nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2023‒07‒10
fifty-nine papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Unpacking Moving: A Quantitative Spatial Equilibrium Model with Wealth By Elisa Giannone; Qi Li; Nuno Paixao; Xinle Pang
  2. City Shape and Air Pollution By Gallé, Johannes
  3. The impact of flood risk on real estate wealth in Italy By Michele Loberto; Matteo Spuri
  4. The dark side of green innovation? Green transition and regional inequality in Europe By Nils Grashof; Stefano Basilico;
  5. The Geography of Consumption and Local Economic Shocks: The Case of the Great Recession By Abe C. Dunn; Mahsa Gholizadeh
  6. Geographic Barriers to Education in Disadvantaged Communities: Evidence from High School Openings in Israeli Arab Localities By Elad DeMalach
  7. Perceived Ability and School Choices: Experimental Evidence and Scale-up Effects By Bobba, Matteo; Frisancho, Veronica; Pariguana, Marco
  8. Impact of early childhood school intervention on enrollment and learning outcomes: Evaluation of a public program in India By Bhattacharya, Nilanjan; Pakrashi, Debayan; Saha, Sarani; Sahoo, Soham
  9. Comparison of policies for increasing sustainable transport mode shares in Swedish cities By Pyddoke, Roger
  10. Housing Affordability in Western Australia 2023: Building for the future By Alex Buckland; Adam Crowe; Alan S Duncan; Steven Rowley; Ryan Brierty
  11. New Methods for Old Questions: Predicting Historical Urban Renewal Areas in the United States By Xu, Wenfei
  12. How Informal Mentoring by Teachers, Counselors, and Coaches Supports Students’ Long-Run Academic Success By Matthew A. Kraft; Alexander J. Bolves; Noelle M. Hurd
  13. The equity-efficiency trade-off of the European cohesion policy By Tryfonas Christou; Francesca Crucitti; Abian Garcia Rodriguez; Nicholas Lazarou; Simone Salotti
  14. Playing the system: address manipulation and access to schools By Andreas Bjerre-Nielsen; Lykke Sterll Christensen; Mikkel H{\o}st Gandil; Hans Henrik Sievertsen
  15. Special Economic Zones and Local Economic Activities in Ethiopia By Abagna, Matthew Amalitinga
  16. Hidden drop-out: Secondary education (unseen) failure in pandemic times By Alderighi, Lorenzo; Ballatore, Rosario M.; Tonello, Marco
  17. When Immigrants Meet Exporters: A Reassessment of the Immigrant Wage Gap By Léa Marchal; Guzmán Ourens; Giulia Sabbadini
  18. Better Reflecting Transitions in Market Production by Government Functions Over Time: Updating the Classification of State and Local Government Enterprises in the National Income and Product Accounts By Tina Highfill
  19. Weaknesses and perspectives of municipal finance in southern Italy in the eve of Covid-19 By Alfredo Bardozzetti; Paolo Chiades; Anna Laura Mancini; Vanni Mengotto; Giacomo Ziglio
  20. When Immigrants Meet Exporters: A Reassessment of the Immigrant Wage Gap By Léa Marchal; Guzmán Ourens; Giulia Sabbadini
  21. The hedonic value of coastal amenities in peer-to-peer markets "Abstract: Coastal amenities are public goods that represent an important attraction for tourism activities. This paper studies consumers’ willingness to pay for beach characteristics using hedonic pricing methods. We examine the implicit economic value of several beach characteristics like sand type, width, longitude, accessibility, or frontage in the Airbnb rental market. Using data for 16, 663 Airbnb listings located in 67 municipalities of the Balearic Islands (Spain) during the summer of 2016, together with detailed information about the attributes of 263 beaches, our modelling approach considers interaction terms between the beach amenities and distance to the closest beach within a hedonic framework. Controlling for a set of listings’ characteristics, host features and municipality fixed effects, we find that Airbnb guests attach economic value to beach length, the presence of vegetation, the type of coastal frontage and beach accessibility and exclusivity. However, there is no evidence of price premiums depending on the beach width or the type of sand." By David Boto-García; Veronica Leoni
  22. Long-Term Effects of Hiring Subsidies for Low-Educated Unemployed Youths By Albanese, Andrea; Cockx, Bart; Dejemeppe, Muriel
  23. Are Immigrants More Left Wing than Natives? By Moriconi, Simone; Peri, Giovanni; Turati, Riccardo
  24. The Effect of Pre-Arraignment Legal Representation on Criminal Case Outcomes By Johanna Lacoe; Brett Fischer; Steven Raphael
  25. Striking Evidence: The Impact of Railway Strikes on Competition from Intercity Bus Services in Germany By Matthias Beestermöller; Levke Jessen-Thiesen; Alexander Sandkamp; Alexander-Nikolai Sandkamp
  26. Racial Discrimination and the Social Contract: Evidence from U.S. Army Enlistment during WWII By Nancy Qian; Marco Tabellini
  27. Higher Education Opportunity and the Choice of Vocational vs. Academic High School By Xing, Chunbing; Sun, Yan; Luo, Chuliang
  28. Learning by searching: spatial mismatches and imperfect information in Southern labor markets By Banerjee, Abhijit; Sequeira, Sandra
  29. Long-Term Effects of Hiring Subsidies for Low-Educated Unemployed Youths By Albanese, Andrea; Cockx, B.; Dejemeppe, Muriel
  30. Outlet Substitution Bias Estimates for Ride Sharing and Taxi Rides in New York City By Ana M. Aizcorbe; Jeff Chen
  31. Faith no more? The divergence of political trust between urban and rural Europe By Mitsch, Frieder; Lee, Neil; Ralph-Morrow, Elizabeth
  32. How Should We Measure Infrastructure? The Case of Highways and Streets By Robert Kornfeld; Barbara M. Fraumeni
  33. Hoarding without hoarders: unpacking the emergence of opportunity hoarding within schools By Jo\~ao M. Souto-Maior
  34. Quantitative Easing, Bank Lending, and Aggregate Fluctuations By Matthew Schaffer; Nimrod Segev
  35. Japan’s Promotion of Smart Cities at Home and Abroad: Socioeconomic and Strategic Considerations By Corey Wallace
  36. The Impact of the Prehistoric Out of Africa Migration on Cultural Diversity By Oded Galor; Marc Klemp; Daniel C. Wainstock
  37. The Geographies of Segregation in French Universities from 2006 to 2016 By Pierre Courtioux; Tristan-Pierre Maury; Johan Seux
  38. Affirmative Action is a Successful Policy for Diversity in College Graduation By Amy Lutz; Pamela R. Bennett; Rebecca Wong
  39. Rank-heterogeneous Preference Models for School Choice By Amel Awadelkarim; Arjun Seshadri; Itai Ashlagi; Irene Lo; Johan Ugander
  40. Global Evolution of Research in urban environment and human health: A Bibliometric Study By Hang, Trinh Thi Thu; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Khuc, Quy Van
  41. Inequality and Immigration By Christian Dustmann; Yannis Kastis; Ian Preston
  42. Go Your Own WA: Recovery and regeneration for the tourism industry in Western Australia By Alan S Duncan; Alex Buckland; Abebe Hailemariam; Daniel Kiely; Silvia Salazar; Valentina Sanchez Arenas
  43. 중국 도시의 녹색전환 정책과 시사점(Green Transition Policy and Implications of Chinese Cities) By Choi, Wonseok; Jung, Jihyun; Pak, Jinhee; Lee, Hanna; Choi, Jiwon; Kim, Joo Hye
  44. Assessing the Future of Oil and Gas Production and Local Government Revenue in Five Western US Basins By Prest, Brian C.; Raimi, Daniel; Whitlock, Zachary
  45. Centrality Bias in Inter-City Trade By Mori, Tomoya; Wrona, Jens
  46. Trends in the School Lunch Program: Changes in Selection, Nutrition & Health By Therese Bonomo; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach
  47. The Geographies of Segregation in French Universities from 2006 to 2016 By Pierre Courtioux; Tristan-Pierre Maury; Johan Seux
  48. The spread of COVID-19 in London: network effects and optimal lockdowns By Julliard, Christian; Shi, Ran; Yuan, Kathy
  49. Empirical analysis of socio-economic factors affecting deprivation of years of schooling among households across Indian districts By Kumar, Chetan; K.B., Rangappa; S., Suchitra
  50. Older People’s Choice of the Community-based Care: A Welfare Pluralism Perspective By Cheung, Hiu Ying; Fu, Yu Qi; Yang, Zan
  51. Assessing innovations in High-Speed Rail infrastructure By Ait-Ali, Abderrahman; Kurt, Filiz; Isberner, Alessa; Odolinski, Kristofer; Berg, Mats
  52. Evaluating the mix of maintenance activities on railway crossings with respect to life-cycle costs By Ait-Ali , Abderrahman; Odolinski, Kristofer; Pålsson, Björn; Torstensson, Peter
  53. South-South refugee movements: Do pull factors play a role? By Mauro Lanati; Rainer Thiele
  54. A Guide to Conducting School Experiments: Expert Insights and Best Practices for Effective Implementation By Grosch, Kerstin; Haeckl, Simone; Rau, Holger; Preuss, Paul
  55. The Causal Effect of Ethnic Diversity on Support for Redistribution and the Role of Discrimination By Achard, Pascal; Suetens, Sigrid
  56. Relationship Banking and Credit Scores: Evidence from a Natural Experiment By Tali Bank; Nimrod Segev; Maya Shaton
  57. Racial Unemployment Gaps and the Disparate Impact of the Inflation Tax By Mohammed Ait Lahcen; Garth Baughman; Hugo van Buggenum
