nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2023‒09‒18
thirty-one papers chosen by
Steve Ross, University of Connecticut

  1. Persistence of the Spillover Effects of Violence and Educational Trajectories By Padilla-Romo, María; Peluffo, Cecilia
  2. The Role of Social Connections in the Racial Segregation of US Cities By Tanner Regan; Andreas Diemer; Cheng Keat Tang
  3. The Impact of Public School Choice: Evidence from Los Angeles' Zones of Choice By Christopher Campos; Caitlin Kearns
  4. Business Improvement Districts and Housing Markets: Evidence from Neighborhoods in London By Stefano Cellini; Francisco Nobre
  5. Housing assistance policy for mortgage borrowers: liquidity improvements or price acceleration? By McCann, Fergal; Singh, Anuj Pratap
  6. Gentrification and crime: Empirical investigation across American cities By Alessandro Corvasce
  7. Location, Location, Location By David Card; Jesse Rothstein; Moises Yi
  8. The Macroeconomic Effects of Debt Relief Policies During Recessions By Soyoung Lee
  9. School Starting Age and the Impact on School Admission By Cáceres-Delpiano, Julio; Giolito, Eugenio
  10. Going Green – The Growth in Green Mortgage Financing in Ireland By Lambert, Derek; Lyons, Paul; Carroll, James
  11. Birds of a feather indebted together: Peer-effects on mortgage decisions By Àkos Aczél; Lajos Szabó
  12. How institutions shape the economic returns of public investment in European regions By Inmaculada C. Alvarez; Javier Barbero; Luis Orea; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
  13. When Effective Teacher Training Falls Short in the Classroom: Evidence from an Experiment in Primary Schools By Bellue, Suzanne; Bouguen, Adrien; Gurgand, Marc; Munier, Valerie; Tricot, André
  14. Estimating the Spatial Amplification of Damage Caused by Degradation in the Amazon By Rafael Araujo; Juliano Assunção; Marina Hirota; José A. Scheinkman
  15. Infrastructure and Finance: Evidence from India's GQ Highway Network By Abhiman Das; Ejaz Ghani; Arti Grover Goswami; William R. Kerr; Ramana Nanda
  16. Survival, Emergence, and Disappearance of Manufacturing Firms in the First Phase of Regional Revitalization (Japanese) By NAKAMURA Ryohei
  17. Questioning the traditional narrative over contemporary urban development in the Javanese royal city By Purwani, Ofita
  18. Fires and Local Labor Markets By Raphaelle G. Coulombe; Akhil Rao
  19. Urban Forests: Environmental Health Values and Risks By Jianwei Xing; Zhiren Hu; Fan Xia; Jintao Xu; Eric Zou
  20. Lending by Servicing: Monetary Policy Transmission Through Shadow Banks By Isha Agarwal; Malin Hu; Raluca Roman; Keling Zheng
  22. The Short and Medium Term Effects of Full-Day Schooling on Learning and Maternal Labor Supply By Bovini, Giulia; Cattadori, Niccolò; De Philippis, Marta; Sestito, Paolo
  23. When a Strike Strikes Twice: Massive Student Mobilizations and Teenage Pregnancy in Chile By Pablo A. Celhay; Emilio Depetris-Chauvin; Cristina Riquelme
  24. Computer vision-enriched discrete choice models, with an application to residential location choice By Sander van Cranenburgh; Francisco Garrido-Valenzuela
  25. Pilgrimage tourism: A case study of Fort Pilar Shrine in Zamboanga City, Philippines By Tendero, Emerissa Jane
  27. The first graduate school of Latin American economic studies (ESCOLATINA) between "autochthonous" and international logics (1956-1964) By Klüger, Elisa; Morin, Johanna Gautier; Rossier, Thierry
  28. Currency Areas, Labor Markets, and Regional Cyclical Sensitivity By Katheryn Russ; Jay C. Shambaugh; Sanjay R. Singh
  29. Does courier gender matter? Exploring mode choice behaviour for E-groceries crowd-shipping in developing economies By Oleksandr Rossolov; Anastasiia Botsman; Serhii Lyfenko; Yusak O. Susilo
  30. Class formation and relations among Filipino cloudworkers By Soriano, Cheryll Ruth
  31. Economic Activity by Race By Fatima Mboup

  1. By: Padilla-Romo, María (University of Tennessee); Peluffo, Cecilia (University of Florida)
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence on how having violence-exposed peers who migrated to nonviolent areas affects students' educational trajectories in receiving schools. To recover our estimates, we exploit the variation in local violence across different municipalities in the context of Mexico's war on drugs and linked administrative records on students' educational trajectories. We find that peer exposure to violence in elementary school imposes persistent negative effects on students in nonviolent areas. Having elementary school violence-exposed peers has detrimental effects on students' academic performance in a high school admission exam and grade progression. For every ten students previously exposed to local violence who migrated to Mexico City's metro area, approximately five incumbent students in safe municipalities are placed in lower-ranked and less-preferred schools.
