nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2023‒09‒25
72 papers chosen by
Steve Ross, University of Connecticut

  1. Market Access and Migration: Evidence from the Panama Canal Opening during the First Great Migration By Sebastian Galiani; Luis F. Jaramillo; Mateo Uribe-Castro
  2. Housing Unaffordability and Adolescent Academic Achievement in Urban China By Nie, Peng; Li, Qiaoge; Ding, Lanlin; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso
  3. Can vocational education improve schooling and labour outcomes? Evidence from a large expansion By Joao R. Ferreira; Pedro S. Martins
  4. The Effect of Classroom Rank on Learning throughout Elementary School: Experimental Evidence from Ecuador By Carneiro, Pedro; Cruz Aguayo, Yyannu; Salvati, Francesca; Schady, Norbert
  5. Investigating social inequality of urban green spacedistribution using Sentinel-2: the case of Vienna By Wimmer, Lorenz; Maus, Victor; Luckeneder, Sebastian
  6. The Role of Social Costs in Response to Labor Market Opportunities: Differences across Race By Kalee Burns; Julie L. Hotchkiss
  7. The Effect of Universal Free School Meals on Child BMI By Davis, Will; Kreisman, Daniel; Musaddiq, Tareena
  8. The Local Origins of Business Formation By Emin M. Dinlersoz; Timothy Dunne; John Haltiwanger; Veronika Penciakova
  9. City shapes and climate change in Africa By Brilé Anderson; Rafael Prieto Curiel; Jorge Eduardo Patiño Quinchía
  10. ALL IS NOT LOST: Organized Crime and Social Capital Formation By Paolo Buonanno; Irene Ferrari; Alessandro Saia
  11. Healthcare workforce internal migration profile and spatial distribution By Ren, Jingqiu; Amaral, Ernesto F. L.
  12. Do Teachers' Labor Contracts Matter? By Ainoa Aparicio Fenoll; Roberto Quaranta
  13. Barriers to the Integration of Venezuelan Migrants and Refugees in Colombia By Dávalos, María Eugenia; Ardila Vargas, Luz Karine; Garcia-Suaza, Andres
  14. Learning Loss and Student Dropouts during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review of the Evidence Two Years after Schools Shut Down By Laura Moscoviz; David K. Evans
  15. Spatial inequality in prices and wages: Town-level evidence from the First Globalisation By Stefan Nikolić
  16. Changes of Regional Consumption Structure and Its Impact on Local Economies Due to Advancements in E-Commerce (Japanese) By ISHIKAWA Yoshifumi; NAKAMURA Ryohei
  17. Humans versus Chatbots: Scaling-up Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Teacher Shortages By Ajzenman, Nicolas; Elacqua, Gregory; Jaimovich, Analía; Pérez-Núñez, Graciela
  18. The externality impact of internal migration in China: Linear and nonlinear approaches By Shanfei Zhang
  19. Job Displacement and Migrant Labor Market Assimilation By Mária Balgová; Hannah Illing
  20. When Effective Teacher Training Falls Short in the Classroom: Evidence from an Experiment in Primary Schools By Suzanne Bellue; Adrien Bouguen; Marc Gurand; Valerie Munier; André Tricot
  21. Real Exchange Rates and the Earnings of Immigrants By Dustmann, Christian; Ku, Hyejin; Surovtseva, Tetyana
  22. Regional Incidence of High-Growth Firms By Alex Coad; Clemens Domnick; Pietro Santoleri; Stjepan Srhoj
  23. Learning from the Origins By Yarkin, Alexander
  24. On the ratios of urban mobility, Part 1: the HoTer model of travel demand and network flows By Fabien Leurent
  25. Service Trade, Regional Specialization, and Welfare By Han, Yuancheng; Miranda-Pinto, Jorge; Tanaka, Satoshi
  26. Closing the Gap Between Vocational and General Education? Evidence from University Technical Colleges in England By Stephen Machin; Sandra McNally; Camille Terrier; Guglielmo Ventura
  27. Which Mexicans Are White? Enumerator-Assigned Race in the 1930 Census and the Socioeconomic Integration of Mexican Americans By Duncan, Brian; Trejo, Stephen
  28. Immigrant Assimilation in the Greek Labor Market By Roupakias, Stelios
  29. The Impact of Criminal Financial Sanctions: A Multi-State Analysis of Survey and Administrative Data By Keith Finlay; Matthew Gross; Carl Lieberman; Elizabeth Luh; Michael G. Mueller-Smith
  30. California Wildfires, Property Damage, and Mortgage Repayment By Siddhartha Biswas; Mallick Hossain; David Zink
  31. Small-Town Police Accountability: Challenges and Recommendations By Kelling, Claire; Haensch, Anna; Mendible, Ariana; Brooks, Spencer; Wiedemann, Alex; Aminian, Manuchehr; Hasty, Wade; Higdon, Jude
  32. The Economic and Fiscal Effects on the United States from Reduced Numbers of Refugees and Asylum Seekers By Michael A. Clemens
  33. Micro- and Macroeconomic Impacts of a Place-Based Industrial Policy By Enghin Atalay; Ali Hortacsu; Mustafa Runyun; Chad Syverson; Mehmet Fatih Ulu
  34. Efficiency in Multiple-Type Housing Markets By Di Feng
  35. Congestion Pricing Can Be Equitable If a Portion of the Revenue is Returned to Drivers By Sallee, James PhD; Tarduno, Matthew PhD
  36. Who Benefits from Remote Schooling? Self-Selection and Match Effects By Jesse M. Bruhn; Christopher Campos; Eric Chyn
  37. Many Major District Metro Areas Have Yet to Recover to Their Prepandemic Employment Levels By Guhan Venkatu
  38. Testing Above the Limit: Drinking Water Contamination and Test Scores By Michelle M. Marcus
  39. Migration on the Rise, a Paradigm in Decline: The Last Half-Century of Global Mobility By Michael A. Clemens
  40. Market Concentration in Fintech By Dean Corbae; Pablo D'Erasmo; Kuan Liu
  41. School Accountability, Long-Run Criminal Activity, and Self-Sufficiency By Ozkan Eren; David N. Figlio; Naci H. Mocan; Orgul Ozturk
  42. Not Cashing In on Cashing Out: An Analysis of Low Cash-Out Refinance Rates By Mallick Hossain; Igor Livshits; Collin Wardius
  43. Political Turnover and Firm Innovation in China: The Moderating Role of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Environment By Xing Shi; Ya Zhang; Yanrui Wu; Huaqing Wu
  44. Young Women in Cities By Koh, Yumi; Li, Jing; Wu, Yifan; Yi, Junjian; Zhang, Hanzhe
  45. Digital Real Estate in the Metaverse: An Empirical Analysis of Retail Investor Motivations By Lennart Ante; Friedrich-Philipp Wazinski; Aman Saggu
  46. Making their own weather? Estimating employer labour-market power and its wage effects By Pedro S. Martins; Antonio P. Melo
  47. Leaving the West Only to Return: The Ethnic Returns of 2nd Generation Vietnamese By Le, Dan
  48. Long-run effects of floods at municipality level in Spain By Marcos Sanso-Navarro; Guillermo Peña
  49. Spatial and Spatiotemporal Volatility Models: A Review By Philipp Otto; Osman Do\u{g}an; S\"uleyman Ta\c{s}p{\i}nar; Wolfgang Schmid; Anil K. Bera
  50. Economics meets urban planning: developing effective land use plans in fast-growing cities By Collier, Paul; Glaeser, Edward; Venables, Tony; Delbridge, Victoria; Oliveira Cunha, Juliana
  51. State Capacity as an Organizational Problem. Evidence from the Growth of the U.S. State Over 100 Years By Nicola Mastrorocco; Edoardo Teso
  52. Women - labor migrants in Russia: Russian women and natives of other countries By Mkrtchian, Nikita (Мкртчян, Никита); Florinskaya, Julia (Флоринская, Юлия)
  53. How spillovers from pollution cleanup in the Ganges affect welfare in Kanpur and Varanasi By Batabyal, Amitrajeet
  54. The interest rate exposure of mortgaged Irish households By Byrne, David; McCann, Fergal; Gaffney, Edward
  55. Industry Wage Differentials: A Firm-Based Approach By David Card; Jesse Rothstein; Moises Yi
  56. Crowdsourced data indicates broadband has a positive impact on local business creation By Yifeng Philip Chen; Edward J. Oughton; Jakub Zagdanski; Maggie Mo Jia; Peter Tyler
  57. The Dynastic Benefits of Early Childhood Education: Participant Benefits and Family Spillovers By Jorge Luis García; Frederik H. Bennhoff; Duncan Ermini Leaf
  58. Occupational Aspirations and Investments in Education: Experimental Evidence from Cambodia By Esther Gehrke; Friederike Lenel; Claudia Schupp
  59. The Value of Intermediaries for GSE Loans By Joshua Bosshardt; Ali Kakhbod; Amir Kermani
  60. The Restrained Recovery of State and Local Government Payrolls from the Pandemic Recession By David B. Cashin; Byron F. Lutz; William B. Peterman; David Ratner; Sarah Rodman
  61. Plata y Plomo: How Higher Wages Expose Politicians to Criminal Violence By Massimo Pulejo; Pablo Querubín
  62. Social Capital and Economic Growth: A Meta-Analysis By Xindong Xue; W. Robert Reed; Robbie C.M. van Aert
  63. Culture of Origin, Parenting, and Household Labor Supply By Ylenia Brilli; Simone Moriconi
  64. Spatial autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average model By Otto, Philipp; Sibbertsen, Philipp
  65. Does costlier waste treatment lead to less residual waste? Evidence from Swedish municipalities By Meens-Eriksson, Sef
  66. The Long-Run Decline of Education Quality in the Developing World By Alexis Le Nestour; Laura Moscoviz; Justin Sandefur
  67. The role of local promoters in helping microentrepreneurs engage in digital business training. The case of Expertienda By Rodríguez-Lesmes, Paul; Gutierrez, Luis H.; Urueña-Mejia, Juan Carlos; Ortiz, Andres; Medina Rojas, Ivan; Romero, Mauricio
  68. Is Social tourism a vector for destination resilience to external shocks? Evidence from Spain. By Fernandez-Morales, Antonio; McCabe, Scott; Martínez, José David Cisneros
  69. Economic Effects of R&D Supports By Huseyin Emre Sayici; Mehmet Fatih Ulu
  70. Urbanization and Women Empowerment: Evidence from India By Dhamija, Gaurav; Roychowdhury, Punarjit; Shankar, Binay
  71. Improving regional macroeconomic skills matching: A RHOMOLO analysis By Tryfonas Christou; Francesca Crucitti; Abian Garcia Rodriguez; Gabor Katay; Nicholas Lazarou; Simone Salotti
  72. Market-reach into social reproduction and transnational labour mobility in Europe By Plomien, Ania; Schwartz, Gregory

  1. By: Sebastian Galiani; Luis F. Jaramillo; Mateo Uribe-Castro
    Abstract: This paper examines the influence of transportation infrastructure on migration decisions in the context of the Great Migration in the United States. Focusing on the opening of the Panama Canal in 1920, we isolate the effect of improved economic opportunities from reduced migration costs. Using full-count Census data, we find that Southern African American migrants preferred areas with enhanced market access, leading to higher inflows after 1920. The study highlights the inter- play between migrant networks and labor markets in shaping migration patterns. Our findings underscore the significance of local market conditions induced by improvements in local market access in influencing migration decisions during the Great Migration.
