nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2023‒04‒17
fifty-nine papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Teacher Performance Pay, Coaching, and Long-Run Student Outcomes By Sarah Cohodes; Ozkan Eren; Orgul Ozturk
  2. Boosting, Sorting, and Complexity – Urban Scaling of Innovation Around the World By Tom Broekel; Louis Knupling; Lars Mewes
  3. Poor air at school and educational inequalities by family socioeconomic status By Fabrizio Bernardi; Risto Conte Keivabu
  4. The Well-Being of Cities: Estimating Migration Attractiveness from Internal Migration across Korean Cities By Seung Hoon Lee; Hyoung Chul Kim; Ji Sub Park
  5. Examining the response of house prices to supply using a Markov regime switching approach: The case of the Irish housing market By Egan, Paul; McQuinn, Kieran
  6. Socioeconomics of Urban Travel in the U.S.: Evidence from the 2017 NHTS By Xize Wang; John L. Renne
  7. Spatial Distribution of Regional Innovation Growth Capability and Policy Responses By Huh, Mungu; Kim, Yunsoo
  8. Using Restricted-Access ACS Data to Examine Economic and Noneconomic Factors of Interstate Migration By Race and Ethnicity By Bryanna Duca; Anita Alves Pena
  9. Homophily and Transmission of Behavioral Traits in Social Networks By Palaash Bhargava; Daniel L. Chen; Matthias Sutter; Camille Terrier
  10. Online tutoring works: Experimental evidence from a program with vulnerable children By Lucas Gortazar; Claudia Hupkau; Antonio Roldan
  11. The impact of Robots in Latin America: Evidence from Local Labor Markets By Irene Brambilla; Andrés César; Guillermo Falcone; Leonardo Gasparini
  12. How does the regional presence of foreign-owned multinational enterprises affect local start-up performance By Grillitsch, Markus; Martynovich, Mikhail; Nilsson, Magnus; Schubert, Torben
  13. Forecasting House Prices: The Role of Fundamentals, Credit Conditions, and Supply Indicators By Kishor, N. Kundan
  14. Pulled-in and Crowded-out: Heterogeneous Outcomes of Merit-based School Choice By Dalla-Zuanna, A.; Liu, K.; Salvanes, K.
  15. Estimating the Impact of the Minimum Energy Efficiency Standard on Property Prices By Sandi, Eleni
  16. More time less time? The effect of lengthening the school day on learning trajectories By Martín Nistal
  17. A Theory of Rational Housing Bubbles with Phase Transitions By Tomohiro Hirano; Alexis Akira Toda
  18. The Impact of Qualitative Reviews on Racial Statistical Discrimination: Evidence from Airbnb By Morris, J.
  19. Exploring European Regional Trade By Marta A. Santamaría; Jaume Ventura; Uğur Yeşilbayraktar
  20. Residential mobility to the rural and peri-urban areas: a segregative process? By Cécile Batisse; Stéphanie Truchet; Nong Zhu
  21. Attracting and Retaining Highly Effective Educators in Hard-to-Staff Schools By Andrew J. Morgan; Minh Nguyen; Eric A. Hanushek; Ben Ost; Steven G. Rivkin
  22. Evaluate Ho Chi Minh City Sustainability Using Fuzzy Extent Analysis Method By Dinh, Hien Thi Thu; Nguyen, Quyen Le Hoang Thuy To; Nguyen, Phong Thanh
  23. Implications of pricing and fleet size strategies on shared bikes and e-scooters: a case study from Lyon, France By Ouassim Manout; Azise Oumar Diallo; Thibault Gloriot
  24. Policy Atlas of Sustainable Urban Development for Small Urban Areas By FIORETTI Carlotta; SARACENO Pier; PERPIÑA CASTILLO Carolina; TESTORI Giulia
  25. The demand for long-term mortgage contracts and the role of collateral By Liu, Lu
  26. Relatedness, Cross-relatedness and Regional Innovation Specializations: An Analysis of Technology, Design and Market Activities in Europe and the US By Carolina Castaldi; Kyriakos Drivas;
  27. Accumulating valuable work experience: the importance of large firms and big cities By Peters, Jan Cornelius; Niebuhr, Annekatrin
  28. Where is the Land of Hope and Glory? The geography of intergenerational mobility in England and Wales By Bell, Brian; Blundell, Jack; Machin, Stephen
  29. Deep hybrid model with satellite imagery: how to combine demand modeling and computer vision for behavior analysis? By Qingyi Wang; Shenhao Wang; Yunhan Zheng; Hongzhou Lin; Xiaohu Zhang; Jinhua Zhao; Joan Walker
  30. Heterogeneous regional university funding and firm innovation: An empirical analysis of the German excellence initiative By Krieger, Bastian
  31. Market Size and Trade in Medical Services By Jonathan I. Dingel; Joshua D. Gottlieb; Maya Lozinski; Pauline Mourot
  32. Left-behind vs. unequal places: interpersonal inequality, economic decline, and the rise of populism in the US and Europe By Andres Rodriguez-Pose; Javier Terrero-Davila; Neil Lee