    Keywords: local violence, peer effects, educational trajectories
    JEL: I24 I25 O15
    Date: 2023–08
  2. By: Tanner Regan (George Washington University); Andreas Diemer (Stockholm University); Cheng Keat Tang (Nanyang Technological University)
    Abstract: We study the extent of segregation in the social space of urban America. We measure segregation as the (lack of) actual personal connections between groups as opposed to conventional measures based on own neighbourhood composition. We distinguish social segregation from geographical definitions of segregation, and build and compare city-level indices of each. Conditional on residential segregation, cities with more institutions that foster social cohesion (churches and community associations) are less socially segregated. Looking at within-city variation across neighbourhoods, growing up more socially exposed to non-white neighbourhoods is related to various adulthood outcomes (jailed, income rank, married, and non-migrant) for black individuals. Social exposure to non-white neighbourhoods is always related to worsening adulthood outcomes in neighbourhoods that are majority non-white. Our results suggest that social connections, beyond residential location or other spatial relationships, are important for understanding the effective segregation of race in America.
    Keywords: Segregation; Social Networks; US cities
    JEL: R23 J15
    Date: 2023–05
  3. By: Christopher Campos; Caitlin Kearns
    Abstract: Does a school district that expands school choice provide better outcomes for students than a neighborhood-based assignment system? This paper studies the Zones of Choice (ZOC) program, a school choice initiative of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) that created small high school markets in some neighborhoods but left attendance-zone boundaries in place throughout the rest of the district. We study market-level impacts of choice on student achievement and college enrollment using a differences-in-differences design. Student outcomes in ZOC markets increased markedly, narrowing achievement and college enrollment gaps between ZOC neighborhoods and the rest of the district. The effects of ZOC are larger for schools exposed to more competition, supporting the notion that competition is a key channel. Demand estimates suggest families place substantial weight on schools' academic quality, providing schools with competition-induced incentives to improve their effectiveness. The evidence demonstrates that public school choice programs have the potential to improve school quality and reduce neighborhood-based disparities in educational opportunity.
    JEL: I20 I21 I24
    Date: 2023–08
  4. By: Stefano Cellini (University of Surrey); Francisco Nobre (University of Surrey)
    Abstract: Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) represent an important place-management tool across the UK, investing more than 100 million pounds each year into street safety and other public goods provision for their local neighborhoods. This paper studies the effects of the opening of a BID on local housing markets in London, where the first BIDs started operating in 2004 and more than 20% of the active BIDs in the country are located. We show that BID openings lead to an increase in house prices by around 3%, using property transaction data and BID-level information. We record also an increase the share of new-building sales after the BID opening. We argue that these results are driven by demand effects from neighborhood improvements, since they seem to be driven by BIDs spending more on crime and environment. We rule out housing supply responses to BID openings using administrative records on housing planning applications. In the longer run, blocks exposed to BIDs activity present gentrification trajectories as they lower their share of social renters, BAME and unemployed residents to a greater extent compared to non-affected blocks.
    JEL: H70 R28 R30
    Date: 2023–04
  5. By: McCann, Fergal (Central Bank of Ireland); Singh, Anuj Pratap (Central Bank of Ireland)
    Abstract: Public subsidies to support the downpayments of mortgaged home purchasers can be absorbed in the housing market in a number of ways. Using granular data on loans and borrowers in Ireland, we assess three possible transmission channels of an enhancement to subsidy payments introduced in mid-2020: borrowers’ liquidity, equity (or indebtedness), and home purchase values. Our estimates suggests that outof-pocket downpayments fall by almost the size of the increase in the subsidy value, suggesting improvement in liquidity position of eligible borrowers. We also find that this liquidity improving effect is present across all income levels, but highest in the middle of the borrower income distribution. Equity enhancements (lowering Loan-tovalue ratios) and house price increases are smaller in magnitude and more prevalent among higher income borrowers.
    Keywords: Downpayment constraint, housing assistance schemes, macroprudential policy, borrower liquidity.
