicole Black (Monash University); Lachlan Deer (Tilburg University); David W. Johnston (Monash University); Johannes S. Kunz (Monash University)
    Abstract: Peer-to-peer support is often a critical component of mental health programs, but evidence on the effect of peer-based support programs at scale is limited. Using quasi-experimental methods, we examine whether a prominent peer-based support campaign, “R U OK? Day”, affects short-term mental health outcomes in Australia. Using variation in daily records and differences in the campaign’s intensity over nine years, we find no evidence that “R U OK? Day” reduces suicides and suicidal behaviours in the month after the campaign. However, we find positive effects on mental wellbeing, particularly among middle-aged males, with improved social support the likely mechanism. Our results provide evidence that peer support campaigns may be a practical, low-cost approach to improve population mental wellbeing.
    Keywords: Peer-to-Peer, Mental Health, Program Evaluation, Suicide Prevention
    JEL: I10 I30
    Date: 2023–09
  30. By: L. Mauro; F. Pigliaru
    Abstract: We develop an endogenous growth model to simulate the long-term impact of Italy s National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP) on the persistent North-South productivity gap. Our model underscores public investment as a catalyst for sustained economic growth and highlights the reliance of local government quality on the surrounding social capital. In regions with low social capital, local investment management diminishes efficiency due to prevalent misappropriation. In contrast, centralized management enhances the effectiveness of public action in these situations. The NRRP s overall effect therefore relies on the government level to which investment management is assigned. Our quantitative exercises show that compared to centralization, decentralization weakens the NRRP s impact on the relative position of the South. However, even under our our best scenario — centralized management — the NRRP only slightly reduces the North-South productivity gap from 75% to 76.4%. Finally, our research highlights the pivotal role of a reform aimed at maintaining central control over Southern public investments well beyond 2026, when the NRRP s actions and governance are due to stop. This type of reform can potentially yield more substantial, positive, and lasting impacts on the region.
    Keywords: social capital;regional convergence;economic growth;decentralization
    Date: 2023
  31. By: Gustavo González
    Abstract: This paper constructs and calibrates a parsimonious two-country dynamic general equilibrium model of entrepreneurship and migration. Countries differ in their TFP and degree of financial frictions. The model is calibrated to replicate the economic and migratory situation of the United States and the rest of the world. I evaluate the impact of changing migration barriers on GDP per capita, average firms productivity, business ownership rates, and consumption on both regions. I find that migration barriers have a non-monotone impact on the average productivity of the host coun-try, depending this on the entrepreneurial skill and mass of people that move in and are displaced by entrants. A migration policy that favors the entry of foreign people with a higher entrepreneurial drive would reduce profits of native entrepreneurs, but would make the economy more efficient and would lift the welfare of workers of the host economy.
    Date: 2023–07
  32. By: Sahoo, MadhuBala; Janardhanan, Niranjan S.; Ekkirala, Srinivas
    Abstract: Although social networks have been examined in teams, an understanding of the consequences of team social network ties on employees’ attitudes beyond team boundaries is hard to come by. Integrating insights from social networks and gestalt field theory, we examine interactive effects of centrality and density of inclusion and exclusion ties in teams on the relationship between employees’ community embeddedness—connectedness with the broader social context—and turnover intentions. In a multi-source field study of 215 employees in 34 teams, we demonstrate that inclusion and exclusion centrality and team exclusion density weaken the effect of community embeddedness on turnover intention.