    JEL: J16 N32 N72
    Date: 2023–08
  2. By: Nie, Peng (Xi’an Jiaotong University); Li, Qiaoge (Xi’an Jiaotong University); Ding, Lanlin (Peking University); Sousa-Poza, Alfonso (University of Hohenheim)
    Abstract: Rising housing prices in China have placed significant financial strain on many households, pushing them into the quagmire of housing unaffordability. Such economic pressures may have repercussions beyond just shelter, potentially impacting the cognitive development of children. Our study, based on longitudinal data from the 2010-2018 China Family Panel Studies, analyses the effect of housing unaffordability on the academic achievements of Chinese adolescents aged 10-15. To address the inherent endogeneity issues associated with housing unaffordability, we employed a fixed effects instrumental variable approach. Our findings reveal that housing unaffordability leads to a decline in academic performance for these adolescents by an average of 12%. This negative effect is more pronounced for specific groups: rural-to-urban migrant families, girls who have male siblings, families who rent, older adolescents (aged 13 to 18), and those residing in less developed regions. Moreover, the results suggest that housing unaffordability adversely affects academic performance indirectly by diminishing household expenditures in critical areas. When housing becomes unaffordable, families have less to spend on food, social capital, and education, further exacerbating the challenges faced by their adolescent children in the academic arena.
    Keywords: housing unaffordability, academic achievement, adolescents, China
    JEL: I20 I31 R20
    Date: 2023–08
  3. By: Joao R. Ferreira; Pedro S. Martins
    Abstract: We evaluate the education and labour impact of vocational education and training (VET). Identification draws on a reform to reduce early school leaving, which involved a large-scale, staggered introduction of VET courses. Drawing on comprehensive student-school matched panel data, we find that VET increased upper secondary graduation rates considerably: our LATE estimates are as large as 50 percentage points. These effects are even stronger for low-achieving students and welfare recipients; and also hold when exploiting the large gender differences of VET, with many courses selected almost only by either boys or girls. Moreover, we find evidence of regional youth employment growth and VET wage premiums following VET expansion.
    Keywords: Educational attainment, Vocational education, Matched student-teacher-school, data, Portugal
    JEL: I21 I26 I28
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Carneiro, Pedro (University College London); Cruz Aguayo, Yyannu (Inter-American Development Bank); Salvati, Francesca (University of Essex); Schady, Norbert (World Bank)
    Abstract: We study the impact of classroom rank on children's learning using a unique experiment from Ecuador. Within each school, students were randomly assigned to classrooms in every grade between kindergarten and 6th grade. Students with the same ability can have different classroom ranks because of the (random) peer composition of their classroom. Children with higher beginning-of-grade classroom rank have significantly higher test scores at the end of that grade. The impact of classroom rank is larger for younger children and grows over time. Higher classroom rank also improves executive function, child happiness, and teacher perceptions of student ability.
    Keywords: classroom rank, test scores
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2023–08
  5. By: Wimmer, Lorenz; Maus, Victor; Luckeneder, Sebastian
    Abstract: Urban green space (UGS) is known to provide several benefits for the local population, including regulating local climate and improving human health. The inequality hypothesis claims that these environmental amenities are unequally distributed across space and among different social groups. We propose using a continuous vegetation index derived from satellite imagery to investigate environmental inequality (EI) in UGS distribution. We used spatial autoregressive models to describe the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and socioeconomic variables in a case study on the city of Vienna at an unprecedented level of detail (250 m resolution). We show statistically significant evidence for the existence of EI in Vienna. Neighborhoods with a higher share of foreigners have significantly less UGS. Results are robust across spatial aggregation levels and alternative spatial and non-spatial model specifications. We find that our model outperforms alternative ground measure for UGS, as NDVI does not cluster around extreme values. We demonstrate the potential of satellite imagery to investigate complex social problems related to EI in urban areas.
    Keywords: Remote Sensing; Foreigners; NDVI; Environmental Inequality; Spatial Regression; Socioeconomics
    Date: 2023–09
  6. By: Kalee Burns; Julie L. Hotchkiss
    Abstract: Using the American Community Survey between 2005 and 2019, this paper investigates the role constraints to migration might play in explaining racial/ethnic disparities in the labor market. We find that Black workers are typically less responsive than White workers to changes in job opportunities, but responsiveness increases when those opportunities present themselves in locations with a higher share own-minority population. We construct an education/race specific Bartik shift-share instrument to control for potential endogeneity of growth in job opportunities.
    Keywords: racial labor market disparities; migration costs; Delta index; social costs; place-based; people-based; mismatch
    JEL: J61 J15 J18
    Date: 2023–07–14
  7. By: Davis, Will (Mississippi State University); Kreisman, Daniel (Georgia State University); Musaddiq, Tareena (Mathematica Policy Research)
    Abstract: We estimate the effect of universal free school meal access through the Community Eligibility Program (CEP) on child BMI. Through the CEP, schools with high percentages of students qualified for free or reduced-priced meals can offer free breakfast and lunch to all students. With administrative data from a large school district in Georgia, we use student-level BMI measures from the FitnessGram to compare within-student outcomes before and after CEP implementation across eligible and non-eligible schools. We find one year of CEP exposure increased expected BMI percentile by about 0.085 standard deviations, equivalent to a nearly 1.88-pound weight increase for a student of average height. We also find that the program led to a small increase in the likelihood of overweight and limited evidence of a small decrease in the likelihood of underweight. We do not find that the program increased student obesity risk. Examining the effects of CEP on child BMI by grade suggests that the overall effect is largely driven by students in middle schools, highlighting potential heterogeneity in the program's impact across grades. The findings of this paper are relevant for researchers and policymakers concerned with the effects of universal free school meals on student health.
    Keywords: school meals, child BMI, community eligibility provision, free lunch
    JEL: I10 I28
    Date: 2023–08
  8. By: Emin M. Dinlersoz; Timothy Dunne; John Haltiwanger; Veronika Penciakova
    Abstract: What locations generate more business ideas, and where are ideas more likely to turn into businesses? Using comprehensive administrative data on business applications, we analyze the spatial disparity in the creation of business ideas and the formation of new employer startups from these ideas. Startups per capita exhibit enormous variation across granular units of geography. We decompose this variation into variation in ideas per capita and in their rate of transition to startups, and we find that both components matter. Observable local demographic, economic, financial, and business conditions account for a significant fraction of the variation in startups per capita—and more so for the variation in ideas per capita than in transition rate. Income, education, age, and foreign-born share are generally strong positive correlates of both idea generation and transition. Overall, the relationship of local conditions with ideas differs from that with transition rate in magnitude and, sometimes, in sign: certain conditions (notably, the African American share of the population) are positively associated with ideas but negatively with transition rates. We also find a close correspondence between the actual rank of locations in terms of startups per capita and the predicted rank based only on observable local conditions—a result useful for characterizing locations with high startup activity.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; firm entry; business formation; business dynamism; economic geography
    JEL: L26 R12 R23
    Date: 2023–08–02
  9. By: Brilé Anderson; Rafael Prieto Curiel; Jorge Eduardo Patiño Quinchía
    Abstract: Africa is undergoing an unprecedented urban and climate transition; yet, given the right conditions, compact urban forms can encourage greater sustainability, resilience and liveability in the coming decades. Using novel techniques and newly available data, this report fills in existing data gaps by producing measures of compactness for 5 625 urban agglomerations, along with other urban form attributes. Even though urbanisation is often unplanned and uncoordinated, a promising trend has emerged: very large cities (of over 4 million inhabitants) are more compact, discounting the population effect, on average, than larger (1 million to 4 million inhabitants) and intermediate cities (50 000 to 1 million inhabitants). Moreover, less compact agglomerations tend to have smaller buildings, flat, low skylines, less complete centres (reflecting a less optimal use of space) and polycentric patterns (i.e. multiple centres, rather than a single, monocentric city). This report analyses the consequences of less compact agglomerations for sustainability and liveability. The disadvantages include higher energy demand, less accessibility to services and opportunities, less walkable urban landscapes and greater car dependency, in addition to higher outdoor air pollution. It also considers the potential trade-offs with resilience; for example, compactness can lead to a loss of green space and an increase of urban heat island effects. The report offers opportunities in the coming years to single out potential areas of action for resilience, as well as for monitoring and evaluating progress.