    JEL: D04 E58 H24 R28
    Date: 2023–06
  6. By: Alessandro Corvasce (Università degli Studi di Milano and Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: This presentation examines the impact of gentrification on criminal activity in urban neighborhoods to determine whether this process has a detrimental effect on communities. The study utilizes a newly-built unique dataset of georeferenced crime reports from 14 major American cities matched with census data to identify gentrified areas in the 2010s. To causally evaluate the impact of gentrification on crime, I adopt state-of-the-art event-study models to causally evaluate the effects of gentrification, taking into account variations in the timing of this process across different cities and neighborhoods. The analysis reveals that gentrified areas experienced a statistically significant increase in crime ranging from 11% to 17%. The findings suggest that gentrification has a negative impact on neighborhoods, with property crimes showing the most significant increases. Overall, the study suggests that gentrification may have a criminogenic effect on neighborhoods, highlighting the need for further research and policy attention to this issue.
    Date: 2023–08–11
  7. By: David Card; Jesse Rothstein; Moises Yi
    Abstract: We use data from the Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics program to study the causal effects of location on earnings. Starting from a model with employer and employee fixed effects, we estimate the average earnings premiums associated with jobs in different commuting zones (CZs) and different CZ-industry pairs. About half of the variation in mean wages across CZs is attributable to differences in worker ability (as measured by their fixed effects); the other half is attributable to place effects. We show that the place effects from a richly specified cross sectional wage model overstate the causal effects of place (due to unobserved worker ability), while those from a model that simply adds person fixed effects understate the causal effects (due to unobserved heterogeneity in the premiums paid by different firms in the same CZ). Local industry agglomerations are associated with higher wages, but overall differences in industry composition and in CZ-specific returns to industries explain only a small fraction of average place effects. Estimating separate place effects for college and non-college workers, we find that the college wage gap is bigger in larger and higher-wage places, but that two-thirds of this variation is attributable to differences in the relative skills of the two groups in different places. Most of the remaining variation reflects the enhanced sorting of more educated workers to higher-paying industries in larger and higher-wage CZs. Finally, we find that local housing costs at least fully offset local pay premiums, implying that workers who move to larger CZs have no higher net-of-housing consumption.
    JEL: J31 J61 R23
    Date: 2023–08
  8. By: Soyoung Lee
    Abstract: I study debt relief as a stimulus policy using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model that captures the rich heterogeneity in households’ balance sheets. In this environment, a large-scale mortgage principal reduction can amplify a recovery, support house prices and lower foreclosures. The nature of the intervention, in terms of its eligibility, liquidity and financing, shapes its macroeconomic impact. This impact rests on how resources are redistributed across households that vary in their marginal propensities to consume. The availability of bankruptcy on unsecured debt quantitatively changes the macroeconomic response to large-scale mortgage relief by reducing precautionary savings.
    Keywords: Business fluctuations and cycles; Credit and credit aggregates; Debt management; Housing
    JEL: E21 E32 E6
    Date: 2023–08
  9. By: Cáceres-Delpiano, Julio (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid); Giolito, Eugenio (Universidad del CEMA)
    Abstract: This study employs Chilean administrative data to investigate the impact of School Starting Age (SSA) on the characteristics of students' initial enrolled schools. Employing minimum age requirements and an RD-design to mitigate endogeneity concerns, we identify benefits linked to commencing school at a later age. Our findings demonstrate that children starting school at an older age enroll in institutions with higher average scores in standardized tests and interact with older peers whose parents have higher education levels. Furthermore, they display a heightened likelihood of entering schools employing academic selection methods, a greater proportion of fulltime teachers, and a larger percentage of instructors with a 4-year college degree.The analysis by level of education of the parents and gender reveals that most of our results are driven by parents with lower levels of education and girls.
    Keywords: Latin America, Chile, school starting age, schools' characteristics
    JEL: A21 I24 I25 I28
    Date: 2023–08
  10. By: Lambert, Derek (Central Bank of Ireland); Lyons, Paul (Central Bank of Ireland); Carroll, James (Central Bank of Ireland)
    Abstract: Green mortgages are a recent financial innovation, being established as a mainstream product in Ireland in 2019. By offering borrowers lower interest rates, green mortgages support wider emissions targets by incentivizing households and businesses to invest in energy efficiency. In this Note, we estimate the growth in green mortgage financing in Ireland and describe the characteristics of green mortgage borrowers and loans. We find that, despite their very recent introduction, green mortgages account for a sizable and growing share of mortgage lending, representing almost thirty per cent of originations in 2022. We also find that first time buyers (FTBs), those switching their mortgage, and borrowers in the Leinster region are the most likely cohorts to avail of green mortgages. Furthermore, green mortgage loan amounts are larger, are associated with higher value properties and are more prevalent in higher income groups, particularly for FTBs. This latter point suggests that there is a risk that the efficiency gap between high and low income groups could widen into the future. We also find evidence that some eligible borrowers have not availed of/received a green mortgage.