    Keywords: community embeddedness; gestalt field theory; inclusion/exclusion; team social networks; turnover intentions; Sage deal
    JEL: J50
    Date: 2023–08–20
  33. By: Aliakbar Akbaritabar (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Maciej J. Dańko (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Xinyi Zhao (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Emilio Zagheni (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: The migration of scholars has been often studied across countries, however, these studies have rarely focused on sub-national regions. We used data on 28+ million Scopus publications of 8+ million unique authors and geo-coded the affiliation addresses. Our results show that by focusing on the sub-national regions, the share of mobile scholars increases from 8% to 12.4%. We found that in all continents when a sub-national region is attractive for international migrants, it is also attractive for internal ones. The reverse is not true, though. For most continents, a depopulation is happening where scholars move abroad and their position is filled by scholars arriving from other sub-national regions inside the country. In the US, as an example, states in the mid-eastern area have the highest net rate of scholars leaving for other destinations inside the US, mostly on the west coast. In Europe, multiple countries show a similar trend that more developed provinces receive scholars from internal origins and send scholars to international destinations. Our results have implications for the global circulation of academic talent by adding more nuance to the generally accepted image of brain drain and brain gain. We highlight the interrelation between internal and international migration, specifically for regions constantly losing their academic workforce.
    Keywords: World, internal migration, international migration, migration
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2023
  34. By: Heike Link; Dennis Gaus; Neil Murray; Maria Fernanda Guajardo Ortega; Flavien Gervois; Frederik von Waldow; Sofia Eigner
    Abstract: This paper deals with the data generation process implemented for an analysis of the impact of the 9-Euro ticket on mode choice. We discuss the assumptions made and procedures used to process a raw dataset that is based on GPS traces of individuals’ movements and on survey data into the choice-set for a discrete choice model. Several steps of cleaning and merging are described in order to a) obtain a reliable dataset; b) define available modal alternatives with attributes such as distance, duration, and costs; and c) impute the travel purpose for each movement to form. Our main contribution is to show that a systematic analysis of the sample obtained at different stages of data processing is important to make sure that the final sample is unbiased. Furthermore, we contribute by analysing the difference between observed travel time and travel time calculated by routing tools such as Google Maps. We show that the often- employed approach of estimating RP based choice models on the basis of observed travel times for the chosen mode of transport but calculated travel times for the non-chosen alternatives can introduce a structural bias into the sample.
    Keywords: Data processing, travel behaviour, GPS traces, discrete choice models, revealed preferences
    JEL: C55 C81 R41
    Date: 2023
  35. By: Greg Buchak (Stanford University); Vera Chau (University of Geneva; Swiss Finance Institute); Adam Jørring (Boston College)
    Abstract: We document that in the US residential mortgage market, the share of integrated intermediaries acting as both originator and servicer has declined dramatically. Exploiting a regulatory change, we show that borrowers with integrated servicers are more likely to refinance, and conditional on refinance, are more likely to be recaptured by their own servicer. Recaptured borrowers pay lower fees relative to other refinancers. This trend is partially offset by a rise in integrated fintech originator-servicers, who recapture at higher frequency but at worse terms. We build and calibrate a dynamic structural model to interpret these facts and quantify their impact on equilibrium outcomes. Our model suggests that integreated intermediaries enjoy a marginal cost advantage when refinancing recaptured borrowers, and fully disintegrating them would reduce refinancing frequencies and increase fees. Fintechs use technology to reacquire customers and reduce borrower inertia against refinancing. This endogenously creates market power, which fintechs exploit through higher fees. Despite worse terms ex-post, fintechs increase consumer welfare ex-ante by increasing refinancing frequencies. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of intermediaries’ scope in consumer financial outcomes and highlight a novel, quantitatively important application of fintech: customer acquisition.
    Keywords: Financial intermediation, disintermediation, mortgage servicing, refinancing, fintech
    JEL: G21 G23 E44 L12 L42 O16 O33
    Date: 2023–08
  36. By: Batterham, Deb; Tually, Selina; Coram, Veronica; McKinley, Kelly; Kolar, Violet; McNelis, Sean; Goodwin-Smith, Ian
    Abstract: This research explores the different crisis accommodation models operating in Australia, as well as the different approaches to case management and key principles for ensuring a supportive built environment. It documents what works and what doesn’t work, together with the needs and outcomes for those in crisis accommodation. Formal crisis accommodation supports a range of people experiencing acute housing need, and in particular: women and children experiencing domestic and family violence; children and young people; Aboriginal Australians; people experiencing repeat or chronic homelessness; people with mental health issues or problematic substance use; and an increasing number of older Australians. Crisis accommodation is concentrated in capital cities and major towns, with limited options available in regional and remote areas. On-site support is a significant element of many models, including congregate crisis supported accommodation services and youth and family violence refuges. To meet high demand, many SHSs across Australia also rely on purchasing short-term crisis accommodation from private operators of boarding houses, hotels, motels, hostels and caravan parks. This accommodation is often inappropriate and provides inadequate support for those who receive it. The research provides a number of guidelines for policy makers including that quality and safety standards are needed for all crisis accommodation; enhanced integration of primary and allied health services with crisis accommodation can better deliver the supports people need; purchased crisis accommodation that falls below standards should not be used; and evaluating models of different services facilitate sharing of good practice and learnings to support continuous improvement.