  58. Tailoring migration policies to address labour shortages By Sommerfeld, Katrin
  59. Urban Transport Energy Demand Model for Riyadh: Methodology and Preliminary Analysis By Abu Toasin Oakil; Ahm Mehbub Anwar; Alma; Nourah Al Hosain; Abdelrahman Muhsen; Anvita Arora

  1. By: Elisa Giannone; Qi Li; Nuno Paixao; Xinle Pang
    Abstract: We argue that the interaction between mobility and wealth provides a view that rationalizes low geographic migration rates, despite migration costs being lower than currently thought. We reach this conclusion by developing and solving a quantitative dynamic spatial equilibrium model with endogenous wealth accumulated through liquid and illiquid assets. We estimate a yearly moving cost between Canadian cities of 196, 303 CAD for an average adult, substantially lower than previous estimates. To demonstrate the model’s validity, we study policies advocated to reduce disparities: Do moving vouchers or housing affordability policies enhance welfare, especially for the poor? Our findings suggest that moving vouchers only marginally increase the welfare of eligible households, and those who receive the vouchers tend to move to locations with lower house prices and wages. In contrast, our model shows that lower housing regulations in Vancouver can decrease the welfare gap between rich and poor by lowering house prices nationwide through spatial reallocation. Thus, the insurance value of living in high-income cities becomes higher, reducing the incentive for low-wealth families to move precautionarily to locations with low housing costs.
    Keywords: Housing; Regional economic developments
    JEL: G51 R13 R2 R31 R52
    Date: 2023–06
  2. By: Gallé, Johannes
    Abstract: Air pollution has become an increasing health threat for the local population in many cities around the world. Using high resolution remote sensing data on nightlights and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for the years 1998-2013, I study the contemporary nexus between city shape and air pollution in India. I find that the compactness of a city has statistically significant and negative effects on local air quality. The results are more pronounced in larger cities and robust with respect to different compactness measures. While geographic dispersion allows for more fresh air corridors, differences in commuting patterns could serve as an additional explanation. People in less compact cities are more likely to use public transport and thereby reducing the overall road traffic within cities translating into less pollution. However, the statistically significant effects do not translate into substantial changes in the relative risk of PM2.5-induced diseases.
    Keywords: Urbanization, air pollution, commuting, India
    JEL: R10 R41 Q53
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Michele Loberto (Bank of Italy); Matteo Spuri (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: This paper outlines the main data sources and the methodology used to estimate the impact of flood risk in Italy. It assesses the potential physical damage to the housing stock, identifying the main gaps in the current information set. Estimates of exposure and expected annual loss vary greatly depending on the hazard scenarios used, the assumptions about building vulnerability, and the data’s spatial granularity level. Based on our most reliable estimates, the value of homes potentially exposed to flooding is close to €1 trillion (2020 values), about a quarter of the total housing wealth. The resulting expected annual loss can be estimated at around €3 billion.
    Keywords: climate change, real estate, flooding risk
    JEL: O18 Q54
    Date: 2023–05
  4. By: Nils Grashof; Stefano Basilico;
    Abstract: This study explores the regional diversification processes into green technologies (2000- 2017) and their implications for regional inequalities. Utilizing patent and Eurostat data, we analyze these processes along the economic strength of regions and the nature of their knowledge base. Our findings reveal that both structurally strong and weak regions can successfully diversify into green technologies if they possess related technological capabilities. However, brown regions cannot do so. Already existing patterns of divergence between these two types of regions are unlikely to be exacerbated by a green transition, but new regional disparities between brown regions and other regions could emerge.
    Keywords: dark side of innovation, inequality, regional diversification, regional inequality, green innovation, green transition
    JEL: O32 O33 R11
    Date: 2023–06
  5. By: Abe C. Dunn; Mahsa Gholizadeh (Bureau of Economic Analysis)
    Abstract: We estimate across-county spending flows between firms and consumers for every county in the United States, providing a new consumption link that has not been studied previously. We highlight the importance of this link by estimating the effect of changes in local housing wealth on consumption and employment from 2001 to 2019. We generally find that the effect from changes in housing wealth crosses borders to affect consumption and employment in a pattern consistent with our spending flows. However, we find potential consumers who reside outside the local commuting zone disproportionately affect local spending and employment during the Great Recession.
    JEL: R1 R2 E2 E3
    Date: 2023–01
  6. By: Elad DeMalach (Bank of Israel)
    Abstract: Secondary school enrollment has grown substantially over the past century, but there is surprisingly little economic evidence on the effects of geographic access to high schools, particularly for remote and disadvantaged communities. I attempt to fill this gap in the literature by examining the effects of openings of new local high schools for the Arab minority in Israel over two episodes: (1) Historical openings in 1972-1995 for Israeli Arabs (2) Recent openings in 2007-2014 for the poorer Bedouin population of the Negev in southern Israel. For both episodes, I find that the establishment of a high school in a locality increases high school completion rates by about 5-7 percentage points. The effect is higher for localities that were further away from pre-existing schools. For the historical Arab sample, I also examine the long-run effects and find an increase in post-secondary attainment and in women’s employment and earnings. Among the Negev Bedouin population, I also observe a decrease in the number of juvenile criminal records. Overall, these findings suggest that the geographic barrier to high school access is important, especially for disadvantaged communities, and that establishing a high school in remote communities can be beneficial in multiple aspects.
    Date: 2023–02
  7. By: Bobba, Matteo (Toulouse School of Economics); Frisancho, Veronica (Inter-American Development Bank); Pariguana, Marco (University of Western Ontario)
    Abstract: This paper studies an information intervention designed and implemented in the context of a school assignment mechanism in Mexico City. We find that providing students from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds with feedback about their academic performance contributes to placing applicants in schools that better fit their skills, allowing them to graduate on time from high school at a higher rate. We also quantify the effect of a counterfactual and yet feasible implementation of the information intervention at a much larger scale. Simulation results demonstrate substantial heterogeneity in the demandside responses, which trigger sorting and displacement patterns within the assignment mechanism. The equilibrium effects of the intervention may possibly hinder the subsequent academic trajectories of high-achieving and socio-economically disadvantaged students.
    Keywords: subjective expectations, information provision, school choice, upper-secondary education, scaling up experiments, spillover and equilibrium effects
    JEL: D83 I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2023–05
  8. By: Bhattacharya, Nilanjan; Pakrashi, Debayan; Saha, Sarani; Sahoo, Soham
    Abstract: We evaluate the impact of introducing a pre-primary schooling program in government schools in the Indian state of West Bengal in 2013 on children’s early enrollment in schools and subsequent test scores. Using double difference, triple difference, and synthetic control methodologies, we find that the program significantly increased enrollment in the pre-primary sections of the government schools. However, the rise in enrollment did not translate into improved performance of the students. Analyzing the test scores, we find that after the program's introduction, both math and reading scores of treated children did not improve compared to the control group. We attribute this result to the deteriorating physical and learning infrastructure in the state government schools, captured via a decline in the availability of classrooms and teachers.