    Keywords: Africa, cities, compactness, spatial data, sustainability
    JEL: Q24 Q47 Q56 Q58 R58
    Date: 2023–09–08
  10. By: Paolo Buonanno; Irene Ferrari (Department of Economics, University Of Venice CÃ Foscari; NETSPAR); Alessandro Saia (Department of Economics, University Of Bologna)
    Abstract: We investigate how a disruptive social event, namely the emergence of organized crime infiltration in the local government, shapes social capital. We exploit the dismissal of city councils infiltrated by organized crime and a novel and fine-grained measure of social capital in Italy. Using a difference-indifferences strategy, we show that municipalities’ dissolution is associated with a significant and sizable increase in social capital. We document the mechanisms through which the presence of organized crime affects social capital, including trust diversion, changes in civic engagement, and its impact on local institutions and governance.
    Keywords: organized crime, social capital, Italy, 5 per Mille
    JEL: A13 D73 H71 K42 Z18
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Ren, Jingqiu; Amaral, Ernesto F. L. (Texas A&M University)
    Abstract: Where have all the healthcare workers gone? Healthcare workforce internal migration profile and spatial distribution.
    Date: 2023–08–16
  12. By: Ainoa Aparicio Fenoll; Roberto Quaranta
    Abstract: Previous literature on the effect of tenured and tenure-track vs. non-tenure-track professors on students’ performance at university finds contrasting results. Our paper is the first to test whether tenured/tenure-track and non-tenure-track teachers differently affect students’ performance at school. We use data on standardized test scores of a representative sample of primary and secondary school students in Italy and information on their Italian and mathematics teachers’ labor contracts. Controlling for class- and subject-fixed effects, we find that non-tenure-track teachers decrease students’ performance by 0.21 standard deviation. This detrimental effect is fully explained because non-tenure-track teachers are less experienced. In line with previous findings on the adverse effects of teachers’ absences, non-tenure-track teachers are also associated with 0.1 standard deviation worse student performance when their contracts last less than a year.
    Keywords: Teachers, Labor Contracts, Students' Performance, Standardized Tests
    Date: 2023
  13. By: Dávalos, María Eugenia (World Bank); Ardila Vargas, Luz Karine (World Bank); Garcia-Suaza, Andres (Universidad del Rosario)
    Abstract: Integration migrants has become a central challenge and opportunity for public policy in the medium term, to mitigate the impacts and maximize the benefits. This study explores the factors that enhance or reduce barriers to accessing opportunities. Based on data from the Migration Pulse (MP) survey, our analysis finds that access to information, contact networks, and documents for migratory status regularization play an important role in facilitating access to services and improving this group’s employability. Thus, the findings show the interrelationship between integration policies and their complementarity, such as those related to healthcare access and the regularization process. Overall, the results provide evidence supporting the convenience of place-based policies.
    Keywords: Migration; integration; regularization; Colombia
    JEL: F22 O15 R23
    Date: 2023–08–18
  14. By: Laura Moscoviz (Center for Global Development); David K. Evans (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: Following the outbreak and spread of COVID-19 in 2020, schools around the world closed for significant periods of time. Many scholars provided projections of the likely impacts on educational outcomes, with potentially dire impacts on learning loss and—especially in low-income contexts–dropout rates. Now, two years after schools began shutting down, we identify 40 empirical studies directly estimating student learning loss (29 studies) or dropout rates (15 studies) for students in pre-primary, primary, or secondary school in countries at any income level. Most estimates of average learning loss are negative, although–especially in low- and middle-income countries–this is not always the case, and average losses are not as significant as some models predicted. Furthermore, learning loss was consistently much higher among students with lower socioeconomic status in high-, middle-, and low-income countries, even in contexts with little or no average learning loss. In other words, the pandemic consistently boosted learning inequality. Dropout rates ranged dramatically, from under 1 percent to more than 35 percent, with much higher rates for older students, suggesting that pandemic school closures–together with other pandemic-related shocks–may have curtailed many adolescents’ schooling careers. In some countries (e.g., Kenya and Nigeria), girls are at higher risk of dropping out. The vast majority of studies report results for students of primary school age (83 percent of studies), with fewer reporting results for students of secondary school age (45 percent) and even fewer studies (8 percent) for younger students.
    Keywords: COVID-19, learning loss, review, dropout rates
    JEL: I14 I15 I20 I24 I25 O15
    Date: 2022–03–14
  15. By: Stefan Nikolić (Bocconi University)
    Abstract: This article leverages uniquely abundant town-level data to examine spatial inequality in prices and wages during the First Globalisation. I build a new dataset on prices of traded and household goods, and wages of skilled and unskilled workers for a panel of 42 towns in Serbia, in the period from 1863 to 1910. I apply the welfare ratio approach to calculate real wages of day labourers and masons. I find strong convergence in grain prices and costs of living, but divergence in wages, both nominal and real. I estimate panel-data models to explore drivers of inter-urban differences in prices and wages. The main results suggest that falling transport costs decreased price gaps, whereas rising population differences increased wage gaps. The findings are consistent with theoretical predictions of new economic geography and urban economics.
    Keywords: market integration, grain prices, real wages, Serbia, pre-1913
    JEL: N33 N73 N93
    Date: 2023–04
  16. By: ISHIKAWA Yoshifumi; NAKAMURA Ryohei
    Abstract: The advancement of electronic commerce, including online purchases through the internet, is astounding. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a significant increase in both the per-household expenditure on internet-related activities and the proportion of households making purchases through the internet, leading to a substantial expansion of the market size. Historically, local governments have aimed to boost intra-regional consumption by promoting commercial development within their areas, as the presence of large-scale retail stores in neighboring regions would result in consumption leakage. However, in the case of e-commerce, consumers may exhibit behavior driven by factors that are distinct from those influencing traditional store selection. In the case of e-commerce, where distance resistance is virtually absent, the potential for significant spatial disparity between consumption destinations and supply sources emerges. Consequently, this study delves into the determinants of purchase rates within e-commerce. The analysis indicates that factors such as the scale of retail store locations within the region, the age-specific population distribution, proximity to adjacent municipalities, and the degree of urbanization have an impact on purchase rates driven by e-commerce activities within the region. As consumer participation in e-commerce grows, it leads to a decrease in local purchase rates. This reduction in local purchase rates further affects regional circulation through the interconnected structures of industrial relationships and income consumption. In this study, the authors incorporate variations in intra-regional consumption rates into a small-region-level income-consumption endogenous interregional input-output model developed by the authors, enabling an analysis of the impact of the advancement of e-commerce on the regional economy.
    Date: 2023–08
  17. By: Ajzenman, Nicolas (McGill University); Elacqua, Gregory (Inter-American Development Bank); Jaimovich, Analía (Inter-American Development Bank); Pérez-Núñez, Graciela (Inter-American Development Bank)
    Abstract: Empirical results in economics often stem from success in controlled experimental settings, but often fail when scaled up. This study presents a behavioral intervention and a scalable equivalent aimed at reducing teacher shortages by motivating high school students to pursue an education degree. The intervention was delivered through WhatsApp chats by trained human promoters (humans arm) and rule-based Chatbots programmed to closely replicate the humans program (bots arm). Results show that the humans arm successfully increased high-school students' demand for and enrollment in education majors, particularly among high-performing students. The bots arm showed positive but smaller and statistically insignificant effects. These findings indicate that a relatively low-cost intervention can effectively reduce teacher shortages, but scaling up such interventions may have limitations. Therefore, testing scalable solutions during the design stage of experiments is crucial.
    Keywords: teachers, teacher policy, teacher shortages, scale-up, behavioral, bots
    JEL: D91 I23 I25
    Date: 2023–08
  18. By: Shanfei Zhang (University of East Anglia)
    Abstract: I analyze the influence of Chinese internal migration on the local labor market outcomes. In this presentation, both linear and quadratic equations are estimated to explore a comprehensive relationship between migrant share and native workers' wages in a city. My findings are twofold. In the ordinary least-squares regression model, every 10% increase in immigrants would lead to a 5.67% decrease in local labor wages. However, in the nonlinear model a turning point is observed. The average wage level decreases when the migrant share is lower than 27.82%, while increases with the migrant share larger than 27.82% are complementary, by IV regression.
    Date: 2023–08–11
  19. By: Mária Balgová; Hannah Illing
    Abstract: This paper sheds new light on the barriers to migrants’ labor market assimilation. Using administrative data for Germany from 1997-2016, we estimate dynamic difference-in-differences regressions to investigate the relative trajectory of earnings, wages, and employment following mass layoff separately for migrants and natives. We show that job displacement affects the two groups differently even when we systematically control for pre-layoff differences in their characteristics: migrants have on average higher earnings losses, and they find it much more difficult to find employment. However, those who do find a new job experience faster wage growth compared to displaced natives. We examine several potential mechanisms and find that these gaps are driven by labor market conditions, such as local migrant networks and labor market tightness, rather than migrants’ behavior.