    Date: 2023–08–30
  37. By: Bocar A. Ba; Roman Rivera; Alexander Whitefield
    Abstract: Do investors anticipate that demands for racial equity will impact companies? We explore this question in the context of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement—the largest racially motivated protest movement in U.S. history—and its effect on the U.S. policing industry using a novel dataset on publicly traded firms contracting with the police. It is unclear whether the BLM uprisings were likely to increase or decrease market valuations of firms contracting heavily with police because of the increased interest in reforming the police, fears over rising crime, and pushes to “defund the police”. We find, in contrast to the predictions of economics experts we surveyed, that in the three weeks following incidents triggering BLM uprisings, policing firms experienced a stock price increase of seven percentage points relative to the stock prices of nonpolicing firms in similar industries. In particular, firms producing surveillance technology and police accountability tools experienced higher returns following BLM activism–related events. Furthermore, policing firms’ fundamentals, such as sales, improved after the murder of George Floyd, suggesting that policing firms’ future performances bore out investors' positive expectations following incidents triggering BLM uprisings. Our research shows how—despite BLM’s calls to reduce investment in policing and explore alternative public safety approaches—the financial market has translated high-profile violence against Black civilians and calls for systemic change into shareholder gains and additional revenues for police suppliers.
    JEL: D73 G14 G3 K42
    Date: 2023–08
  38. By: Yeboah, Samuel; Boateng Prempeh, Kwadwo
    Abstract: This systematic review explores the multifaceted challenges and opportunities presented by Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows for local entrepreneurial development. FDI is known to bring both potential benefits and pitfalls for local startups, and understanding this delicate balance is crucial for sustainable economic growth. Firstly, FDI often ushers in increased competition as well-funded foreign firms enter local markets. While this can hinder local startups' market share, it can also stimulate innovation and efficiency. Secondly, local entrepreneurs relying heavily on FDI face dependency risks, as shifts in foreign investors' priorities or sudden exits can disrupt their operations. Thirdly, FDI can transfer technology and knowledge but also poses the risk of technology leakage, potentially stifling local startups' independent capabilities. Fourthly, asymmetrical power dynamics between foreign investors and local startups can result in unequal partnerships. Lastly, FDI might lead to market fragmentation, overshadowing local players and limiting diversity and competition. Furthermore, cultural differences in corporate cultures and management styles can create collaboration challenges between foreign corporations and local startups. In navigating these challenges, local startups must adopt strategies to differentiate themselves from foreign competitors, negotiate fair partnerships, and foster cross-cultural collaboration. Policymakers also play a crucial role in balancing the benefits and costs of FDI through measures that prevent or mitigate market fragmentation and promote interoperability and harmonization across industries. Understanding the nuanced interplay between FDI and local entrepreneurship is essential for achieving sustainable economic growth and fostering innovation in a globalized world.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI); Local Entrepreneurship; Challenges; Opportunities; Competition; Dependency Risks; Technology Leakage; Power Dynamics; Market Fragmentation; Cultural Challenges; Economic Growth; Innovation; Sustainable Development; Cross-Cultural Collaboration; Market Share
    JEL: D22 F21 F23 L20 L26 L53 M21 O16 O33 O57
    Date: 2023–07–14

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