  33. Sustainable development and Sustainable Development Goals in Smart Specialisation strategies in the European Arctic regions By TERAS Jukka; EIKELAND Sveinung; KOIVUROVA Timo; SALENIUS Viktor
  34. Murder nature: Weather and violent crime in rural Brazil By Phoebe W. Ishak
  35. Recession, Mortality, and Migration Bias: A Comment on Arthi et al. (2022) By Dupraz, Yannick
  36. High skilled mobility under uncertainty By Bisset, Jordan; Czarnitzki, Dirk; Doherr, Thorsten
  37. The Decline of Routine Tasks, Education Investments, and Intergenerational Mobility By Bennett, P.; Liu, K.; Salvanes, K.;
  38. Can social comparisons and moral appeals increase public transport ridership and decrease car use? By Gessner, Johannes; Habla, Wolfgang; Wagner, Ulrich J.
  39. Scaling up efforts towards the localisation of SDGs. An Italian experience By GAZZARRI Maurizio
  40. A Scientific Approach to Addressing Social Issues Using Administrative Data By Green, David A.; Simard-Duplain, Gaëlle; Sweetman, Arthur; Warburton, William P.
  41. The design of upper secondary education across OECD countries: Managing choice, coherence and specialisation By Camilla Stronati
  42. Long Monthly European Temperature Series and the North Atlantic Oscillation By Changli He; Jian Kang; Annastiina Silvennoinen; Timo Teräsvirta
  43. Regional favoritism in access to credit: Just believe it By Osei-Tutu, Francis; Weill, Laurent
  44. Labor Markets during War Time: Evidence from Online Job Ads By Tho Pham; Oleksandr Talavera; Zhuangchen Wu
  45. Racial Diversity and Team Performance: Evidence from the American Offshore Whaling Industry By Michele Baggio; Metin M. Cosgel
  46. Pricing of myopic multi-sided platforms: theory and application to carpooling By Guillaume Monchambert
  47. Ridesharing: Its potential, challenges, and future in France By Dianzhuo Zhu
  48. The Characteristics and Geographic Distribution of Robot Hubs in U.S. Manufacturing Establishments By Erik Brynjolfsson; Catherine Buffington; Nathan Goldschlag; J. Frank Li; Javier Miranda; Robert Seamans
  49. Can universal preschool education intensities counterbalance parental socioeconomic gradients? Repeated international evidence from Fourth graders skills achievement By Pierre Lefebvre; Claude Felteau
  50. Capitalising the Network Externalities of New Land Supply in the Metaverse By Kanis Saengchote; Voraprapa Nakavachara; Yishuang Xu
  51. The Characteristics and Geographic Distribution of Robot Hubs in U.S. Manufacturing Establishments By Erik Brynjolfsson; Cathy Buffington; Nathan Goldschlag; J. Frank Li; Javier Miranda; Robert Seamans
  52. Symptom or Culprit? Social Media, Air Pollution, and Violence By Xinming Du
  53. Longevity, Health and Housing Risks Management in Retirement By Pierre-Carl Michaud; Pascal St. Amour
  54. Expansionary and contractionary fiscal multipliers in the U.S. By George Kapetanios; Panagiotis Koutroumpis; Christopher Tsoukis
  55. Large-Scale Education Reform in General Equilibrium: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from India: Comment By David Roodman
  56. Modeling Quality of Urban Life Using Grey Analytical Hierarchy Process By Huynh, Vy Dang Bich; Nguyen, Quyen Le Hoang Thuy To; Nguyen, Phong Thanh
  57. Politics and eminent domain: Evidence from the 1879 California Constitution By Mark T. Kanazawa
  58. Does social trust determine social progress? Evidence for the European regions By Jesús Peiró-Palomino; Lisa Gianmoena; Andrés J. Picazo-Tadeo; Vicente Ríos
  59. Loyalty in the time of COVID-19: A review of the literature in tourism destination settings By Oliver Cruz-Milán

  1. By: Sarah Cohodes; Ozkan Eren; Orgul Ozturk
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of a comprehensive performance pay program for teachers implemented in high-need schools on students’ longer-run educational, criminal justice, and economic self-sufficiency outcomes. Using linked administrative data from a Southern state, we leverage the quasi-randomness of the timing of program adoption across schools to identify causal effects of the school reform. The program improved educational attainment and reduced both criminal activity and dependence on government assistance in early adulthood. We find little scope for student sorting or changes in the composition of teacher workforce, and that program benefits far exceeded its costs. We propose mechanisms for observed long-run effects and provide evidence consistent with these explanations. Several robustness checks and placebo tests support our findings.