    Keywords: pre-primary education, learning outcomes, enrollment
    JEL: I21 I25 I28
    Date: 2023
  9. By: Pyddoke, Roger (Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI))
    Abstract: The EU is currently promoting sustainable mobility in its cities. This promotion can take the form of subsidies for cycling and public-transport infrastructure. This paper compares existing Swedish policy instruments for promoting more sustainable transport: government subsidies to infrastructure for sustainable modes in the form of city environmental agreements (CEAs), congestion and parking charges and a hypothetical incentive to reduce the mode share of cars. Analyses of the CEAs indicate that they do not reliably affect mode choice. The results for congestion and parking charges, on the contrary, indicate that these have a substantial potential to shift mode choices and improve welfare by pricing external costs. The outcomes of the hypothetical incentive based on achieved effects will depend on the extent to which cities are willing to use externality pricing and to which citizens are willing to change modes. The management and evaluation of this hypothetical incentive poses considerable requirements on data and estimations of a counter factual outcomes without incentives, and its necessary costs. Provided these requirements can be met, the incentive model appears to be a possible instrument for stimulating cities to move faster towards sustainable transport.
    Keywords: Sustainable transport; Cities; Mode shares; Policy
    JEL: H23 H54 H71 R48 R49 R51
    Date: 2023–06–15
  10. By: Alex Buckland (Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin University); Adam Crowe (School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Curtin Business School); Alan S Duncan (Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin University); Steven Rowley (School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Curtin Business School); Ryan Brierty (School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Curtin Business School)
    Abstract: The latest report in the BCEC Focus on WA report series, Housing Affordability in Western Australia 2023: Building for the future, compares housing affordability in WA to other jurisdictions for both homeowners and renters to get a sense of where WA sits. This research looks at overall affordability and where the key pressures are that people face from rising interest rates, construction project delays and escalating rental costs.
    Keywords: Western Australia, WA economy, housing pathways, housing affordability, income and wealth, financial disadvantage, mortgage stress, housing stress.
    JEL: O18 R21 R31 R38
    Date: 2023–05
  11. By: Xu, Wenfei
    Abstract: Mid-20th urban renewal in the United States was transformational for the physical urban fabric and socioeconomic trajectories of these neighborhoods and its displaced residents. However, there is little research that systematically investigates its impacts due to incomplete national data. This article uses a multiple machine learning method to discover 204 new Census tracts that were likely sites of federal urban renewal, highway construction related demolition, and other urban renewal projects between 1949 and 1970. It also aims to understand the factors motivating the decision to “renew” certain neighborhoods. I find that race, housing age, and homeownership are all determinants of renewal. Moreover, by stratifying the analysis along neighborhoods perceived to be more or less risky, I also find that race and housing age are two distinct channels that influence renewal.
    Date: 2023–05–13
  12. By: Matthew A. Kraft; Alexander J. Bolves; Noelle M. Hurd
    Abstract: We document a largely unrecognized pathway through which schools promote human capital development – by fostering informal mentoring relationships between students and teachers, counselors, and coaches. Using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we explore the nature and consequences of natural mentoring relationships by leveraging within-student variation in the timing of mentorship formation as well as differences in exposure among pairs of twins, best friends, and romantic partners. Results across difference-in-differences and pair fixed-effect specifications show consistent and meaningful positive effects on student attainment, with a conservative estimate of a 9.4 percentage point increase in college attendance. Effects are largest for students of lower socioeconomic status and robust to controls for individual characteristics and bounding exercises for selection on unobservables. Smaller class sizes and a school culture where students have a strong sense of belonging are important school-level predictors of having a K-12 natural mentor.
    JEL: I21 I24 I26 J24
    Date: 2023–05
  13. By: Tryfonas Christou (European Commission - JRC); Francesca Crucitti (European Commission - JRC); Abian Garcia Rodriguez (European Commission - JRC); Nicholas Lazarou (European Commission - JRC); Simone Salotti (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The European cohesion policy aims to strengthen economic, social and territorial cohesion, and to correct imbalances between countries and regions. The existing evidence on the impact of the policy on the regions of the European Union (EU) suggests that it is capable of positively influencing cohesion, triggering convergence at the country level. Little is known about the effects of the policy on within-country regional inequality, which is an important dimension of economic disparities. The results summarised here focus on the impact of cohesion policy investments on regional disparities within countries targeted by the policy. The investments can target either peripheral regions or core regions within each country. The economic impacts in the two types of regions differ substantially in terms of magnitude and spillovers generated. Investing in core regions may maximise country-wide returns, but it could be harmful to within-country regional disparities.
    Keywords: rhomolo, general equilibrium, economic growth, cohesion policy
    JEL: C68 R13
    Date: 2023–04
  14. By: Andreas Bjerre-Nielsen; Lykke Sterll Christensen; Mikkel H{\o}st Gandil; Hans Henrik Sievertsen
    Abstract: Strategic incentives may lead to inefficient and unequal provision of public services. A prominent example is school admissions. Existing research shows that applicants "play the system" by submitting school rankings strategically. We investigate whether applicants also play the system by manipulating their eligibility at schools. We analyze this applicant deception in a theoretical model and provide testable predictions for commonly-used admission procedures. We confirm these model predictions empirically by analyzing the implementation of two reforms. First, we find that the introduction of a residence-based school-admission criterion in Denmark caused address changes to increase by more than 100% before the high-school application deadline. This increase occurred only in areas where the incentive to manipulate is high-powered. Second, to assess whether this behavior reflects actual address changes, we study a second reform that required applicants to provide additional proof of place of residence to approve an address change. The second reform significantly reduced address changes around the school application deadline, suggesting that the observed increase in address changes mainly reflects manipulation. The manipulation is driven by applicants from more affluent households and their behavior affects non-manipulating applicants. Counter-factual simulations show that among students not enrolling in their first listed school, more than 25% would have been offered a place in the absence of address manipulation and their peer GPA is 0.2SD lower due to the manipulative behavior of other applicants. Our findings show that popular school choice systems give applicants the incentive to play the system with real implications for non-strategic applicants.
    Date: 2023–05
  15. By: Abagna, Matthew Amalitinga
    Abstract: Do Special Economic Zones (SEZs) increase local economic activities in developing countries? This paper explores this question by examining the aggregate district economic effects of SEZs, a place-based development policy in Ethiopia. The study relies on time and district variation in the establishment of SEZs to evaluate the within-district changes in nighttime light, a proxy for district economic activities. The Difference-in-Difference estimates show an increase in the average nighttime light of SEZs districts after the SEZs became operational. The effect varies with the SEZs type. SEZs with bigger land sizes and SEZs that operate in sectors other than textiles, garment and the leather industry tend to generate more economic activities in the SEZs districts. The impact is also positive and significant for publicly managed SEZs relative to privately managed SEZs. The study further explores whether SEZs generate spillover effects on the economic activities of districts bordering the SEZs districts. Overall, there is no consistent evidence that the policy has any significant effect on the economic activities of the SEZs commuting districts.
    Keywords: Special Economic Zones, Economic Activities, Nighttime light, Ethiopia, Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: F13 O25 O38
    Date: 2023–05–23
  16. By: Alderighi, Lorenzo; Ballatore, Rosario M.; Tonello, Marco
    Abstract: We estimate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on hidden drop-out, a new measure indicating failure in achieving the minimum level of skills considered to be adequate for a student getting the high school diploma. We exploit the exogenous variation induced by the pandemic by comparing two cohorts of students (one affected and the other unaffected), within the same school. We find that hidden drop-out increases by 8.6 percentage points; the effect is stronger for students with lower levels of prior achievement, from poorer families, but also for those emotionally disrupted during assessments, and for those disclosing lower educational aspirations.