    Keywords: immigration, job displacement, job search
    JEL: J62 J63 J64
    Date: 2023–08
  20. By: Suzanne Bellue; Adrien Bouguen; Marc Gurand; Valerie Munier; André Tricot
    Abstract: Although in-service teacher training programs are designed to enhance the performance of several cohorts of students, there is little evidence on the persistence of their effects. We present the two-year results of a large-scale randomized study of an intensive in-service teacher training program conducted in France during and after the training program’s implementation year. Our results highlight the short-run effectiveness of the training program: it successfully improves students’ performance but only during the implementation year. A detailed analysis of teachers’ outcomes indicates that teachers changed their pedagogical vision and practices but struggled to apply skills to contents not directly covered during training.
    Keywords: in-service teacher training, professional development, teacher effect
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2023–08
  21. By: Dustmann, Christian (University College London); Ku, Hyejin (University College London); Surovtseva, Tetyana (New York University, Abu Dhabi)
    Abstract: We relate origin-destination real price differences to immigrants' reservation wages and their career trajectories, exploiting administrative data from Germany and the 2004 enlargement of the European Union. We find that immigrants who enter Germany when a unit of earnings from Germany allows for larger consumption at home settle for lower entry wages, but subsequently catch up to those arriving with less favourable exchange rates, through transition to better-paying occupations and firms. Similar patterns hold in the US data. Our analysis offers one explanation for the widespread phenomenon of immigrants' downgrading, with new implications for immigrant cohort effects and assimilation profiles.
    Keywords: real exchange rate, reservation wage, immigrant downgrading, earnings assimilation
    JEL: J24 J31 J61 O15 O24
    Date: 2023–08
  22. By: Alex Coad (Waseda Business School, Japan); Clemens Domnick (European Commission - JRC); Pietro Santoleri (European Commission - JRC); Stjepan Srhoj (University of Split, Croatia)
    Abstract: Policy-makers and scholars often assume that a higher incidence of high-growth firms (HGFs) is synonymous with vibrant regional economic dynamics. We test whether more developed regions, which presumably feature superior entrepreneurial ecosystems (EE), have a higher incidence of HGFs. Empirical evidence suggests that the highest shares of HGFs in Europe are found in peripheral regions, which goes against common assumptions and popular theories. The results call for i) a more nuanced interpretation of regional HGF shares, including a better understanding of their nature and drivers as well as ii) a refinement of the theoretical EE framework.
    Keywords: high-growth firms, regional policy, regional economic development
    JEL: R11 L26
    Date: 2023–07
  23. By: Yarkin, Alexander
    Abstract: How do political preferences and voting behaviors respond to information coming from abroad? Focusing on the international migration network, I document that opinion changes at the origins spill over to 1st- and 2nd-generation immigrants abroad. Local diasporas, social media, and family ties to the origins facilitate the transmission, while social integration at destination weakens it. Using the variation in the magnitude, timing, and type of origin-country exposure to the European Refugee Crisis of 2015, I show that salient events trigger learning from the origins. Welcoming asylum policies at the origins decrease opposition to non-Europeans and far-right voting abroad. Transitory refugee flows through the origins send abroad the backlash. Data from Google Trends and Facebook suggests elevated attention to events at the origins and communication with like-minded groups as mechanisms. Similar spillovers following the passage of same-sex marriage laws show the phenomenon generalizes beyond refugee attitudes.
    Keywords: Immigration, Social Networks, Spillovers, Political Attitudes, Integration
    JEL: O15 Z13 D72 D83 P00 J61 F22
    Date: 2023
  24. By: Fabien Leurent (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Mobility systems in urbanized territories have been featured out in Travel Demand Models by state variables of land-use occupation, trip generation, trip distribution, modal split and network assignment, with emphasis on causal relationships between the variables and on spatial detail for each kind of variables. The article is aimed to provide notional averages, say ratios, for each kind of variables, and to state the causal relationships between the variables as simple analytical formulas between the ratios. This is achieved by going along the classical four steps of travel demand modeling, in a theoretical way for an idealized territory satisfying three postulates of homogeneity: namely, at block level, at link level and of indefinite spatial extension. The said formulas constitute rules of thumb linking the mobility ratios of spatial density of human occupation, trip emission rates, average trip lengths, modal shares, generalized trip cost per length unit, together with traffic variables of speed, flow rate and vehicular density at the link level. The model is stated in eight steps, namely (i) territorial composition, (ii) trip generation, (iii) trip lengths and traffic formation, (iv) quality of service, (v) trip distribution using a gravity model, (vi) modal split by multinomial logit, (vii) traffic laws, (viii) traffic equilibrium. It is followed by a Discussion of the model outreach and limitations. Areas of further research include traffic laws, impact assessment and economic analysis.
    Keywords: Spatial homogeneity, State laws, Four-step travel demand model, Traffic equilibrium Highlights
    Date: 2022–10–12
  25. By: Han, Yuancheng; Miranda-Pinto, Jorge; Tanaka, Satoshi
    Abstract: How much does trade in services affect regional production specialization and welfare? Using unique Canadian trade data, we document that the size of inter-provincial service trade is comparable to that of good trade, and that net exports of services are highly correlated with the value-added share of tradable services across provinces. With a spatial model featuring domestic and international trade, we quantify the effects of service trade. Our results highlight that domestic service trade significantly promotes regional specialization, with heterogeneous welfare gains that reduce regional disparities. Conversely, international service trade generates more uniform welfare gains across provinces.
    Date: 2023–08–13
  26. By: Stephen Machin (Department of Economics and Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics (Houghton Street, WC2A 2AE, London, United Kingdom).); Sandra McNally (Department of Economics, University of Surrey and Centre for Economic Performance, Centre for Vocational Education Research. London School of Economics (Houghton Street, WC2A 2AE, London); Camille Terrier (Queen Mary, University of London); Guglielmo Ventura (Centre for Economic Performance, Centre for Vocational Education Research. London School of Economics (Houghton Street, WC2A 2AE, London, United Kingdom))
    Abstract: Delivery of vocational education in schools is a controversial issue around the world and attempts to improve it have been tried for decades. A substantive innovation in vocational education provision came about in 2010 in England when a new form of hybrid schools was introduced that combine general and vocational education: University Technical Colleges (UTCs). This paper adopts an instrumental variable approach to evaluate the causal effect of attending a UTC on academic and vocational education, and on student short-term workforce outcomes. The research design takes advantage of geographic and cross-cohort variation in exposure to UTCs, and of different enrolment ages. For pupils entering UTCs at the unconventional age 14, enrolment in these schools dramatically reduces academic achievement on national exams at age 16. By contrast, for students who enter at the conventional age of 16, UTCs boost vocational achievement without harming academic achievement. UTCs also improve achievement in STEM qualifications, enrolment in apprenticeships, employment prospects (by age 19) and probability of going on to study STEM at university. The paper concludes that there has been both promise and disappointment in what the technical education offered by these new forms of hybrid schools has delivered to date. These mixed conclusions are important for refining the design of school based vocational education around the world.
    Keywords: Technical education; School value-added; University Technical Colleges
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2023–08–31
  27. By: Duncan, Brian (University of Colorado Denver); Trejo, Stephen (University of Texas at Austin)
    Abstract: The authors explore unique complete-count data from the 1930 Census in which a respondent's race was assigned by enumerators and "Mexican" was one of the possible responses. Census enumerators frequently and selectively assigned a non-Mexican race— predominantly "white"—to U.S.-born individuals of Mexican ancestry. As a result, using enumerator-assigned race to identify Mexican Americans misses a sizeable fraction of the relevant population and significantly understates this group's socioeconomic attainment. The propensity for Census enumerators to identify Mexican Americans as white varied enormously across U.S. counties, and this variation is strongly associated with both the educational attainment of U.S.-born Mexican Americans observed in the 1940 Census and the amount of return migration by Mexican immigrants during the 1930s. As such, this variation may help to identify local environments that were more favorable for the integration of Mexican Americans.
    Keywords: race, ethnicity, Mexican Americans, immigrant assimilation, intergenerational progress
    JEL: J15
    Date: 2023–08
  28. By: Roupakias, Stelios
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the economic integration of immigrants in Greece, employing microdata from the 2001 and 2011 decennial Censuses combined with aggregate data from the 2006 Structure of Earnings Survey. By means of probit and multinomial logit regressions, we document that migrants are, upon arrival, less likely to be employed relative to similar natives. On the contrary, their odds of being overeducated or holding a low-paying job are higher. There is, however, substantial heterogeneity between the different origin groups considered. Residence in Greece helps migrants to narrow the initial employment gap, whilst its impact on occupational mobility appears to be limited. The assimilation process of female migrants is much slower than that of their male counterparts.
    Keywords: Immigrant assimilation
    JEL: J60 J62
    Date: 2023–08–22
  29. By: Keith Finlay; Matthew Gross; Carl Lieberman; Elizabeth Luh; Michael G. Mueller-Smith
    Abstract: We estimate the impact of financial sanctions in the U.S. criminal justice system using nine distinct natural experiments across five states. These regression discontinuity designs capture a range of enforcement levels ($17–$6, 000) and institutional environments, providing robust causal evidence and external validity. We leverage survey and administrative data to consider a variety of short and long-term outcomes including employment, recidivism, household expenditures, spousal spillovers, and other self-reported measures of well-being. We find consistent, robust evidence of precise null effects on the population, including ruling out long-run impacts larger than -$347–$168 in annual earnings and -0.002–0.01 in annual convictions.