    JEL: H75 I21 J32 J45
    Date: 2023–03
  2. By: Tom Broekel; Louis Knupling; Lars Mewes
    Abstract: It is widely understood that innovations tend to be concentrated in cities, which is evidenced by innovative output increasing disproportionately with city size. Yet, given the heterogeneity of countries and technologies, few studies explore the relationship between population and innovation numbers. For instance, in the USA, innovative output scaling is substantial and is particularly pronounced for complex technologies. Whether this is a universal pattern of complex technologies and a potential facilitator of scaling, is unknown. Our analysis compared urban scaling in urban areas across 33 countries and 569 technologies. Considerable variation was identified between countries, which is rooted in two fundamental mechanisms (sorting and boosting). The sorting of innovation-intensive technologies is found to drive larger innovation counts among cities. Among most countries, this mechanism contributes to scaling more than city size boosting innovation within specific technologies. While complex technologies are concentrated in large cities and benefit from the advantages of urbanization, their contribution to the urban scaling of innovations is limited.
    Keywords: innovation, urban scaling, complexity, patents, sorting, geography of innovation
    JEL: R12 O33 O18 O57
    Date: 2023–03
  3. By: Fabrizio Bernardi; Risto Conte Keivabu (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: In this paper we study social stratification in the impact of poor air quality on educational achievement. We address two main questions. First, are students from socioeconomically disadvantaged families more likely to attend schools with poor air quality? Second, is the effect of bad air quality for school results the same for children from high and low socioeconomic status families? We use a novel data set with test scores in math and reading for 456, 508 students in 8th grade in a test administered nationally in Italy in 2019. We geocode the location of 6, 882 schools based on their addresses and link the level of air pollution of the area around the school, using data on fine particulate matter provided by the Atmospheric Composition Analysis Group. To deal with possible confounders we use municipality fixed effects and control for an indicator of the characteristics of the school neighbourhood, using administrative fiscal data of the real estate values of the area around the school. We have three main findings. First, there is no SES gradient in the exposure to poor air at school. Second, we find a small but robust negative effect of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) on test scores in math but not in reading. Third, this effect is mostly concentrated among low SES students. Conversely, high SES students are largely unaffected by exposure to poor air quality at school. We conclude that exposure to air pollution can exacerbate inequalities in education and the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage.
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Seung Hoon Lee (Yonsei University); Hyoung Chul Kim (Yonsei University); Ji Sub Park (Bank of Korea)
    Abstract: We estimate the migration attractiveness of Korean cities by adopting the methodology proposed by Lee et al. (2021) for internal migration setup. Using bilateral migration data across cities, we measure the overall attractiveness of all Korean cities at the ‘sigun-gu’ level. Our approach has two advantages over traditional methods of measuring a city’s attractiveness. First, it is cost-effective as it uses existing administrative data, unlike subjective surveys that require significant resources. Second, our approach provides a more better assessment of a city’s viability than its population growth rate by considering the costs associated with moving between cities and the origin and destination of each migration. Our results confirm the ongoing regional imbalance, commonly known as “Seoul centralization, ” and indicate that the migration attractiveness of rural areas such as Jeollanam-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do is even worse than what is revealed by population growth rates.