    Keywords: hidden drop-out, secondary education, school failure, COVID-19
    JEL: I21 I24 I18
    Date: 2023
  17. By: Léa Marchal (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne & Institut Convergences Migrations); Guzmán Ourens (Department of Economics - Tilburg University); Giulia Sabbadini (Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics)
    Abstract: This article shows that wage inequalities between native and immigrant workers depends on the export activity of the employing firm. We build a model with heterogeneous firms and workers showing that white-collar immigrants capture an informational rent in exporting firms that help them close the wage gap with natives. We use French employer-employee data for the manufacturing sector from 2005 to 2015 to support this mechanism. We show that wages react to changes in export intensity when the export destination coincides with the region of origin of immigrant workers
    Keywords: Export; Firm; Immigrants; Wage inequality
    JEL: F14 F22 F16
    Date: 2023–05
  18. By: Tina Highfill (Bureau of Economic Analysis)
    Abstract: Government enterprises are government agencies that operate like market producers by covering a substantial proportion of their operating costs by selling goods and services to the public. The current surplus of state and local government enterprises in the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPAs) was –$17.5 billion in 2020, driven by negative operating surplus for two government functions: housing and urban renewal and public transit. Using Census of Government data for 1967–2017 to better identify government functions that charge economically significant prices and therefore operate like market producers, this paper shows housing and urban renewal and public transit should no longer be classified as state and local government enterprises in the NIPAs as of 1972 and 1982, respectively. Additionally, hospitals and solid waste management should be classified as state and local government enterprises beginning in 1977 and 1992, respectively. This updated reclassification would better reflect changes in market production behavior over time for government functions and result in positive current operating surplus in the NIPAs for state and local government enterprises.
    JEL: C82 E01 H11 H70
    Date: 2022–07
  19. By: Alfredo Bardozzetti (Bank of Italy); Paolo Chiades (Bank of Italy); Anna Laura Mancini (Bank of Italy); Vanni Mengotto (Bank of Italy); Giacomo Ziglio (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic hit Southern Italian municipalities during a period when they were already suffering from significant budgetary challenges, especially for those of bigger size. On the revenue side, southern cities depend heavily on central government transfers, in part because of a smaller local tax base and more difficulties in collecting taxes. Their current expenditures show a higher share of non-squeezable items (personnel costs, interest on the debt and coverage of the previous deficit). Over the last decade, southern municipalities have been heavily affected by the contraction in government transfers and the tightening of local fiscal rules. Consequently, they have been less able, with respect to the rest of the country, to provide essential public services and to invest. Looking ahead, the difficulties of southern cities can be overcome through the completion of an equalization system that takes full account of the differences in expenditure needs and fiscal capacities, better enforcement of tax collection and more efficient use of resources.
    Keywords: Municipal finance, Southern Italy
    JEL: H70 H71 H72
    Date: 2022–07
  20. By: Léa Marchal (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IC Migrations - Institut Convergences Migrations [Aubervilliers], UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne); Guzmán Ourens (Tilburg University [Tilburg] - Netspar); Giulia Sabbadini (DICE - Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics - Heinrich Heine Universität Düsseldorf = Heinrich Heine University [Düsseldorf])
    Abstract: This article shows that wage inequalities between native and immigrant workers depends on the export activity of the employing firm. We build a model with heterogeneous firms and workers showing that white-collar immigrants capture an informational rent in exporting firms that help them close the wage gap with natives. We use French employer-employee data for the manufacturing sector from 2005 to 2015 to support this mechanism. We show that wages react to changes in export intensity when the export destination coincides with the region of origin of immigrant workers.
    Keywords: Export, Firm, Immigrants, Wage inequality
    Date: 2023–05
  21. By: David Boto-García (Universitat de les Illes Balears); Veronica Leoni (Universitat de les Illes Balears)
    Keywords: hedonic pricing, coastal amenities; capitalization effects; peer-to-peer markets; distance decay.
    Date: 2022
  22. By: Albanese, Andrea (LISER); Cockx, Bart (Ghent University); Dejemeppe, Muriel (Université catholique de Louvain)
    Abstract: We use a regression discontinuity design and difference-in-differences estimators to estimate the impact of a one-shot hiring subsidy for low-educated unemployed youths during the Great Recession recovery in Belgium. The subsidy increases job-finding in the private sector by 10 percentage points within one year of unemployment. Six years later, high school graduates accumulated 2.8 quarters more private employment. However, they substitute private for public and self-employment; thus, overall employment does not increase but is still better paid. For high school dropouts, no persistent gains emerge. Moreover, the neighboring employment hub of Luxembourg induces a complete deadweight loss near the border.
    Keywords: hiring subsidies, youth unemployment, low-educated, regression discontinuity design, difference-in-differences, spillover effects
    JEL: C21 J08 J23 J24 J64 J68 J61
    Date: 2023–05
  23. By: Moriconi, Simone (IÉSEG School of Management); Peri, Giovanni (University of California, Davis); Turati, Riccardo (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona)
    Abstract: We analyze whether second-generation immigrants have different political preferences relative to children of citizens. Using data on individual voting behavior in 22 European countries between 2001 and 2017, we characterize each vote on a left-right scale based on the ideological and policy positions of the party. First, we describe and characterize the size of the "left-wing bias" in the vote of second-generation immigrants after controlling for a large set of individual characteristics and origin and destination country fixed effects. We find a significant left-wing bias of second-generation immigrants, similar in magnitude to the left-wing bias of those with a secondary, relative to a primary, education. We then show that this left-wing bias is associated with stronger preferences for inequality-reducing government intervention, internationalism and multiculturalism. We find only weak evidence that second-generation immigrants are biased away from populist political agendas and no evidence that they have stronger preferences for pro-immigrant policies. Finally, we show that growing up with a father who is struggling to integrate into the labor market is a strong predictor of this left-wing bias.
    Keywords: immigration, elections, Europe
    JEL: D72 J61 P16 Z1
    Date: 2023–05
  24. By: Johanna Lacoe; Brett Fischer; Steven Raphael
    Abstract: Low-income individuals arrested on criminal charges face disproportionately high rates of pretrial detention and conviction. We study a novel approach to addressing this inequity: providing low-income individuals with access to legal counsel immediately following their arrest. Focusing on a pilot program in a large urban county, we estimate the causal impact of early representation by a public defender on release and case outcomes, leveraging quasi-random variation in access to counsel pre-arraignment. Low-income individuals who met with a public defender shortly after arrest were 28 percentage points more likely to be released pretrial, and 36 percent more likely to see their cases dismissed, relative to otherwise similar individuals who would first meet with a public defender at their arraignment. These results suggest that providing timely access to legal representation could improve release and case outcomes for public defender clients.
    JEL: K40 K42
    Date: 2023–05
  25. By: Matthias Beestermöller; Levke Jessen-Thiesen; Alexander Sandkamp; Alexander-Nikolai Sandkamp
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of the largest rail strikes in German history on intercity buses – a then newly liberalised market. Using unique booking data of bus services, we exploit variation in rail service cancellations across routes to show that the disruption in rail transport increases bus ticket sales. Crucially, the effect persists beyond the strike, indicating that travellers do not return to their originally preferred mode of transport. It is particularly pronounced for passengers travelling on weekends. The findings suggest that customers were previously under-experimenting. Beyond transportation, our results highlight the importance of service reliability, as temporary disruptions can cause customers to permanently switch to competitors.
    Keywords: experimentation, inter-modal substitution, learning, optimisation, strike, switching costs, transport
    JEL: C81 D83 L92 R41
    Date: 2023
  26. By: Nancy Qian (Northwestern University,); Marco Tabellini (Harvard Business School,)
    Abstract: This paper documents several new facts about the relationship between discrimination and political exclusion and the motivation to fight in wartime. The Pearl Harbor attack triggered a sharp increase in volunteer enlistment rates of American men, the magnitude of the increase was smaller for Black men than for white men and the Black-white gap was larger in counties with higher levels of racial discrimination. Discrimination reduced the quantity and the quality of Black volunteers. The discouraging effects of discrimination were more pronounced in places that were geographically distant from Pearl Harbor and in states that had joined the Union relatively recently. For Japanese-American men, enlistment rates were higher where the Japanese-American community was not interred than where it was interred. These and other results provide empirical support for the theory that discrimination and political exclusion reduce support for the government when it is under threat.