    JEL: H72 J24 K42
    Date: 2023–08
  30. By: Siddhartha Biswas; Mallick Hossain; David Zink
    Abstract: This paper examines wildfires’ impact on mortgage repayment using novel data that combines property-level damages and mortgage performance data. We find that 90-day delinquencies were 4 percentage points higher and prepayments were 16 percentage points higher for properties that were damaged by wildfires compared to properties 1 to 2 miles outside of the wildfire, which suggests higher risks to mortgage markets than found in previous studies. We find no significant changes in delinquency or prepayment for undamaged properties inside a wildfire boundary. Prepayments are not driven by increased sales or refinances, suggesting insurance claims drive prepayment. We provide evidence that underinsurance may force borrowers to prepay instead of rebuild.
    Keywords: wildfires; mortgage; prepayment risk; climate risk; physical risk; underinsurance
    JEL: G21 G51 Q54
    Date: 2023–03–20
  31. By: Kelling, Claire; Haensch, Anna; Mendible, Ariana; Brooks, Spencer; Wiedemann, Alex; Aminian, Manuchehr; Hasty, Wade; Higdon, Jude
    Abstract: According to the 2020 US Census more than 60% of the US population lives in towns with fewer than 50, 000 residents, yet this is not in proportion with the research and public data surrounding policing, which focus on large and dense urban areas. One reason for this disparity is that studying small-town police departments presents unique obstacles. We present some of the challenges that we have encountered in studying small-town police activity such as data availability, quality, and identifiability, and our solutions to these challenges using computational tools. Finally, we give our recommendations in getting involved in this space based on our efforts to-date.
    Date: 2023–08–24
  32. By: Michael A. Clemens (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: International migrants who seek protection also participate in the economy. Thus the policy of the United States to drastically reduce refugee and asylum-seeker arrivals from 2017 to 2020 might have substantial and ongoing economic consequences. This paper places conservative bounds on those effects by critically reviewing the research literature. It goes beyond prior estimates by including ripple effects beyond the wages earned or taxes paid directly by migrants. The sharp reduction in US refugee admissions starting in 2017 costs the overall US economy today over $9.1 billion per year ($30, 962 per missing refugee per year, on average) and costs public coffers at all levels of government over $2.0 billion per year ($6, 844 per missing refugee per year, on average) net of public expenses. Large reductions in the presence of asylum seekers during the same period likewise carry ongoing costs in the billions of dollars per year. These estimates imply that barriers to migrants seeking protection, beyond humanitarian policy concerns, carry substantial economic costs.
    JEL: F62 H60 J61
    Date: 2022–03–23
  33. By: Enghin Atalay; Ali Hortacsu; Mustafa Runyun; Chad Syverson; Mehmet Fatih Ulu
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of a set of place-based subsidies introduced in Turkey in 2012. Using firm-level balance-sheet data along with data on the domestic production network, we first assess the policy’s direct and indirect impacts. We find an increase in economic activity in industry-province pairs that were the focus of the subsidy program, and positive spillovers to the suppliers and customers of subsidized firms. With the aid of a dynamic multi-region, multi-industry general equilibrium model, we then assess the program’s impacts. Based on the calibrated model, we find that, in the long run, the subsidy program is modestly successful in reducing inequality between the relatively underdeveloped and more prosperous portions of the country. These modest longer-term effects are due to the ability of households to migrate in response to the subsidy program and to input-output linkages that traverse subsidy regions within Turkey.
    Keywords: place-based policies; investment; inequality
    JEL: D57 F16 H25 J38 R12
    Date: 2023–06–13
  34. By: Di Feng
    Abstract: We consider multiple-type housing markets (Moulin, 1995), which extend Shapley-Scarf housing markets (Shapley and Scarf, 1974) from one dimension to higher dimensions. In this model, Pareto efficiency is incompatible with individual rationality and strategy-proofness (Konishi et al., 2001). Therefore, we consider two weaker efficiency properties: coordinatewise efficiency and pairwise efficiency. We show that these two properties both (i) are compatible with individual rationality and strategy-proofness, and (ii) help us to identify two specific mechanisms. To be more precise, on various domains of preference profiles, together with other well-studied properties (individual rationality, strategy-proofness, and non-bossiness), coordinatewise efficiency and pairwise efficiency respectively characterize two extensions of the top-trading-cycles mechanism (TTC): the coordinatewise top-trading-cycles mechanism (cTTC) and the bundle top-trading-cycles mechanism (bTTC). Moreover, we propose several variations of our efficiency properties, and we find that each of them is either satisfied by cTTC or bTTC, or leads to an impossibility result (together with individual rationality and strategy-proofness). Therefore, our characterizations can be primarily interpreted as a compatibility test: any reasonable efficiency property that is not satisfied by cTTC or bTTC could be considered incompatible with individual rationality and strategy-proofness. For multiple-type housing markets with strict preferences, our characterization of bTTC constitutes the first characterization of an extension of the prominent TTC mechanism
    Date: 2023–08
  35. By: Sallee, James PhD; Tarduno, Matthew PhD
    Abstract: Economists have long argued in favor of congestion pricing, under which drivers pay a fee or toll to enter roadways during peak times. An increasing number of global cities have adopted or are considering pricing programs. Even so, these regimes remain relatively rare and controversial. One key concern with congestion pricing is fairness. Road pricing can pose a substantial burden for low-income drivers, many of whom have little option to avoid travel during peak times and limited opportunity to choose other modes of travel. Prior research has shown that congestion pricing regimes tend to be regressive in terms of their initial burden, that is, in terms of who ends up paying more to use the roads.1 But, the ultimate effect of a road pricing program depends also on how its revenue is used. Some or all of the revenue from a congestion pricing program can be returned to households, and this can fundamentally change the program’s fairness.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2023–08–01
  36. By: Jesse M. Bruhn; Christopher Campos; Eric Chyn
    Abstract: We study the distributional effects of remote learning. Our approach combines newly collected data on parental preferences with administrative data from Los Angeles. The preference data allow us to account for selection into remote learning while also studying selection patterns and treatment effect heterogeneity. We find a negative average effect of remote learning on reading (–0.14 SD) and math (–0.17 SD). Notably, we find evidence of positive learning effects for children whose parents have the strongest demand for remote learning. Our results suggest an important subset of students who currently sort into post-pandemic remote learning benefit from expanded choice.
    JEL: I20 I21
    Date: 2023–08
  37. By: Guhan Venkatu
    Abstract: The nation’s employment took less than 2 years to recover from the pandemic-associated recession. That many metro areas in our region have yet to see the same recovery suggests that structural factors may be limiting their progress.
    Keywords: business cycles; recessions; COVID-19 Economic Impact; regional employment
    Date: 2023–08–31
  38. By: Michelle M. Marcus
    Abstract: This paper provides the first estimates of the contemporaneous effect of drinking water quality violations on students’ academic achievement. Using student-level test score data with residential addresses, geographic information on water systems, and drinking water violations from North Carolina, I estimate the within-student impacts of poor water quality on student test scores. Exposure to a bacteria violation during the school year decreases math scores by about 0.037 standard deviations when the public is uninformed. Results suggest that poor water quality may impact retention or comprehension of material throughout the school year.
    JEL: I18 I24 Q51 Q53
    Date: 2023–08
  39. By: Michael A. Clemens (Center for Global Development; IZA; CReAM)
    Abstract: The past several decades have witnessed a rebirth of global labor mobility. Workers have begun to move between countries at rates not seen since before World War One. During the same period, economists’ study of international migration has been framed by a particular textbook model of location choice. This paper reviews the evidence on the economic causes and effects of global migration during the past half century. That evidence falsifies most of the core predictions of the old model. The economics of migration will regain vitality and relevance by discarding and replacing its outworn paradigm.
    JEL: F22 J61 O15
    Date: 2022–01–28
  40. By: Dean Corbae; Pablo D'Erasmo; Kuan Liu
    Abstract: This paper discusses concentration in consumer credit markets with a focus on fintech lenders and residential mortgages. We present evidence that shows that concentration among fintech lenders is significantly higher than that for bank lenders and other nonbank lenders. The data also show that the overall concentration in mortgage lending has declined between 2011 and 2019, driven mostly by a reduction in concentration among bank lenders. We present a simple model to show that changes in lender financial technology (interpreted as improvements in quality of loan services) explain more than 50 percent of the increase in fintech market shares and 43 percent of the increase in fintech concentration. This change in concentration in the fintech industry may have important implications for regulatory policy and financial stability.
    Keywords: fintech; concentration; mortgage lending
    JEL: G2 L1 L5
    Date: 2023–06–08
  41. By: Ozkan Eren; David N. Figlio; Naci H. Mocan; Orgul Ozturk
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of school accountability on adult crime and economic self-sufficiency. We employ a unique source of linked administrative data from a Southern state and exploit exogenous variation generated by the state's accountability regime. Our findings indicate that a school's receipt of a lower accountability rating, at the bottom end of the ratings distribution, decreases adult criminal involvement. Accountability pressures also reduce the propensity of students' reliance on social welfare programs in adulthood and these effects persist at least until when individuals reach their early 30s. Further examination reveals that our results are consistent with an explanation related to improvements in human capital accumulation.
    JEL: H0 I0
    Date: 2023–08
  42. By: Mallick Hossain; Igor Livshits; Collin Wardius
    Abstract: Lowering a borrower’s interest rate is one of the most effective ways to reduce a borrower’s debt burden. Mortgage refinancing offers a chance to shift debt balances from high-interest loans into a low-interest mortgage through “cashing out” some of the home’s equity. Borrowers could reduce their monthly payments by up to 13 percent by folding a student loan with a 6 percent interest rate into a mortgage with a 3 percent interest rate. Using anonymized data on mortgage refinancing behavior, we find that over half of borrowers with high-interest loans and available home equity do not take advantage of their cash-out opportunities. Strikingly, this pattern is seen among borrowers who have already chosen to refinance their mortgage, thereby overcoming inertia, information frictions, and large fixed costs associated with the decision to refinance. Furthermore, even when the last remaining fixed cost (cash-out surcharge) is eliminated for student-loan borrowers by a policy change at Fannie Mae, we find that the presence of a student loan does not significantly affect borrowers’ propensity to cash out after these surcharges are eliminated.