    Keywords: internal migration, welfare estimates, regional imbalance, Korea
    JEL: R23 J61 D63 I31 F22
    Date: 2023–03
  5. By: Egan, Paul; McQuinn, Kieran
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Xize Wang; John L. Renne
    Abstract: Using the 2017 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), this study analyzes America's urban travel trends compared with earlier nationwide travel surveys, and examines the variations in travel behaviors among a range of socioeconomic groups. The most noticeable trend for the 2017 NHTS is that although private automobiles continue to be the dominant travel mode in American cities, the share of car trips has slightly and steadily decreased since its peak in 2001. In contrast, the share of transit, non-motorized, and taxicab (including ride-hailing) trips has steadily increased. Besides this overall trend, there are important variations in travel behaviors across income, home ownership, ethnicity, gender, age, and life-cycle stages. Although the trends in transit development, shared mobility, e-commerce, and lifestyle changes offer optimism about American cities becoming more multimodal, policymakers should consider these differences in socioeconomic factors and try to provide more equitable access to sustainable mobility across different socioeconomic groups.
    Date: 2023–03
  7. By: Huh, Mungu (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade); Kim, Yunsoo (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: Concerns are mounting over the potential for weak future growth as the Korean economy faces a wide range of structural issues including an aging society, a crisis in key regional industries, and the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to these concerns, the Korean government has established innovation growth as a national priority. In this essay, we extract regional innovation growth capability indices for 17 municipalities in order to analyze regional variation, spatial distribution, and characteristics of innovation growth capability. Based on this data, we provide recommendations for policy responses that are capable of promoting innovation growth capability. The analysis shows that the polarization in innovation growth capability between the Seoul Capital Area (SCA) and the province of Chungcheong and regions outside the SCA is deepening. This regional disparity in innovation growth capability has the potential to lead to a widening economic divide between regions. In the conclusion of the paper we identify the implications for regional innovation policy carried by the analytical findings.
    Keywords: regional economics; regional growth; regional innovation; regional policy; COVID-19; demographic change; population aging; population decline; innovation; innovation policy; Korea; regional disparity; regional inequality
    JEL: O11 O15 O18 O21 O25 O30 O33 O38 O47 R10 R11 R12 R13 R23
    Date: 2021–07–24
  8. By: Bryanna Duca; Anita Alves Pena
    Abstract: We explore how determinants of internal migration differ between Black non-Hispanics, White non-Hispanics, and Hispanics using micro-level, restricted-use American Community Survey (ACS) data matched to data on attributes of sub-geographies down to the county level. This paper extends the discussion of internal migration in the U.S. by not only observing relationships between economic and noneconomic factors and household-level propensities to migrate, but also how these relationships differ across race and ethnicity within smaller geographies than have been explored in previous literature. We show that when controlling for household and location characteristics, minorities have a lower propensity to migrate than White households and document nuances in the responsiveness of internal migration to individual and locational attributes by racial and ethnic population subgroups.
    Keywords: migration, race and ethnicity, restricted ACS data
    JEL: J15 R23 C5
    Date: 2023–03
  9. By: Palaash Bhargava (Columbia University); Daniel L. Chen (Toulouse School of Economics); Matthias Sutter (Max-Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods Bonn, University of Cologne and University of Innsbruck IZA Bonn, CESifoMunich); Camille Terrier (Queen Mary University London)
    Abstract: Social networks are segmented on gender, ethnicity, and other demographic characteristics. We present evidence on an understudied source of homophily: behavioral traits. Based on unique data from incentivized experiments with more than 2, 500 French high-school students, we find high levels of homophily across ten behavioral traits. Notably, homophily depends on similarities in demographic characteristics, in particular gender. Using network econometrics, we show that homophily is not only an outcome of endogenous network formation, but also driven by peer effects. The latter are larger when students share demographic characteristics, have longer periods of friendship, or are friends with more popular individuals.
    Keywords: Homophily, social networks, behavioral traits, peer effects, experiments
    JEL: D85 C91 D01 D90
    Date: 2023–04
  10. By: Lucas Gortazar; Claudia Hupkau; Antonio Roldan
    Abstract: We provide evidence from a randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a novel, 100-percent online math tutoring program, targeted at secondary school students from highly disadvantaged neighborhoods. The intensive, eight-week-long program was delivered by qualified math teachers in groups of two students during after-school hours. The intervention significantly increased standardized test scores (+0.26 SD) and end-of-year math grades (+0.48 SD), while reducing the probability of repeating the school year. The intervention also raised aspirations, as well as self-reported effort at school.