    Keywords: Political and Economic Exclusion, Social Contract, Nation Building
    JEL: D72 J15 N92 P16
    Date: 2023–06
  27. By: Xing, Chunbing (Renmin University of China); Sun, Yan (World Bank); Luo, Chuliang (Renmin University of China)
    Abstract: This research uses CHIP data of 2018 to examine the impact of higher education opportunities on the middle school graduates' choice between academic and vocational high schools. The findings indicate that a higher university quota at the provincial level increases the likelihood of middle school graduates choosing an academic high school, and the probability of choosing a vocational high school is negatively correlated with elite university opportunities in urban China. These results suggest that spatial differences in higher education opportunities significantly influence the type of human capital investment at the high school stage in China.
    Keywords: human capital investment, higher education opportunity, the choice of vocational vs. academic high school
    JEL: I24 I25 I26 H75
    Date: 2023–05
  28. By: Banerjee, Abhijit; Sequeira, Sandra
    Abstract: Youth unemployment remains extremely high throughout the developing world, at times coexisting with unmet demand for labor and high job turnover. We examine one possible explanation for this: spatial mismatches between jobs and job-seekers combined with high search costs can lead young job-seekers to have overly optimistic beliefs about their employment prospects. As a result, job-seekers under-search but also hold out for better jobs. Through a field experiment we find that reducing search costs through transport subsidies leads job-seekers to search more intensively and to adjust their beliefs in line with their search experience. When jobs fail to materialize immediately, job-seekers who believed that dropping CVs at prospective employers in the city centre was an effective search strategy become more impatient, they lower their reservation wage and they settle for low-paying jobs closer to home. This does not increase their likelihood of being employed, since nearby jobs are also scarce. These findings underscore both the importance and the complexity of the interaction between search costs and beliefs, and how they can lead to spatial and occupational mistargeting in the job search.
    Keywords: labor markets; transport costs; search costs; transport subsidies; Elsevier deal
    JEL: J1 R14 J01
    Date: 2023–09–01
  29. By: Albanese, Andrea; Cockx, B.; Dejemeppe, Muriel
    Abstract: We use a regression discontinuity design and difference-in-differences estimators to estimate the impact of a one-shot hiring subsidy for low-educated unemployed youths during the Great Recession recovery in Belgium. The subsidy increases job-finding in the private sector by 10 percentage points within one year of unemployment. Six years later, high school graduates accumulated 2.8 quarters more private employment. However, they substitute private for public and self-employment; thus, overall employment does not increase but is still better paid. For high school dropouts, no persistent gains emerge. Moreover, the neighboring employment hub of Luxembourg induces a complete deadweight loss near the border.
    JEL: C21 J08 J23 J24 J64 J68 J61
    Date: 2023–06–08
  30. By: Ana M. Aizcorbe; Jeff Chen (Bureau of Economic Analysis)
    Abstract: The arrival of new merchants poses problems for measuring inflation, and many think the resulting biases in the official statistics are nontrivial. The BLS methods treat identical commodities sold by different merchants as distinct, different goods but to the extent the goods are close substitutes then the CPI will be biased upward by an estimated 0.08 percentage point per year (Moulton 2017). There have not been many empirical studies to inform these estimates, owing to the paucity of the highly granular merchant-level data required. Studies based on external non-BLS sources have typically used a unit value index that essentially treats goods sold at different merchants as perfect substitutes, a controversial assumption. We also use a unit value index but with a different interpretation: We view a quality adjusted price index as the target and demonstrate that, in our context, the unit value index we calculate may be viewed as an upper bound to this unobserved target. Using detailed data from email receipts, we find that the arrival and growth of ride-sharing services in New York City likely imparted a nontrivial bias in the official price indexes for that city: a lower bound of 0.5 percentage point per year over the period 2015–2017. We attribute the magnitude of the bias to the sustained growth of ride sharing over this period, from 40 percent of the market in 2015 to 70 percent by 2017.
    JEL: C43 E31
    Date: 2022–02
  31. By: Mitsch, Frieder; Lee, Neil; Ralph-Morrow, Elizabeth
    Abstract: Events such as Brexit and the Gilet Jaunes protests have highlighted the spatial nature of populism. In particular, there has been increasing political divergence between urban and rural areas, with rural areas apparently having lost faith in national governments. We investigate this divergence using data on over 125, 000 EU citizens from the European Social Survey from 2008 to 2018. We show that people in rural areas have lower political trust than urban or peri-urban residents, with this difference clear for six different forms of political institutions, including politicians, political parties, and national parliaments. There has been divergence of political trust between urban and rural Europe since 2008, although this is primarily driven by Southern Europe. While these results can partly be explained by demographic differences between cities and the countryside, divergent economic experiences, differences in values, and perceptions that public services are less effective outside of urban areas, there is a residual ‘rural effect’ beyond this. We argue that the polarisation of urban-rural political trust has important implications for the functioning of European democracies.
    Keywords: political trust; urban-rural division; polarisation; European social survey; 724363
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2021–08–01
  32. By: Robert Kornfeld; Barbara M. Fraumeni (Bureau of Economic Analysis)
    Abstract: The recent debates on infrastructure spending have led to renewed interest in the measurement of infrastructure and its effects on growth and wellbeing. This paper updates estimates of one important type of infrastructure capital—highways and streets. We compare BEA’s capital measures with more readily understood physical measures of road and lane miles, road quality and usage, and other measures from Highway Statistics (HS) data from FHWA. We also use the HS data and related research to disaggregate investment in highways and streets into more detailed types, such as new construction, repair and resurfacing, and bridge work, and apply separate depreciation rates to each type to produce updated estimates of net wealth stocks and depreciation. Relative to published BEA estimates, constant-price depreciation is revised up by about $9–$12 billion annually in recent years, and constant-price net stocks are revised down by about 22 percent. For the period from 2007 forward, net stocks per capita are flat in the published BEA estimates but decline slightly in the revised estimates. In addition, we update Fraumeni’s (2007) estimates of productive stocks that are converted to wealth stocks to facilitate a comparison. These updated wealth estimates also show lower net stocks and higher depreciation than in the published BEA estimates. We hope this paper encourages discussion about how to measure infrastructure capital, particularly highways and streets, and its effects.
    JEL: E01
    Date: 2022–04
  33. By: Jo\~ao M. Souto-Maior
    Abstract: Sociologists of education increasingly highlight the role of opportunity hoarding in the formation of Black-White educational inequalities. Informed by this literature, this article unpacks the necessary and sufficient conditions under which the hoarding of educational resources emerges within schools. It develops a qualitatively informed agent-based model which captures Black and White students' competition for a valuable school resource: advanced coursework. In contrast to traditional accounts -- which explain the emergence of hoarding through the actions of Whites that keep valuable resources within White communities -- simulations, perhaps surprisingly, show hoarding to arise even when Whites do not play the role of hoarders of resources. Behind this result is the fact that a structural inequality (i.e., racial differences in social class) -- and not action-driven hoarding -- is the necessary condition for hoarding to emerge. Findings, therefore, illustrate that common action-driven understandings of opportunity hoarding can overlook the structural foundations behind this important phenomenon. Policy implications are discussed.
    Date: 2023–05
  34. By: Matthew Schaffer (Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Greensboro); Nimrod Segev (Bank of Israel)
    Abstract: This paper suggests a new channel through which central bank Quantitative Easing (QE) policies can amplify aggregate fluctuations. By significantly increasing excess reserve holdings in the banking sector, QE policies reduce liquidity risk and increase banks’ lending potential. Thus, disturbances that increase credit demand generate a stronger increase in lending, further amplifying the shock’s impact. We offer empirical evidence supporting this mechanism by utilizing two sources of variation in the US during the COVID-19 pandemic. First, we use cross-bank variation in mortgage-backed security (MBS) holdings to measure banks’ exposure to QE policies. Second, we use cross-state variation in the per capita Economic Impact Payments (EIP) to quantify the local aggregate demand shock stemming from pandemic-related fiscal relief. Bank-level analysis reveals that while QE is associated with an overall increase in reserves, its impact on credit expansion depends on the magnitude of the EIP-related demand shock. Additionally, state-level evidence suggests increases in credit expansion and house prices following the shock were larger in states with greater banking sector exposure to QE. The results, therefore, suggest that QE amplified the impact of government stimulus programs during COVID-19.