    Date: 2023–05
  11. By: Àkos Aczél (Central Bank of Hungary); Lajos Szabó (Central Bank of Hungary)
    Abstract: We examine peer-effects in mortgage borrowing decisions. We find that having a financially literate colleague improves the borrowing decision of financially less literate co-workers. The interest rate of the mortgage loan of these co-workers is significantly lower than similar employees at other companies who do not have such a colleague. The magnitude of the effect is economically significant, roughly one-fourth of the standard deviation of mortgage loan interest rates. Placebo and robustness tests verify our results. Roughly one-third of the effect is due to which bank is chosen by the borrower. The results are heterogeneous in the strength of competition among banks. In those districts where the competition is lower, the peer effect is considerably higher.
    Date: 2023–08–11
  12. By: Inmaculada C. Alvarez (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid); Javier Barbero (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid); Luis Orea (Universidad de Oviedo); Andrés Rodríguez-Pose (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the impact of institutional quality on the returns on key drivers of economic growth in 230 European Union (EU) NUTS-2 regions from 2009 to 2017. To estimate region-specific elasticities, we employ a latent class modelling approach, considering the quality of government and the degree of authority in each region as mediators. Our findings reveal significant variation in the returns to education, physical capital investment, and innovation across regions. Moreover, we observe that changes in government quality and regional authority influence the ability of EU regions to leverage different types of investment effectively. These results emphasize the importance of considering the government quality in regions where investments are made in order to maximize the returns on European Cohesion investment.
    Keywords: Institutional quality, European funds, public investment, regional development
    JEL: O43 E61 H54 R11
    Date: 2023–08
  13. By: Bellue, Suzanne (University of Mannheim); Bouguen, Adrien (Santa Clara University); Gurgand, Marc (Paris School of Economics); Munier, Valerie (University of Montpellier 1); Tricot, André (University of Montpellier 1)
    Abstract: While in-service teacher training programs are designed to enhance the performance of several cohorts of students, there is little evidence on the persistence of their effects. We present the two-year results of a large-scale, randomized study of an intensive in-service teacher training program in France: during and after implementation. Our estimates highlight the short-run effectiveness of the training program; it successfully improves students' outcomes but only during the implementation year. A detailed analysis of teachers' outcomes indicates that teachers changed their pedagogical vision and practices but struggled to apply acquired skills to contents not directly covered in the training.
    Keywords: in-service teacher training, professional development, teacher effect
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2023–08
  14. By: Rafael Araujo; Juliano Assunção; Marina Hirota; José A. Scheinkman
    Abstract: The Amazon rainforests have been undergoing unprecedented levels of human-induced disturbances. In addition to local impacts, such changes are likely to cascade following the eastern-western atmospheric flow generated by trade winds. We propose a model of spatial and temporal interactions created by this flow to estimate the spread of local disturbances to downwind locations along atmospheric trajectories. The spatial component captures cascading effects propagated by neighboring regions while the temporal component captures persistence. All these network effects can be described by a single matrix, acting as a spatial multiplier that amplifies local disturbances. This matrix can be used to easily map where the damage of an initial forest disturbance is amplified and propagated to. We identify regions that are likely to cause the largest impact throughout the basin, and those that are the most vulnerable to shocks caused by remote deforestation. On average, the presence of cascading effects mediated by winds doubles the impact of an initial damage. However, there is heterogeneity in this impact. While damage in some regions does not propagate, in others amplification may reach 250%.
    JEL: C23 Q54 Q57
    Date: 2023–08
  15. By: Abhiman Das; Ejaz Ghani; Arti Grover Goswami; William R. Kerr; Ramana Nanda
    Abstract: We use data from Reserve Bank of India to study the impact of India's Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) highway project on finance-dependent activity. Loan volumes increase by 20-30% in districts along GQ and are stronger in industries more dependent upon external finance. Loan growth begins with increases in average branch size and in places with more pre-GQ loan activity. New branch openings come later, consistent with short-run adjustment costs to expanding branch networks. These patterns are not evident in placebo tests using delayed investments in NS-EW highways. Results suggest the depth of initial financial infrastructure shapes how infrastructure investments impact localities.