    Keywords: mortgage refinancing; cash-out refinancing; student loans; cash-out surcharge; household finance
    JEL: D14 G51 G40 G53
    Date: 2023–03–08
  43. By: Xing Shi (School of Economics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China); Ya Zhang (School of Economics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China); Yanrui Wu (Business School, The University of Western Australia); Huaqing Wu (School of Economics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China)
    Abstract: The empirical work in this paper is based on an analysis of the data of China's listed companies, the innovation and entrepreneurship index, and local official turnover data at the city level. It shows that policy uncertainty caused by local political turnover in local governments significantly reduces firm innovation. However, improvement in local innovation and entrepreneurship environment can lessen this negative impact. This moderating effect is especially relevant among non-high-tech or financially constrained firms. The robustness of these findings is checked through a series of alternative analyses such as dealing with endogeneity, optional measures of the dependent variable and subsamples.
    Keywords: Political turnover, Policy uncertainty, Innovation and entrepreneurship environment, Firm innovation, China
    JEL: L25 O31
    Date: 2023
  44. By: Koh, Yumi (University of Seoul); Li, Jing (Singapore Management University); Wu, Yifan (Shanghai University); Yi, Junjian (Peking University); Zhang, Hanzhe (Michigan State University)
    Abstract: Young women outnumber young men in cities in many countries during periods of economic growth and urbanization. This gender imbalance among young urbanites is more pronounced in larger cities. We use the gradual rollout of special economic zones across China as a quasi-experiment to establish the causes of this gender imbalance. Our analysis suggests that a key contributor is gender-differential incentives to migrate due to rural women's higher likelihood of marrying and marrying up in cities when urbanization creates more economic opportunities and an abundance of high-income marriage-age men.
    Keywords: urbanization, migration, gender imbalance, labor market, marriage market
    JEL: O15 J12
    Date: 2023–07
  45. By: Lennart Ante; Friedrich-Philipp Wazinski; Aman Saggu
    Abstract: This paper investigates retail investor motivations for digital real estate ownership in the crypto-metaverse. Utilizing a detailed financial behavior survey of metaverse landowners' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, we apply principal components analysis to uncover four distinct motivational groups: (1) Aesthetics and Identity, (2) Social and Community, (3) Speculation and Investment, and (4) Innovation and Technology. Our findings reveal that age, education, investment knowledge, risk-taking, and impulsivity significantly influence investor group membership. This research provides valuable insights to investors and developers, underscoring the potential of a platform to attract retail investors with speculative intentions, engagement longevity, and passive or active trading characteristics, contingent on unique crypto-metaverse attributes.
    Date: 2023–08
  46. By: Pedro S. Martins; Antonio P. Melo
    Abstract: The subdued wage growth observed in many countries has spurred interest in monopsony views of regional labour markets. This study measures the extent and robustness of employer power and its wage implications exploiting comprehensive matched employer-employee data. We find average (employment-weighted) Herfindhal indices of 800 to 1, 100, stable over the 1986-2019 period covered, and that typically less than 9% of workers are exposed to concentration levels thought to raise market power concerns. When controlling for both worker and firm heterogeneity and instrumenting for concentration, we find that wages are negatively affected by employer concentration, with elasticities of around -1.4%. We also find that several methodological choices can change significantly both the measurement of concentration and its wage effects.
    Keywords: Oligopsony, Wages, Regional labour markets, Worker mobility, Portugal
    JEL: J42 J31 J63
    Date: 2023
  47. By: Le, Dan
    Abstract: The subject of ethnic return migration has garnered growing attention within the realm of international migration research. While much of the existing literature has centered on the movement of individuals returning from low-income to high-income nations, this paper illuminates the inverse trajectory by scrutinizing the trend of second-generation, Western-born Vietnamese migrants who return to their ancestral country of Vietnam. Drawing on 32 in-depth interviews from participants from 11 different Western countries, the current online ethnography explores the phenomenon of ethnic return migration of the second generation. Through an analysis of the interplay between the birth home and ancestral home, identity and belonging, this paper elucidates the factors that both encourage and obstruct the ethnic return migration of Western-born Vietnamese migrants.
    Date: 2023–08–18
  48. By: Marcos Sanso-Navarro (Universidad de Zaragoza); Guillermo Peña (Universidad de Zaragoza)
    Abstract: This presentation deals with the persistence of the effects of natural disasters on population, concretely at the municipal level. With this aim, we analyze information about the population of all Spanish municipalities and flood events from 1877 to 2011. Using recent developments in difference-in-differences estimation methods, we find a negative and significant impact of floods on population in the long term when there are casualties involved. Therefore, and in line with the results of other types of shocks, we provide evidence that shocks related to natural disasters have a demographic transitory effect
    Date: 2023–08–11
  49. By: Philipp Otto; Osman Do\u{g}an; S\"uleyman Ta\c{s}p{\i}nar; Wolfgang Schmid; Anil K. Bera
    Abstract: Spatial and spatiotemporal volatility models are a class of models designed to capture spatial dependence in the volatility of spatial and spatiotemporal data. Spatial dependence in the volatility may arise due to spatial spillovers among locations; that is, if two locations are in close proximity, they can exhibit similar volatilities. In this paper, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the recent literature on spatial and spatiotemporal volatility models. We first briefly review time series volatility models and their multivariate extensions to motivate their spatial and spatiotemporal counterparts. We then review various spatial and spatiotemporal volatility specifications proposed in the literature along with their underlying motivations and estimation strategies. Through this analysis, we effectively compare all models and provide practical recommendations for their appropriate usage. We highlight possible extensions and conclude by outlining directions for future research.
    Date: 2023–08
  50. By: Collier, Paul; Glaeser, Edward; Venables, Tony; Delbridge, Victoria; Oliveira Cunha, Juliana
    Abstract: This policy brief highlights the importance of considering land and labour market dynamics when developing urban land use plans. It also outlines the three fundamental questions faced by policymakers when it comes to urban planning: a) the division between public and private space; b) what use to assign to public space, particularly concerning public good provision; c) what regulations to impose on private space, including rights and obligations.
    JEL: Q15 J1
    Date: 2023–08–11
  51. By: Nicola Mastrorocco; Edoardo Teso
    Abstract: We study how the organization of the state evolves over the process of development of a nation, using a new dataset on the internal organization of the U.S. federal bureaucracy over 1817-1905. First, we show a series of facts, describing how the size of the state, its presence across the territory, and its key organizational features evolved over the nineteenth century. Second, exploiting the staggered expansion of the railroad and telegraph networks across space, we show that the ability of politicians to monitor state agents throughout the territory is an important driver of these facts: locations with lower transportation and communication costs with Washington DC have more state presence, are delegated more decision power, and have lower employee turnover. The results suggest that high monitoring costs are associated with small, personalistic state organizations based on networks of trust; technological shocks lowering monitoring costs facilitate the emergence of modern bureaucratic states.
    JEL: D73 M51 N41 P0
    Date: 2023–08
  52. By: Mkrtchian, Nikita (Мкртчян, Никита) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Florinskaya, Julia (Флоринская, Юлия) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on statistical estimates of female foreign labor migration to Russia and labor migration of Russian women within Russia. This is the first-time women’s internal and external labor migration is assessed in quantitative terms and the age composition of female migration is analyzed in comparison with the male labor migration. The main donor countries of labor migration to Russia for foreign female migrants were ranked; for domestic labor migration, the leading regions for employment of female labor migrants were identified, as well as the main regions that are donors of female labor migration. Data on internal labor migration also allows us to assess the sectoral employment of female migrants in comparison with the employed population and male migrants, and to highlight some social and demographic characteristics of this population group. The analysis is based on data from Rosstat and the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs. The number of external female labor migrants is estimated at about one million, while the number of internal female labor migrants is less than 300 thousand annually. Female foreign migrants are older than male labor migrants, in contrast to domestic labor migrants, where women, on the contrary, are younger than men. The main donor countries for female labor migration are countries of the CIS, while the share of women in migration from the Central Asian countries (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, which are the top donor countries in terms of labor migration to Russia) does not exceed 12–13%. The main sources of internal female labor migration are such regions as the Republic of Kalmykia (the absolute leader in terms of the intensity of such migration), the republics of Mari El, Mordovia, Chuvashia, Kabardino-Balkaria, followed by the regions of Central Russia. Regions of the Far East and the North, as well as Moscow and St. Petersburg, have little to no outgoing female labor migration. Female internal labor migrants work in all regions of Russia, with a clearly greater gravitation toward the largest urban agglomerations than male internal labor migrants.
    Keywords: international migration, internal migration, female migration, labor market, households
    JEL: J61 R23
    Date: 2021–09–21
  53. By: Batabyal, Amitrajeet
    Abstract: We study how spillovers from water pollution cleanup in the Ganges affect social welfare in an aggregate economy consisting of Kanpur and Varanasi, two cities through which this river flows. We view pollution cleanup in both cities as a local public good and point out that if Kanpur cleans up pollution in the Ganges then Varanasi obtains some spillover benefit and vice versa. In this setting, we first solve for the Nash equilibrium amounts of pollution cleanup in the two cities when decisions about how much pollution to clean up are made simultaneously; next, we determine the equilibrium welfare levels in each city. Second, on the assumption that decisions about how much pollution to clean up are centralized, we compute the amounts of pollution cleanup that maximize aggregate welfare. Finally, we describe an inter-city transfer scheme that leads each city to choose non-cooperatively in a Nash equilibrium the same pollution cleanup amounts as those that arise when aggregate welfare is maximized.