    Date: 2023–02
  35. By: Corey Wallace
    Abstract: Smart city developments at home and abroad present Japan with various socioeconomic and strategic opportunities and challenges. This policy paper outlines the evolution of the Japanese government’s interest in facilitating the domestic uptake of technologies associated with smart city platforms and the drivers of Tokyo’s international cooperation within the smart city paradigm. It also describes intersecting national security and economic considerations that are of increasing interest to Japan’s security policymakers. The paper concludes by outlining tensions between Tokyo’s promotion of smart city platforms and its economic security agenda.
    Keywords: Smart city, Economic security, Technology
    Date: 2022–10
  36. By: Oded Galor; Marc Klemp; Daniel C. Wainstock
    Abstract: Evidence suggests that the prehistoric Out of Africa Migration has impacted the degree of intra-population genetic and phenotypic diversity across the globe. This paper provides the first evidence that this migration has shaped cultural diversity. Leveraging a folklore catalogue of 958 oral traditions across the world, we find that ethnic groups further away from East Africa along the migratory routes have lower folkloric diversity. This pattern is consistent with the compression of genetic, phenotypic, and phonemic traits along the Out of Africa migration routes, setting conditions for the emergence and proliferation of differential cultural diversity and economic development across the world.
    JEL: N0 O10 O40 Z10
    Date: 2023–05
  37. By: Pierre Courtioux (Paris School of Business & Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne); Tristan-Pierre Maury (EDHEC Business School); Johan Seux (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne)
    Abstract: Since the French university system is non-selective, the question of segregation has long remained unaddressed. However, the recent increase in enrolment, as well as the implementation of cluster-building policies, have brought the issue of university segregation and its geography to the forefront. This article proposes the first exhaustive geographical decomposition of segregation in French universities. Using a mutual information index, we identify the different local components and layers of social segregation and measure their contribution to the national level of segregation between 2006 and 2016. Our results show that in the French university system, segregation is quite low and tended to decrease over the period. However, we also show that only about 18% of the total segregation is due to macro-scale factors: i.e., social differences across regional areas: social segregation is mainly a local phenomenon that could be reduced with reforms of higher education enrolment policy, implemented at the regional level
    Keywords: Segregation; Higher Education; Diversity; France
    JEL: I23 R10
    Date: 2023–05
  38. By: Amy Lutz (Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University, 426 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244); Pamela R. Bennett (University of Maryland, Baltimore County); Rebecca Wong (Maxwell School, Syracuse University)
    Abstract: Affirmative action in higher education has become an active arena for policymaking and legal challenges in the United States. A question frequently raised about affirmative action is whether racial and ethnic minority students who benefit from affirmative action are successful in the academically demanding context of selective colleges. Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study, the authors analyzed racial-ethnic differences in cumulative GPAs for White, Black, and Latino students who were high school seniors in 2004 and subsequently attended selective colleges and universities. Results show that Black and Latino students were more likely to graduate from selective colleges than White students who come from similar socioeconomic backgrounds with comparable academic resources and educational experiences.
    Keywords: Affirmative Action, Higher Education, Education Policy
    Date: 2023–06
  39. By: Amel Awadelkarim; Arjun Seshadri; Itai Ashlagi; Irene Lo; Johan Ugander
    Abstract: School choice mechanism designers use discrete choice models to understand and predict families' preferences. The most widely-used choice model, the multinomial logit (MNL), is linear in school and/or household attributes. While the model is simple and interpretable, it assumes the ranked preference lists arise from a choice process that is uniform throughout the ranking, from top to bottom. In this work, we introduce two strategies for rank-heterogeneous choice modeling tailored for school choice. First, we adapt a context-dependent random utility model (CDM), considering down-rank choices as occurring in the context of earlier up-rank choices. Second, we consider stratifying the choice modeling by rank, regularizing rank-adjacent models towards one another when appropriate. Using data on household preferences from the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) across multiple years, we show that the contextual models considerably improve our out-of-sample evaluation metrics across all rank positions over the non-contextual models in the literature. Meanwhile, stratifying the model by rank can yield more accurate first-choice predictions while down-rank predictions are relatively unimproved. These models provide performance upgrades that school choice researchers can adopt to improve predictions and counterfactual analyses.
    Date: 2023–06
  40. By: Hang, Trinh Thi Thu; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Khuc, Quy Van
    Abstract: Most nations are experiencing rapid urbanization. By 2050, it is estimated that almost 70% of the world’s population will reside in urban areas. Building green cities, smart cities, or more sustainable cities is the top priority policies for many countries, which requires a more advanced understanding of the urban’s ecological and social systems. This study aims to examine the growth trajectory, most influential documents, intellectual and conceptual structure of the literature regarding urban environment and human health research. Bibliometric analysis was performed using 424 validated scientific works related to the topic published during 1997- 2023. The review showed that this field’s knowledge grew exponentially during the last two decades. For example, the five most frequently used keywords found are “urban” (63 occurrences), “health” (47 occurrences), “impact” (44 occurrences), “urban population” (40 occurrences), “mortality” (36 occurrences), while the number of publication increased from 3 in 1990 to 58 in 2018. The majority of them are contributed by scholars from the world’s developed countries or large economies such as the United States (92 documents), China (70 documents), England (39 documents), and Germany (25 documents). We reasoned that scientific culture, research spending, and collaboration are the main causes of the growth in knowledge and disparity in scientific productivity among institutes and/or nations. In addition, based on the co-citation analysis, three major research lines were identified. The findings of this study offer many key implications for devising the urban policies that further promote knowledge creation and sharing while closing gaps in academic publishing in the long run.
    Date: 2023–05–19
  41. By: Christian Dustmann; Yannis Kastis; Ian Preston
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between immigration and inequality in the UK over the past forty years. This is a period when the share of foreign-born in the UK population increased from 5.3% in 1975 to 13.4% in 2015. We evaluate the impact immigration had on wage inequality in the UK through two channels: the first is the effect on the earnings distribution of the natives and the second is the effect on the composition of the wage-earning population. We find both effects to be very small. We decompose wage inequality into inequality within the immigrant and native group and inequality between the two groups. We find inequality among immigrants to be consistently higher than inequality among natives. We also examine the impact of immigration on the fiscal budget, and the potentially unequal impact of the ensuing tax implications on natives. In the UK, where immigrants are net fiscal contributors, this is not a factor that aggravates economic inequality. Even though the impact of immigration is found to be small, the way it is perceived across different population groups in the UK varies; a fact mostly attributed to racial and cultural concerns rather than perceived economic competition.
    Date: 2023
  42. By: Alan S Duncan (Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin University); Alex Buckland (Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin University); Abebe Hailemariam (Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin University); Daniel Kiely (Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Curtin Business School); Silvia Salazar (Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Curtin University); Valentina Sanchez Arenas (Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Curtin University)
    Abstract: The seventh report in the Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre Focus on Industry report series, Go Your Own Way: Recovery and regeneration for the tourism industry in Western Australia, examines the dynamics of the tourism industry before and after the COVID-19 crisis and outlines the road to recovery for the sector in Western Australia. The report finds that Western Australia’s tourism industry continues to bounce back from a pandemic-induced slump, but that the industry still faces many challenges, including realising the potential of cultural tourism, re-engagement with the important Chinese market and workforce shortages in regional tourism areas.
    Keywords: tourism, tourism economics, diversification, industrial development, international trade, regional economic development, international visitors, travel expenditure.