    JEL: G21 H4 O18 R12 R14 R33 R42
    Date: 2023–08
  16. By: NAKAMURA Ryohei
    Abstract: In many non-metropolitan municipalities, in addition to the revitalization of existing firms and the birth of new business establishments, attracting manufacturing firms with large shipment volume is still an important measure for regional development. Although the job creation effect is smaller than it used to be, manufacturing plants remain key in rural regions. However, unlike the attraction of heavy and large-scale industries during the high economic growth period, there is a tendency to attract firms that exhibit regional comparative advantages. In this paper, we will identify what kinds of manufacturing firms disappear, withdraw, appear, and survive in what kind of regions during the first phase of regional revitalization, and analyze their factors. Looking at the distribution of value-added productivity in a comparison of manufacturing firms in 2014 and 2019, the labor productivity of manufacturing firms that existed in both 2014 and 2019 was the highest, followed by manufacturing firms that existed in 2019. The lowest was for firms that existed in 2014 but did not exist in 2019. Also, from the results of the logit analysis, it was presumed that there was a tendency to remain viable if productivity was high and the size of the firm was large, and that there was a tendency towards dissolution if the degree of urbanization was high. On the other hand, for newly established manufacturing firms, regression analysis by municipality showed a positive effect for both the agglomeration of the same industry and urban agglomeration measured by population size.
    Date: 2023–08
  17. By: Purwani, Ofita
    Abstract: The recent spectacularized development in the Gulf cities of the Middle East and North Africa has brought into view its contradictory logic of urban change. The cities in that region are highly entrepreneurial, ambitious, and futuristic (Kanna, 2011), yet this happens in and through the long-standing tradition of monarchical power (Molotch and Ponzini, 2019). Royal authority is expressed in modern and globalized forms. Is this the case in other contexts where urban change proceeds in the context of royal influence? This paper addresses this question by looking at the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Although Indonesia is a democracy, in Yogyakarta, the royal family retains a strong presence in and influence over the city. That influence, however, manifests itself not in a futuristic way, as in the cities of the Gulf, but through traditionalized discourses and forms. Moreover, while urban development in Gulf cities is often legitimized by using a globalized and future-oriented vision, in Yogyakarta, change is legitimized by recourse to traditional narratives set within the symbolic authority of royalty. This paper explores why Yogyakarta’s urban change proceeds in and through this royalistic logic. It does so by examining the historical background and current cultural and socioeconomic context of urban change, including relevant legal and planning issues. I conclude that the persistence of traditionalized reasoning and expression in Yogyakarta is intensified in inverse proportion to the purchase of monarchical power. Although urban change is framed through royal reasoning, that reasoning is itself shaped by funding opportunities, legal constraints, and global and local forces. Unlike Gulf cities, which benefit from oil wealth and deregulated economic zoning, Yogyakarta has limited funding from the central government and limited opportunity for foreign investment. These economic constraints intensify traditionalism and a specific form of urban royal expression, all through the opportunities offered through the cultural economy of heritage.
    Keywords: monarchy; royal agency; tradition; urban development; Indonesia
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2023–08–01
  18. By: Raphaelle G. Coulombe; Akhil Rao
    Abstract: We study the dynamic effects of fires on county labor markets in the US using a novel geophysical measure of fire exposure based on satellite imagery. We find increased fire exposure causes lower employment growth in the short and medium run, with medium-run effects being linked to migration. We also document heterogeneous effects across counties by education and industrial concentration levels, states of the business cycle, and fire size. By overcoming challenges in measuring fire impacts, we identify vulnerable places and economic states, offering guidance on tailoring relief efforts and contributing to a broader understanding of natural disasters' economic impacts.
    Date: 2023–08
  19. By: Jianwei Xing; Zhiren Hu; Fan Xia; Jintao Xu; Eric Zou
    Abstract: Forests accompany the cities we build. There are an estimated 5.5 billion urban trees in the United States. Globally, about 25 percent of urban land is covered by tree canopy. This study examines urban forests as a policy tool for air pollution mitigation. We study an afforestation program in the city of Beijing, which planted a total of 2 million mu of greenery – roughly the size of Los Angeles – across the city over a decade. We conduct a remote-sensing audit of the program, finding that it contributes to a substantial greening up of the city. This causes significant downwind air quality improvement, reducing average `PM_2.5` concentration at city population hubs by 4.2 percent. Rapid vegetation growth, however, led to a 7.4 percent increase in pollen exposure. Analysis of medical claims data shows aeroallergens triggered emergency room visits, mirroring well-documented industrial pollution effects though less severe. We offer insight on managing urban forests’ health risks, identifying harmful pollen species and susceptible population subgroups.