    Keywords: Centralization, Ganges River, Nash Equilibrium, Pollution Cleanup, Spillover
    JEL: D81 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2023–06–11
  54. By: Byrne, David (Central Bank of Ireland); McCann, Fergal (Central Bank of Ireland); Gaffney, Edward (Central Bank of Ireland)
    Abstract: Interest rates in the euro area have increased by 350 basis points from July 2022 to March 2023, having been at, or close to, zero for much of the preceding decade. In this Note we focus on the wide dispersion in exposure to this monetary policy shock across Irish mortgage borrowers.We highlight the importance of recent switching activity and new loans originated on fixed interest rates, which insulate 60 per cent of mortgages in the short term and 41 per cent of mortgages until December 2024 or later. We estimate repayment increases to the end of 2023 under two scenarios: a 350 and a 425 basis point tightening from June 2022 to December 2023. The average repayment increase is 13 and 16 per cent across the two scenarios. There is extremely wide dispersion in the experience of the shock: among the most-exposed fifth of mortgagors the increase is 41 and 50 per cent, respectively, while up to two fifths of borrowers will experience no increase whatsoever. The mostexposed group, dominated by tracker and interest-only loans, and those with longer terms to maturity, had significantly smaller monthly repayments and interest rates at June 2022, and the result of the repayment change would be an equalisation of repayments across cohorts.
    Date: 2023–04
  55. By: David Card; Jesse Rothstein; Moises Yi
    Abstract: We revisit the estimation of industry wage differentials using linked employer-employee data from the U.S. LEHD program. Building on recent advances in the measurement of employer wage premiums, we define the industry wage effect as the employment-weighted average workplace premium in that industry. We show that cross-sectional estimates of industry differentials overstate the pay premiums due to unmeasured worker heterogeneity. Conversely, estimates based on industry movers understate the true premiums, due to unmeasured heterogeneity in pay premiums within industries. Industry movers who switch to higher-premium industries tend to leave firms in the origin sector that pay above-average premiums and move to firms in the destination sector with below-average premiums (and vice versa), attenuating the measured industry effects. Our preferred estimates reveal substantial heterogeneity in narrowly-defined industry premiums, with a standard deviation of 12%. On average, workers in higher-paying industries have higher observed and unobserved skills, widening between-industry wage inequality. There are also small but systematic differences in industry premiums across cities, with a wider distribution of pay premiums and more worker sorting in cities with more highpremium firms and high-skilled workers.
    Keywords: Industry wage differentials; AKM models; mover design
    JEL: J31 J62
    Date: 2023–08
  56. By: Yifeng Philip Chen; Edward J. Oughton; Jakub Zagdanski; Maggie Mo Jia; Peter Tyler
    Abstract: Broadband connectivity is regarded as generally having a positive macroeconomic effect, but we lack evidence as to how it affects key economic activity metrics, such as firm creation, at a very local level. This analysis models the impact of broadband Next Generation Access (NGA) on new business creation at the local level over the 2011-2015 period in England, United Kingdom, using high-resolution panel data. After controlling for a range of factors, we find that faster broadband speeds brought by NGA technologies have a positive effect on the rate of business growth. We find that in England between 2011-2015, on average a one percentage increase in download speeds is associated with a 0.0574 percentage point increase in the annual growth rate of business establishments. The primary hypothesised mechanism behind the estimated relationship is the enabling effect that faster broadband speeds have on innovative business models based on new digital technologies and services. Entrepreneurs either sought appropriate locations that offer high quality broadband infrastructure (contributing to new business establishment growth), or potentially enjoyed a competitive advantage (resulting in a higher survival rate). The findings of this study suggest that aspiring to reach universal high capacity broadband connectivity is economically desirable, especially as the costs of delivering such service decline.
    Date: 2023–08
  57. By: Jorge Luis García; Frederik H. Bennhoff; Duncan Ermini Leaf
    Abstract: We demonstrate the social efficiency of investing in high-quality early childhood education using newly collected data from the HighScope Perry Preschool Project. The data analyzed are the longest follow-up of any randomized early childhood education program. Annual observations of participant outcomes up to midlife allow us to provide a cost-benefit analysis without relying on forecasts. Adult outcomes on the participants' children and siblings allow us to quantify spillover benefits. The program generates a benefit-cost ratio of 6.0 (p-value = 0.03). Spillover benefits increase this ratio to 7.5 (p-value = 0.00).
    JEL: C93 H43 I28 J13
    Date: 2023–08
  58. By: Esther Gehrke; Friederike Lenel; Claudia Schupp
    Abstract: Students in low-income contexts often lack guidance in their career decisions which can lead to a misallocation of educational investments. We report on a randomized field experiment conducted with 1715 students in rural Cambodia and show that a half-day workshop designed to support adolescents in developing occupational aspirations increased educational investments. We document substantial heterogeneity in treatment effects by baseline student performance. While the workshop increased schooling efforts of high-performing students, treated low-performing students reduced their educational investments. We develop a simple model that explains why an information intervention can affect educational aspirations and investments in opposing directions.
    Keywords: aspirations, career guidance, education, field experiment
    JEL: C93 D83 D90 I21 O15
    Date: 2023
  59. By: Joshua Bosshardt; Ali Kakhbod; Amir Kermani
    Abstract: We analyze the costs and benefits of intermediaries for government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) mortgages using regulatory data. We find evidence of lenders pricing for observable and unobservable default risk independently from the GSEs. These findings are explained using a model of competitive lending in which lenders have skin-in-the-game and acquire information beyond the GSEs' underwriting criteria, but also charge markups. We find that most borrowers are better off in a counterfactual in which the GSEs' underwriting criteria are implemented passively. Finally, the observed differences between banks and nonbanks are more consistent with differences in their skin-in-the-game rather than screening quality.
    JEL: G21 G23 G5
    Date: 2023–08
  60. By: David B. Cashin; Byron F. Lutz; William B. Peterman; David Ratner; Sarah Rodman
    Abstract: On the eve of the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, state and local government (S&L) employment in the U.S. stood at 20 million. In the first three months of the pandemic, S&L payrolls plunged 1.5 million as social distancing reduced the need for many government services, such as in-person schooling, and S&L governments feared sharp revenue declines.
    Date: 2023–08–04
  61. By: Massimo Pulejo; Pablo Querubín
    Abstract: Adequate wages are an important tool to shield public officials from special interests and corruption. But what is the equilibrium effect of higher wages in the presence of criminal pressure groups, who use both bribes and violence? By means of a regression discontinuity design, we show that an increase in the remuneration of Italian municipal cabinets triggers a sizable and significant increase in criminal attacks against their members. We argue that this is triggered by higher-paid officials' lower likelihood of catering to criminal interests. In particular, we show that better-paid politicians are significantly more likely to prevent corruption in public procurement, a key area of illicit interactions between the state and criminal organizations. Additional analyses reveal that the disciplining effect of wages is driven by a change in incumbents' behavior rather than improved selection. These findings reveal how -- in the presence of criminal groups -- higher wages may limit corruption, but also foster the use of violence as an alternative tool to influence policymaking.
    JEL: D72 D74 H72
    Date: 2023–08
  62. By: Xindong Xue; W. Robert Reed (University of Canterbury); Robbie C.M. van Aert
    Abstract: This research provides a comprehensive, quantitative synthesis of the empirical literature on social capital and economic growth. It assesses 993 estimates from 81 studies. Utilizing a variety of estimation procedures, we draw the following conclusions: There is strong evidence to indicate that publication bias distorts the empirical literature, causing estimates of social capital's effects to be overstated. Initial, unadjusted estimates are positive, generally moderately sized, and consistently statistically significant. Correcting for publication bias reduces these estimates by half or more. Our preferred estimates indicate that the effects of social capital on economic growth, though statistically significant, are very small. This highlights that an uncritical acceptance of the empirical literature can lead to an inflated perception of the importance of social capital. Analysis of the different types of social capital (cognitive, structural, other) finds little evidence of differences in growth effects. Further investigation of moderating factors finds that most have estimated effects that are generally small to negligible, though social capital appears to have a substantially smaller effect on economic growth in the US compared to other parts of the world.
    Keywords: Social capital, Economic growth, Cognitive social capital, Structural social capital, Meta-analysis, Meta-regression, Publication Bias
    JEL: B40 O31 O40 O47 R11 Z10
    Date: 2023–08–01
  63. By: Ylenia Brilli (Department of Economics, University Of Venice CÃ Foscari); Simone Moriconi (IESEG School of Management, Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 9221 - LEM - Lille Economie Management, F-59000 Lille, France; CESIfo Munich; Institut Convergences Migrations)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes how a cultural trait that values “engagement†in child-rearing activities affects the choice of parents concerning parental investments and labor supply. We use data from the World Value Survey to construct a country-specific measure of parental engagement, which we associate with the time investments in children of first- and second-generation migrants in Australia. We show that migrant parents from more engaged cultures increase their time investment during weekends, in particular in play activities, while spending less time with their children during working days. We also show that these parents are more affectionate and are more likely to discipline the children and to reason about their children’s misbehavior than individuals from less engaged cultures. Finally, we provide evidence that culture specific parental engagement features a more egalitarian allocation of parenting vs. labor supply tasks by the couple. We interpret this as indirect evidence that fathers may have a greater marginal utility from parenting time than mothers, on average.