    JEL: L38 L88 R1 R11 R12 F13
    Date: 2023–03
    Abstract: 본 보고서는 중국 도시의 녹색전환 정책을 에너지, 공업, 교통 분야의 정책으로 분류하고 각 분야의 정책 추진체계와 특징 등을 파악하였다. 또한 각 분야의 주요 정책 특징과 추진사례 등을 통해 한국이 향후 녹색전환을 추진하는 데 필요한 정책적 시사점과 한·중 협력방안 그리고 관련 리스크 등을 제시하였다. As a strategy to promote green transition, Chinese cities are increasing their proportion of renewable energy consumption by diversifying and scaling small solar power, wind power, biomass, and geothermal power, and striving to supply eco-friendly energy by activating green electricity transactions between regions. In addition, policies to reduce pollution and carbon emissions andestablish a green manufacturing system are being promoted with a focus on cities where industrial complexes are situated. The green transition in China’s transportation sector also takes on the character of an industrial policy that utilizes urban green transition to foster industries, such as fostering the new energy automobile industry centering on large cities where automobiles and publictransportation are concentrated. In this respect, this study classified the green conversion policy of Chinese cities into policies in the energy, industry, and transportation sectors, and identified the policy implementation system and characteristics of each field. In addition, based on the characteristics of major policies and implementation cases in each field, policy implications and cooperation measures necessary for Korea to pursue a green transition in the future were identified, as well as matters to keep in mind. Chapter 2 of this report deals with the background and strategies for promoting green transformation in Chinese cities. Since the1980s, after the reform and opening up, China’s urbanization has progressed rapidly, with coastal cities being the center of industrialization, and these cities serving as hubs for international trade. However, the indiscriminate expansion of Chinese cities is evaluated as an unsustainable model, and the Chinese governmentis pursuing a green conversion policy of cities to reduce environmental pollution and to grow the economy centered on high value-added manufacturing and services. The green transition promotion strategy of Chinese cities aims to set low-carbon transition targets for each city and build an eco-friendly energy system. At the same time, it promotes green conversion of industrial complexes located in cities, and promotes investmentand consumption in the private sector through policies that lead the supply of new energy vehicles in public institutions and public transportation.(the rest omitted)
    Keywords: 경제개혁; 산업정책; economic reform; industrial policy
    Date: 2022–12–30
  44. By: Prest, Brian C. (Resources for the Future); Raimi, Daniel (Resources for the Future); Whitlock, Zachary (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: Oil and gas production is a major source of economic growth, employment, and public revenue in many US regions, but considerable uncertainty exists over the future of demand for hydrocarbons, particularly due to the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To inform decisionmakers at local, regional, and national levels, we model how oil and gas production and related government revenue could change in five western US regions (in four states) depending on future oil and natural gas prices under three scenarios of climate policy ambition. Our findings suggest there is substantial variation across regions and scenarios: the Green River (Wyoming) and San Juan (Colorado, New Mexico) basins experience production declines across all scenarios, while production in the Bakken (North Dakota), Permian (New Mexico), and Powder River (Wyoming) basins are more dependent on prices. Although we find that government revenue generally follows the direction of production, these relationships are not directly proportional. For example, under the lower price scenarios, revenue declines more steeply than production because it reflects both production and prices, which both decline. Long-term permanent funds, which are in place across all the states we examine, provide an important fiscal cushion for school districts, their primary beneficiary. These results highlight the importance of developing economic resilience in oil- and gas-producing regions to prevent the potential negative impacts of a long-term reduction in demand for hydrocarbons and of long-term thinking when managing volatile and unpredictable natural resource revenues.
    Date: 2023–06–13
  45. By: Mori, Tomoya; Wrona, Jens
    Abstract: Large cities (central places) excessively export to smaller cities in their surrounding hinterland. Using Japanese inter-city trade data, we identify a substantial centrality bias: Shipments from central places to their hinterland are 50%-125% larger than predicted by gravity forces. This upward bias stems from aggregating across industries, which are hierarchically distributed across large and small cities, and therefore does not arise in sectoral gravity estimations. When decomposing the centrality bias along the margins of our data, we find that the by far largest part of this aggregation bias can be attributed to the extensive industry margin.
    Keywords: Inter-city trade, central place theory, gravity equation, aggregation bias
    JEL: C43 F10 F12 F14 R12
    Date: 2023
  46. By: Therese Bonomo; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach
    Abstract: There has been significant media attention on the issue of childhood obesity, leading policymakers to reform the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) to include stricter nutritional requirements. We use data on school lunch menus to document improvements in the nutritional quality of school meals between 1991 and 2010. We then evaluate how this change in nutritional content maps into obesity outcomes, using panel data on a nationally representative cohort of children, tracking them from kindergarten entry in fall 2010 through the end of fifth grade in spring 2016. We find little evidence that participation in the school lunch program leads to weight gain, as measured by changes in obesity, overweight, and BMI. These results suggest that improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches have been largely successful in reversing the previously negative relationship between school lunches and childhood obesity. Unrelated to school lunch participation, we find a strong relationship between mother’s obesity status and both the level and growth of children’s obesity, especially for girls and among high-SES families.
    JEL: I14 I18 I21
    Date: 2023–05
  47. By: Pierre Courtioux (PSB - Paris School of Business - HESAM - HESAM Université - Communauté d'universités et d'établissements Hautes écoles Sorbonne Arts et métiers université, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Tristan-Pierre Maury (EDHEC - EDHEC Business School - UCL - Université catholique de Lille); Johan Seux (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Since the French university system is non-selective, the question of segregation has long remained unaddressed. However, the recent increase in enrolment, as well as the implementation of clusterbuilding policies, have brought the issue of university segregation and its geography to the forefront. This article proposes the first exhaustive geographical decomposition of segregation in French universities. Using a mutual information index, we identify the different local components and layers of social segregation and measure their contribution to the national level of segregation between 2006 and 2016. Our results show that in the French university system, segregation is quite low and tended to decrease over the period. However, we also show that only about 18% of the total segregation is due to macro-scale factors: i.e., social differences across regional areas: social segregation is mainly a local phenomenon that could be reduced with reforms of higher education enrolment policy, implemented at the regional level.
    Keywords: Segregation, Higher Education, Diversity, France, Ségrégation, Enseignement supérieur, Mixité sociale
    Date: 2023–05
  48. By: Julliard, Christian; Shi, Ran; Yuan, Kathy
    Abstract: We generalise a stochastic version of the workhorse SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Removed) epidemiological model to account for spatial dynamics generated by network interactions. Using the London metropolitan area as a salient case study, we show that commuter network externalities account for about 47% of the propagation of COVID-19. We find that the UK lockdown measure reduced total propagation by 44%, with more than one third of the effect coming from the reduction in network externalities. Counterfactual analyses suggest that: the lockdown was somehow late, but further delay would have had more extreme consequences; a targeted lockdown of a small number of highly connected geographic regions would have been equally effective, arguably with significantly lower economic costs; targeted lockdowns based on threshold number of cases are not effective, since they fail to account for network externalities.
    Keywords: COVID-19; networks; key players; spatial modelling; SIR model; Elsevier deal
    JEL: I18 C51 D85
    Date: 2023–08–01
  49. By: Kumar, Chetan; K.B., Rangappa; S., Suchitra
    Abstract: Education is seen as the best mechanism to achieve upward economic and social mobility by vulnerable masses. Even by the government, education is regarded as a proactive initiative through which it can hope to address the problem of regional imbalance in a sustainable manner. Many prior studies have identified various factors which have played significant role in depriving education for masses. However, studies which have identified magnitude of factors impact in depriving of education are scarce. The present study identifies the causal factors which have deprived years of schooling among households across Indian districts along with the magnitude of their impact. Present study affirms that although the causal factors of deprivation in years of schooling are same across all Indian districts, the magnitude of causal factors’ impact significantly differs across better off vis-à-vis worse of districts.
    Keywords: Socio-Economic Factors, Horizontal spread, School attendance, Indian Districts, Binomial Logistic Regression, Predictive Probability
    JEL: I18 I25 I26 I28
    Date: 2023–06–09
  50. By: Cheung, Hiu Ying (Tsinghua University); Fu, Yu Qi (Tsinghua University); Yang, Zan (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: The complex interactions among multiple service providers pose challenges to the delivery of community-based care for older people. Through the lens of the welfare pluralism theory, this study provides the first understanding of older people’s decisions regarding within-family /community-based care under complex interactions among the government, enterprises, communities, and families. Based on a survey of older people in 2, 883 corresponding families and 184 communities in China, we utilize a logit regression to empirically examine the factors that influence older people’s care decisions, as identified by an equilibrium model. We find that the government subsidy and local wage level effectively promote older people’s decisions to community-based care. We highlight the importance of governments’ direct care provisions in promoting aging in place and efforts to mitigate regional inequalities.