    JEL: I18 Q23 Q53 Q56 R11
    Date: 2023–08
  20. By: Isha Agarwal; Malin Hu; Raluca Roman; Keling Zheng
    Abstract: We propose a new conceptual framework for monetary policy transmission through shadow banks in the mortgage market that highlights the role of mortgage servicing in generating non-deposit funds for lending. We document that mortgage servicing acts as a natural hedge against interest rate shocks and dampens the effect of monetary policy on shadow bank mortgage lending. Higher interest rates reduce prepayment risk, increasing the collateral value of mortgage servicing assets and cashflow from servicing income. This enables shadow banks with greater exposure to mortgage servicing to obtain more funding. The mortgage servicing channel is weaker for traditional banks due to their reliance on deposit funding and the capital charge on mortgage servicing assets. Our estimates imply that the rising share of shadow banks in mortgage servicing has weakened the pass-through of monetary policy to aggregate mortgage lending.
    JEL: E52 G21
    Date: 2023–08–02
  21. By: Athanase Mbarubukeye
    Abstract: Teachers and students need to exchange ideas while they are engaged in teaching and learning activities in everyday life. When one wants to convey his or her feelings or thoughts, he or she uses a familiar language as a means of communication. As Rwandans, Kinyarwanda is the mother tongue of the Rwandan people, their first language, and an official language. It was also used in lower primary education as a language of instruction and taught as a subject in upper primary education. Various studies were carried out on how to master the four skills of language, especially one’s mother tongue. This research investigates what impedes students in some schools from having native language proficiency, as many of them use this language improperly. The purpose of this paper was to identify better methods for teaching Kinyarwanda to students, and promoting students’ writing skills. This study was administered among 60 students and 5 teachers selected from two schools in Rukomo Sector, Gicumbi District using cluster sampling technique for students and purposive sampling for teachers who teach Kinyarwanda. The findings revealed that both students and teachers are not willing to use Kinyarwanda appropriately when they are conducting lessons. Findings from the teachers’ questionnaire indicated that students need various competitions in terms of speaking and writing, and teachers need Kinyarwanda trainings. This implies that the government of Rwanda is required to provide sufficient instructional materials and organize school competitions that will enable students to be familiar with using appropriate vocabulary when speaking and writing Kinyarwanda. Key words: native language, teaching Kinyarwanda language, four skills of language
    Date: 2023–06
  22. By: Bovini, Giulia (Bank of Italy); Cattadori, Niccolò (University of Zurich); De Philippis, Marta (Bank of Italy); Sestito, Paolo (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: This paper considers the case of Italy to analyze the short- and medium-term effect of a longer school day in primary school on both students' learning and mothers' labor supply. we rely on unique application-to-primary-school data: first, we control for parental preferences, proxied by individual applications; second, we exploit variation in the probability of attending the full-time (FT) scheme that only stems from nonlinearities in the mix of FT and part-time (PT) applications received by the school and from class size limits set by the law. We show that attending the FT scheme increases Math test scores in grades 2 and 5 and Italian scores in grade 2 by around 4.5% of a standard deviation, but the effects fade away by grade 8. Conversely, there is a positive impact on maternal labor force participation and employment, which is long-lasting (approximately 2 p.p.). No effect is found on fathers' employment. Finally, we find some evidence of negative selection on gains, as the groups of students and mothers for whom the effect seems to be larger are not those more likely to apply to the FT scheme or to attend it conditional on applying.
    Keywords: time at school, female labor supply, selection into treatment, students' learning
    JEL: H40 I21 I24 J13 J21
    Date: 2023–08
  23. By: Pablo A. Celhay (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile); Emilio Depetris-Chauvin (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile); Cristina Riquelme (University of Maryland)
    Abstract: This paper empirically studies the impact of massive and sudden school closures following the 2011 nationwide student strike in Chile on teenage pregnancy. We observe a 2.7% average increase in teenage pregnancies in response to temporary high school shutdowns, equating to 1.9 additional pregnancies per school day lost. The effect diminishes three quarters after the strike’s onset. Effects are predominantly driven by first-time mothers and are aligned with higher school absenteeism periods, and are unrelated to typical teenage fertility seasonality or pregnancies of other age groups. The study also reveals a slight increase in the demand for emergency contraception and condoms due to strikes. This suggests that riskier behavior mainly drives effects due to reduced adult supervision. Additionally, we find persistent negative effects on students’ educational trajectories, evidenced by an increase in dropout rates and a reduction in college admission test take-up.