    Keywords: culture, parental investments, parenting, labor supply
    JEL: D10 J13 J15 J22 Z13
    Date: 2023
  64. By: Otto, Philipp; Sibbertsen, Philipp
    Abstract: In this paper, we introduce the concept of fractional integration for spatial autoregressive models. We show that the range of the dependence can be spatially extended or diminished by introducing a further fractional integration parameter to spatial autoregressive moving average models (SARMA). This new model is called the spatial autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average model, briefly sp-ARFIMA. We show the relation to time-series ARFIMA models and also to (higher-order) spatial autoregressive models. Moreover, an estimation procedure based on the maximum-likelihood principle is introduced and analysed in a series of simulation studies. Eventually, the use of the model is illustrated by an empirical example of atmospheric fine particles, so-called aerosol optical thickness, which is important in weather, climate and environmental science.
    Keywords: Spatial ARFIMA; spatial fractional integration; long-range dependence; aerosol optical depth
    JEL: C22 C23
    Date: 2023–09
  65. By: Meens-Eriksson, Sef (Department of Economics, Umeå University)
    Abstract: In this paper, I study municipal price sensitivity of demand for disposal of residual waste (unsorted waste from households) and mechanisms underlying the relationship. First, I estimate the effect on households’ generation of residual waste with respect to municipal waste collection policies. Second, I estimate to what extent municipalities change waste policy in response to higher costs for disposal of municipal residual waste. The empirical analysis is based on data regarding Swedish municipalities’ waste management systems and disposal costs in the period 2010–2019. Results suggests that the price elasticity of demand is in the range 0.20–0.24. The effect is almost entirely driven by municipalities’ implementation of weight-based collection tariffs for residual waste in response to costlier disposal. Besides weight-based tariffs, separate collection of food waste and joint collection of residual waste and recyclables are also found to have substantial negative effects on residual waste quantities. Nevertheless, such waste policies are not more likely to be implemented in response to higher disposal costs for the municipality.
    Keywords: Demand for waste; waste economics; waste management; environmental taxes
    JEL: D10 Q01 Q50 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2023–09–11
  66. By: Alexis Le Nestour (Center for Global Development); Laura Moscoviz (Center for Global Development); Justin Sandefur (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: We use comparable, survey-based literacy tests for repeated cross-sections of men and women born between 1950 and 2000 to study education outcomes across cohorts in 87 countries. We find that education quality, defined as literacy conditional on completing five years of schooling, stagnated or declined across the developing world over half a century, with pronounced drops in both South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Increases in schooling outpaced the decline in education quality, leading to large increases in unconditional literacy. Shifts in student composition can explain only part of the downward trend in education quality we observe: the decline pre-dates the abolition of school fees in most countries, and patterns in adult height suggest students in later decades were healthier and wealthier than those in earlier cohorts.
    Keywords: literacy, school quality, access to education
    JEL: I25 N37 O15
    Date: 2022–02–23
  67. By: Rodríguez-Lesmes, Paul (Facultad de Economía Universidad del Rosario); Gutierrez, Luis H. (Facultad de Economía Universidad del Rosario); Urueña-Mejia, Juan Carlos (Facultad de Economía Universidad del Rosario; Corporacion Universitaria Minuto de Dios); Ortiz, Andres (Corporacion Universitaria Minuto de Dios, and Universidad de La Salle); Medina Rojas, Ivan (Corporacion Universitaria Minuto de Dios); Romero, Mauricio (Fundacion Capital)
    Abstract: The challenge for policymakers is providing good quality business training services that can reach vast numbers of firms while not expensive. This paper examines the marginal impact of implementing a free smartphone-based business training called Expertienda for Colombian microentrepreneurs. Using teams of local university students and a randomised control trial design, we invited microentrepreneurs to install the application in 2021 and follow up with them at least three times. The sample consisted of 1, 013 microentrepreneurs in 10 Colombian cities, for whom we collected administrative records on the application usage and observational and survey data one year after the implementation. We show that for every 100 incentivized businesses, 4 installed and used the app. Moreover, there is no evidence of spillovers at the local level regarding take-up. Regarding business performance, results show no evidence that the course affected financial inclusion, formalisation, or business practices indexes.
    Keywords: Financial inclusion; business practices; Formality; Digital training; Microbusiness
    JEL: C93 D22 O10 O17
    Date: 2023–09–11
  68. By: Fernandez-Morales, Antonio; McCabe, Scott; Martínez, José David Cisneros
    Abstract: Unpredictable external shocks exacerbate the negative effects usually attributed to cyclical seasonality. Two such recent shocks, the Global Financial Crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic, shifted debates from crisis management towards concerns for greater resilience in visitor economies. Social tourism is an effective stimulus to destination economies and ameliorates some negative effects of seasonality, but there is little evidence on its contributions to greater destination resilience. Furthermore, resilience, a relatively new concept, is poorly defined. We establish a conceptual link between seasonality and resilience through a holistic multivariate analysis of supply, demand and employment patterns. An empirical study examines resilience longitudinally using municipal-level data, applying multivariate analysis and innovative visualization techniques, and assesses how, where and to what degree the Imserso social tourism program has contributed to the greater resilience of Spanish destinations, demonstrating its effectiveness in contributing to resilience in those which are more vulnerable due to high seasonal imbalances.
    Date: 2023–08–25
  69. By: Huseyin Emre Sayici (Fisher College of Business, Ohio State University); Mehmet Fatih Ulu (College of Administrative Sciences and Economics, Koç University)
    Abstract: This study examines the economic effects of research and development (R&D) supports in the context of a program implemented in Türkiye between 2006-2019. Firms receiving the support differ positively from other firms in key economic indicators. Results indicate a 6% rise in patent registrations, 9% growth in value-added, 26% surge in total wages, 17% increase in per capita wages, 9% expansion in employment, 10% boost in productivity, 11% rise in exported product diversity, and 4% uptick in sales due to the support. Nonetheless, the effects on productivity and sales are statistically weaker than other impacts. The average impact of patents is also modest. Large-scale firms exhibit significant benefits, with a 33% rise in patent numbers and a 13% growth in sales. These firms effectively leverage support to commercialize R&D investments and innovations. Small-sized firms experience stronger productivity effects. Productivity gains grow with scale among SMEs, but large firms do not see positive productivity effects.
    Keywords: R&D supports, TEYDEB, innovation, matching.
    JEL: O31 O32 O38
    Date: 2023–09
  70. By: Dhamija, Gaurav; Roychowdhury, Punarjit; Shankar, Binay
    Abstract: The paper examines the short-term implications of urbanization on women empowerment in India. In theory, urbanization can affect women either positively or negatively. Women in urban areas, compared to their rural counterparts, are thought to enjoy greater social, economic, and political opportunities and freedoms. At the same time, research shows barriers to women's empowerment remain widespread in urban environments. We measure urbanization using satellite-based nighttime light intensity data. Fixed effects estimation results show that urbanization positively affects women's labor market participation, agency within households, mobility, access to information, and attitudes toward domestic violence (thereby making them more likely to report incidences of violence). However, the effect of urbanization on women's financial autonomy is negative, and on health is mixed. These results, we show, are robust to unmeasured confounders to a large extent. In light of the rapid urbanization that India is currently experiencing, the importance of these findings cannot be overemphasized. They suggest that while urbanization could go a long way toward economically empowering women in India, the government also needs to devise complementary policies and interventions that could tackle the adverse consequences of urban expansion.
    Keywords: Gender, India, Nighttime Lights, Urbanization, Women Empowerment
    JEL: J16 O12
    Date: 2023
  71. By: Tryfonas Christou (European Commission - JRC); Francesca Crucitti (European Commission - JRC); Abian Garcia Rodriguez (European Commission - JRC); Gabor Katay (European Commission – DG EMPL); Nicholas Lazarou (European Commission - JRC); Simone Salotti (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Jobs are becoming increasingly skill-intensive due to ongoing trends such as globalisation, digitalisation, and demographic change. There is a need to promote a good match between the demand and the supply of skills, as the existing evidence suggests that skills mismatch negatively affects productivity and economic growth. Effective education and lifelong learning policies, together with active labour market policies, can address skills mismatches. This Insight presents a RHOMOLO analysis of the impact of a permanent 10% reduction in the macroeconomic skills mismatch indicator in the regions of the European Union (EU) with a large level of mismatch. The simulations suggest that a hypothetical policy reducing skills mismatches in those regions would generate increases in regional GDP of between +1.4% and +3.6% in the long run. The model simulations suggest that the economic benefits would spill over to the rest of the EU regions.
    Keywords: rhomolo, region, growth, skills mismatch
    JEL: C68 R13
    Date: 2023–07
  72. By: Plomien, Ania; Schwartz, Gregory
    Abstract: What are the processes and consequences of markets reaching deeper into social reproduction? How do these developments, in the context of Europeanisation underpinned by neoliberalisation and transnationalisation, compel labour mobility? To consider these questions we apply social reproduction theory and the framework of uneven and combined accumulation of capital in Europe to the analysis of the UK, Poland and Ukraine and their food production, housing construction and care provision sectors. We explore how transformations, in these three countries interconnected by labour mobilities and in these three domains key to social reproduction, not only affect the industries that supply food, housing and care, but, crucially, redraw the contours of social reproduction. Theorising social reproduction as a continuum of market, state and household provisioning, we outline its transformation within the specific constellation of Europeanisation and delineate how mobility is both propelled by and advances market-reach into food, housing and care. We argue that market-driven transnational social reproduction is constituted by contradictions stemming from the deepening subordination of reproductive labour to the law of value, progressively depriving households of the promise of prosperity - a complex process that is made visible by our feminist critique of political economy.
    Keywords: social reproduction; transnational labour mobility; Europeanisation; market-reach; Poland; Ukraine; T&F deal
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2023–08–10

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