    Keywords: aging in place; community-based care; welfare pluralism theory
    JEL: H53 I31 J14
    Date: 2023–06–14
  51. By: Ait-Ali, Abderrahman (Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI)); Kurt, Filiz (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)); Isberner, Alessa (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)); Odolinski, Kristofer (Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI)); Berg, Mats (KTH Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Innovations in high-speed rail (HSR) have had substantial effects on different stakeholders within and outside the railway system. As part of the European Shift2Rail research programme, several innovative solutions are developed for, among others, improving the HSR infrastructure. The joint undertaking behind this research program has set objectives for these innovations in terms of punctuality, capacity, and life cycle costs. With a focus on infrastructure-related innovations for HSR, this paper aims at assessing their impacts in relation to these targets. We review the relevant research literature about the effects of HSR innovations and their assessment. The paper presents a hybrid assessment methodology combing different approaches to assess capacity, punctuality, and cost effects. This contributes to reducing the existing gap that is found in the research literature. Based on a reference scenario for HSR line and collected data from different stakeholders, the results indicate that infrastructure innovations in HSR, being developed within the European Shift2Rail research programme, can contribute to reaching the target set for punctuality. Further innovations in HSR infrastructure and/or other railway assets may be needed to reach additional targets and for more accurate improvement values giving more insights into their impacts.
    Keywords: High-speed; Railway; Infrastructure; Innovation
    JEL: R41 R42 R48
    Date: 2023–06–09
  52. By: Ait-Ali , Abderrahman (Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI)); Odolinski, Kristofer (Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI)); Pålsson, Björn (Chalmers University of Technology); Torstensson, Peter (Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI))
    Abstract: Switches & crossings (S&Cs) are vital assets as they allow for increased railway capacity by introducing flexibility and connectivity in railway networks. At the same time, this makes them critical since they can cause costly delays and disruptions if they are not well maintained. This motivates studies to improve maintenance strategies of S&Cs, considering both the life-cycle costs (LCC) of the assets and socio-economic transportation costs for passengers and freight customers. In this paper, the interdependence between deterioration mechanisms, maintenance activities, and expected LCC (including transportation costs) is investigated using a combination of mechanical and econometric modelling. The interrelation between the degradation of contact geometry and track settlement is analysed using simulations of dynamic vehicle–turnout interaction. Long-term mechanical degradation of the S&C is simulated for different maintenance strategies that correspond to different timing of the associated maintenance measures (crossing repair welding and tamping). This provides the basis for analysing the interdependence between preventive and corrective activities using econometric modelling. Based on a case study of a common type of S&Cs in the Swedish infrastructure, the impact of different maintenance strategies on LCC and transportation costs is analysed. Opportunities and challenges in the development of more socio-economically effective maintenance strategies of S&Cs are discussed.
    Keywords: Infrastructure maintenance; Rail infrastructure; Life-cycle cost; Switches and crossings; Preventive maintenance; Corrective maintenance; Mechanical simulation
    JEL: R41 R42 R48
    Date: 2023–06–09
  53. By: Mauro Lanati; Rainer Thiele
    Abstract: Studies analysing the pattern of international refugee flows have so far focussed on movements to OECD destinations, even though the vast majority of refugees live in non-OECD countries. Employing a standard gravity model of international migration, we fill this research gap by investigating the impact of destination country characteristics on south-south refugee movements over the period 2004-2019. Our findings suggest that refugees tend to move to safe neighbouring countries but also positively respond to local pull factors such as relatively high per-capita income levels and the availability of education and health services when choosing their country of destination. Donors have the ability to affect the direction of south-south refugee movements by investing in the social infrastructure of potential destination countries.
    Keywords: South-South Refugee Movements, Gravity Model, Pull Factors, Foreign Aid
    Date: 2022–10
  54. By: Grosch, Kerstin (VU Vienna); Haeckl, Simone (University of Stavanger); Rau, Holger (University of Duisburg-Essen); Preuss, Paul (University of Gottingen)
    Abstract: This guide provides a comprehensive overview of the distinct characteristics of school experi- ments conducted with children in preschools and schools. We investigate and describe the essential considerations involved in designing and implementing such experiments, drawing insights from a survey conducted with senior researchers. Moreover, the guide summarizes nine key lessons learned from the experiences of these researchers. The paper also presents the opinions of inexperienced researchers in school experiments (juniors) on crucial aspects of successful school experiments, which differ from the opinions of the experienced senior researchers. As a result, this guide serves as a valuable resource for junior researchers embarking on their initial school experiments. By promoting the adoption of best practices endorsed by senior researchers, it strengthens the validity and reliability of school experiments.
    Keywords: school experiments; guide; internal validity; survey
    JEL: B41 C93 I20
    Date: 2023–06–12
  55. By: Achard, Pascal; Suetens, Sigrid (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research)
    Keywords: redistribution; ethnic diversity; political preferences; immigration; discrimination; prejudice
    Date: 2023
  56. By: Tali Bank (Bank of Israel); Nimrod Segev (Bank of Israel); Maya Shaton (Ben-Gurion University)
    Abstract: We show the effect of credit scores’ introduction on consumer credit prices. Utilizing a novel dataset of the universe of loans in Israel, we find that a decline in information asymmetry, following the introduction of credit scores introduction, led to a decrease in loan prices for households with strong relationship banking. Prior to that, when banks held a monopoly on potential borrowers’ credit history, they charged higher interest rates, all else equal, as predicted by theoretical models. We further show that these informational rents significantly decrease once credit scores are introduced, resulting in a decline in the hold-up problem. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to show the causal impact of credit scoring on households’ loan pricing. Our results underscore the importance of information sharing in consumer credit markets, and have important public policy implications.
    Keywords: Credit Scores, Relationship Lending, Relationship Banking, Hold-up Problem, Consumer Credit, Information Sharing, Credit Register
    JEL: G21 G28
    Date: 2023–03
  57. By: Mohammed Ait Lahcen; Garth Baughman; Hugo van Buggenum
    Abstract: We study the nonlinearities present in a standard monetary labor search model modified to have two groups of workers facing exogenous differences in the job finding and separation rates. We use our setting to study the racial unemployment gap between Black and white workers in the United States. A calibrated version of the model is able to replicate the difference between the two groups both in the level and volatility of unemployment. We show that the racial unemployment gap rises during downturns, and that its reaction to shocks is state-dependent. In particular, following a negative productivity shock, when aggregate unemployment is above average the gap increases by 0.6pp more than when aggregate unemployment is below average. In terms of policy, we study the implications of different inflation regimes on the racial unemployment gap. Higher trend inflation increases both the level of the racial unemployment gap and the magnitude of its response to shocks.
    Keywords: Racial inequality; Monetary policy; Unemployment; Inflation; Discrimination
    JEL: E32 E52 J64 E31
    Date: 2023–05–25
  58. By: Sommerfeld, Katrin
    Abstract: Labour markets in the European Union are increasingly facing labour shortages. This ZEW Policy Brief argues that immigration from third countries should be increased to alleviate bottlenecks in the supply of workers to the economy. On the one hand, immigration policies should target high-skilled individuals and those trained in shortage occupations and allow them to search for a job from within the EU. On the other hand, low-skilled employees also appear to contribute to mitigating labour shortages. This is because labour shortages are also present in some low-skill occupations, and because additional immigrant workers could "free up" native workers to work in shortage occupations or push natives into better jobs. Therefore, this ZEW policy brief recommends enabling the immigration of such individuals when they have a job offer available. Broader policy measures should be put into place to facilitate the recognition of foreign qualifications.
    Date: 2023
  59. By: Abu Toasin Oakil; Ahm Mehbub Anwar; Alma; Nourah Al Hosain; Abdelrahman Muhsen; Anvita Arora (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Saudi Arabia intends to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 278 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent annually by 2030, according to its Nationally Determined Contribution to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Among many policies it is introducing, a mass transit system and transit-oriented development are being advanced with the expectation of reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions in Riyadh. To what extent such an initiative can reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions is an important question. In this paper, a methodology is developed to systematically measure the impact of mass transit and transit-oriented development in Riyadh on energy demand.
    Keywords: Land use-Transportation interaction, Spatial economic model, Transit oreinted development, Urban energy model
    Date: 2023–06–13

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