    Keywords: Teenage Pregnancy, Risky Behavior, Student Protests, Incapacitation Effect
    JEL: J13 I12 I2
    Date: 2023–08
  24. By: Sander van Cranenburgh; Francisco Garrido-Valenzuela
    Abstract: Visual imagery is indispensable to many multi-attribute decision situations. Examples of such decision situations in travel behaviour research include residential location choices, vehicle choices, tourist destination choices, and various safety-related choices. However, current discrete choice models cannot handle image data and thus cannot incorporate information embedded in images into their representations of choice behaviour. This gap between discrete choice models' capabilities and the real-world behaviour it seeks to model leads to incomplete and, possibly, misleading outcomes. To solve this gap, this study proposes "Computer Vision-enriched Discrete Choice Models" (CV-DCMs). CV-DCMs can handle choice tasks involving numeric attributes and images by integrating computer vision and traditional discrete choice models. Moreover, because CV-DCMs are grounded in random utility maximisation principles, they maintain the solid behavioural foundation of traditional discrete choice models. We demonstrate the proposed CV-DCM by applying it to data obtained through a novel stated choice experiment involving residential location choices. In this experiment, respondents faced choice tasks with trade-offs between commute time, monthly housing cost and street-level conditions, presented using images. As such, this research contributes to the growing body of literature in the travel behaviour field that seeks to integrate discrete choice modelling and machine learning.
    Date: 2023–08
  25. By: Tendero, Emerissa Jane
    Abstract: This research examines the phenomenon of pilgrimage tourism through a case study of the Fort Pilar Shrine in Zamboanga City, Philippines. By employing a mixed-methods approach, the study aims to investigate the factors contributing to the popularity of the shrine as a pilgrimage destination and analyze the socio-economic impacts it generates. The findings indicate that religious motivations, historical significance, and cultural experiences emerge as the key drivers attracting pilgrims to Fort Pilar Shrine. Furthermore, the shrine's economic significance is evident, as it contributes to job creation, income generation, and local business development. The study underscores the importance of strategic planning and sustainable management in pilgrimage tourism destinations. It highlights the need for improved infrastructure, visitor services, and marketing efforts to enhance the overall visitor experience. Moreover, community involvement and stakeholder collaboration emerge as critical factors for the long-term success and sustainability of pilgrimage sites. The research findings have practical implications for policymakers, local communities, and tourism authorities. By understanding the factors that attract pilgrims and the potential socio-economic benefits, decision-makers can develop effective strategies to harness the full potential of pilgrimage tourism. This study contributes to the broader understanding of pilgrimage tourism dynamics and offers insights for the sustainable development of similar sites worldwide
    Date: 2023–08–01
  26. By: Magnifique Idahemuka; Venerande Kayirangwa
    Abstract: Since 2002, effective progress has been made to booster girls’ enrolment in schools. However, a big number of girls worldwide remains out of school due to cultural norms and practices. This paper examined the influence of cultural norms and practices on girls’ academic performance in Rwandan secondary schools specifically in Nyanza district. In order to achieve the expected objectives, the current paper gathered data using interview guides, questionnaires and documentation. A descriptive research design has been used. Quantitative data was presented, analyzed and interpreted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Qualitative data was presented and analyzed in form of extracts, explanations and interpretations. In addition this study was guided by the cultural deficit theory. Although previous studies revealed that girl’s education plays a great role in the country’s development, the findings of the current paper evidenced that early marriage, gender disparity, domestic duties, girls’ pregnancies, child labor and hawking are cultural norms and practices affecting girl’s education and cause them to perform poorly in Rwandan secondary schools. Finally, this paper recommended that all stakeholders of the education sector work hand in hand to overcome cultural norms and practices affecting girls’ education. Key words: culture, cultural norms and practices, academic performance, Rwanda, nyanza
    Date: 2023–06
  27. By: Klüger, Elisa; Morin, Johanna Gautier; Rossier, Thierry
    Abstract: After World War II, international organizations and research institutes dedicated to the development of local expertise thrived in Latin America. The desire to produce appropriate knowledge to solve the region's socio-economic problems raised the question of the intellectual and material autonomy of these organizations. This article combines intellectual and social history to investigate the early years of the first Graduate School of Latin American Economic Studies (ESCOLATINA), founded in Chile in 1956. The mixture of archival research, collective biography, and sequence analysis allows us to examine the tensions between, on the one hand, the quest for epistemic autonomy and rapprochement with other social sciences, and, on the other hand, the influence of the US model of graduate schools of economics together with the dependence on foreign resources and experts. The history of ESCOLATINA also reveals how the academic and political environment in Chile shaped the school and transformed it over time.
    Keywords: academic autonomy; collective biography; ESCOLATINA; sequence analysis; transnational expertise
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2023–07
  28. By: Katheryn Russ; Jay C. Shambaugh; Sanjay R. Singh
    Abstract: In his papers during the lead up to the birth of the European Monetary Union, Obstfeld considered whether the countries forming the EMU were sufficiently similar to survive a single monetary policy—and more importantly, whether they had the capacity to adjust to asymmetric shocks given a single monetary and exchange rate policy. The convention at the time was to take the United States as the baseline for a smoothly functioning currency union. We document the evolution of the literature on regional labor market adjustment within the United States, expanding on stylized facts illustrating how stratification in local labor market outcomes appears far more persistent today than 30 years ago in the context of what Obstfeld and Peri (1998) call non-adjustment in unemployment rates. We then extend the currency union literature by adding an additional consideration: differences in regional cyclical sensitivity. Using measures of cyclicality and Obstfeld-Peri-type non-adjustment, we explore the characteristics of places that can get left behind when local labor markets respond differently to national shocks and discuss implications for policy.
    JEL: F15 F16 F45
    Date: 2023–08
  29. By: Oleksandr Rossolov; Anastasiia Botsman; Serhii Lyfenko; Yusak O. Susilo
    Abstract: This paper examines the mode choice behaviour of people who may act as occasional couriers to provide crowd-shipping (CS) deliveries. Given its recent increase in popularity, online grocery services have become the main market for crowd-shipping deliveries' provider. The study included a behavioural survey, PTV Visum simulations and discrete choice behaviour modelling based on random utility maximization theory. Mode choice behaviour was examined by considering the gender heterogeneity of the occasional couriers in a multimodal urban transport network. The behavioural dataset was collected in the city of Kharkiv, Ukraine, at the beginning of 2021. The results indicated that women were willing to provide CS service with 8% less remuneration than men. Women were also more likely to make 10% longer detours by car and metro than men, while male couriers were willing to implement 25% longer detours when travelling by bike or walking. Considering the integration of CS detours into the couriers' routine trip chains, women couriers were more likely to attach the CS trip to the work-shopping trip chain whilst men would use the home-home evening time trip chain. The estimated marginal probability effect indicated a higher detour time sensitivity with respect to expected profit and the relative detour costs of the couriers.
    Date: 2023–08
  30. By: Soriano, Cheryll Ruth
    Abstract: This chapter examines emerging class formation and relations among cloudworkers as well as its underlying institutional structures. As empirical anchor, the chapter focuses on the Philippines, which has actively embraced platform labor with millions of Filipino workers obtaining gigs from cloudwork platforms. I explore emerging class relations among Filipino cloudworkers given the mutually-intersecting layers of technological, state discourses, social, and inter-racial relations that shape worker subjectivity. The tighter interconnectedness of the global economy and of class practices notwithstanding, cloudwork, like labor migration where the State plays an instrumental role in promoting, reinforces the view of class structures still as national formations, although enacted in dialectical tension with workers’ “techno-entrepreneurial spirit”. In this techno-global workplace, friendships arise, but in the same breath national and local attachments are deepened as Filipino workers find relational spaces of solidarity amid competitors and clients from other countries. Yet, class hierarchies also emerge among cloudworkers and these hierarchies are shaped by the workers’ capacity to negotiate the technological, national, social, and inter-racial dimensions of cloudwork and which influences their sense of control and agency over their work. I discuss the inter-relationships between and across class hierarchies, highlighting how the experiences and narratives of influencers, worker-agencies, and highly-specialized workers are cascaded to shape the imaginaries of the majority of new entrants and precarious Filipino platform workers.
    Date: 2022–10–30
  31. By: Fatima Mboup
    Abstract: We observe empirical differences between races across various macroeconomic variables for the White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic populations in the U.S. For instance, the Black unemployment rate in the U.S. is more often than not double the White unemployment rate. In this paper, I treat nine macroeconomic variables as noisy indicators of economic activity and estimate an index that measures the economic activity of racial demographic groups in the U.S., called Economic Activity by Race (EAR). The noise of the indicators motivates the use of Kalman filter estimation to extract a common component from the noisy indicator variables. My index suggests that there are empirical differences between Black and White economic activity in the U.S., supporting the disparities found between races in racial stratification literature. Further, my results suggest that a structural shock to White economic activity is more persistent than a structural shock to Black, Asian, or Hispanic economic activity due to more heterogeneous sensitivity to various measures of economic well-being.
    Keywords: racial stratification; economic activity; racial disparities; unemployment rate; macroeconomic forecasting; macroeconomic data; Kalman filter
    JEL: E37 E01 C22 J15
    Date: 2023–08–09

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