    Keywords: Schools, online tutoring, mentoring, RCT, mathematics, child outcomes
    Date: 2023–03–22
  11. By: Irene Brambilla (CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP); Andrés César (CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP); Guillermo Falcone (CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP & CONICET); Leonardo Gasparini (CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP & CONICET)
    Abstract: We study the effect of robots on labor markets in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico, the major robot users in Latin America, during the period 2004{2016. We exploit spatial and time variations in exposure to robots arising from initial differences in industry specialization across geographic locations and the evolution of robot adoption across industries, to estimate a causal effect of robots on local labor market outcomes. We find that district's exposure to robots causes a relative deterioration in labor market indicators such us unemployment and labor informality. We document that robots mainly replace formal salaried jobs, affecting young and semi-skilled workers to a greater extent, and that informal employment acts as a buffer that prevents a larger increase in unemployment.
    JEL: J23 J24 J31 J46 O14 O17 R10
    Date: 2023–04
  12. By: Grillitsch, Markus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Martynovich, Mikhail (CIRCLE, Lund University); Nilsson, Magnus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Schubert, Torben (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper analyses how the presence of foreign-owned multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects the performance of start-ups in the same region. Focusing on the population of Swedish start-ups and MNEs between 2007 and 2015, we investigate the relationship between start-up productivity and regional share of MNE employment. We find effects that differ by sectoral belonging of start-ups and MNEs. Notably, while the effects of the local presence of foreign-owned MNEs are negative when start-ups and local MNEs belong to the same sector, they are positive for the local presence of MNEs in related and (to some weaker extent) unrelated sectors. Moreover, we find that as start-ups mature the effect of the local presence of foreign-owned MNEs on start-up productivity increases, irrespective of their sectoral belonging. We interpret this as evidence of age-dependent processes of learning, legitimacy building, and resource accumulaton allowing start-ups to reap the benefits while mitigating negative effects of MNE proximity. Interestingly, we show that the documented effects are more pronounced for service firms, particularly in the knowledge-intensive sectors.
    Keywords: Productivity; start-ups; MNE
    JEL: M13 M16 R11
    Date: 2023–03–27
  13. By: Kishor, N. Kundan
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the ability of various indicators related to macroeconomic fundamentals, credit conditions, and housing supply to predict house price growth in the United States during the post-financial crisis period. We find that the inclusion of different measures of housing supply indicators significantly improves the forecasting performance for the period of 2010-2022. Specifically, incorporating the monthly supply of new homes into a VAR model with house price growth reduces the RMSE by over 30 percent compared to a univariate benchmark. Moreover, forecasting accuracy improves further at a longer forecast horizon (greater than three months) when the mortgage rate spread is also used as a predictor. Further improvements are made if "Direct" forecasts are used instead of iterative forecasts. The shrinkage method like LASSO shows that the monthly supply of new homes is an important predictor at all forecasting horizons, while the mortgage spread is most relevant for longer forecast horizons.
    Keywords: House Price Forecasting, Fundamentals, Credit Conditions, Supply Indicators, Variable Selection, Direct Forecasts
    JEL: E32 E43 E52 G17 R31
    Date: 2023–03–23
  14. By: Dalla-Zuanna, A.; Liu, K.; Salvanes, K.
    Abstract: We analyze the effect of reforming the high school admission system from a residence based allocation to a merit-based allocation. The merit-based system generates oversubscribed schools, which favor high-GPA students at the expense of displacing low-GPA ones. We use the potential outcomes framework to analyze the effect of the reform, separating the effects for those gaining access to competitive schools from those losing access and identifying these parameters by using the reform as an instrument within subpopulations defined by admission cutoffs and GPA. The small and negative overall effect of the reform hides large negative effects for the crowded-out students.
    Keywords: Crowded-out, school allocation, treatment effects, conditional monotonicity.
    Date: 2023–03–20
  15. By: Sandi, Eleni (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: The Minimum Energy Efficiency Standard (MEES) aims to improve the energy efficiency of privately rented properties in England and Wales. Previous literature identifies this policy intervention as a driver of transition risk as it devalues substandard real estate. This paper reveals that MEES also devalues neighbouring houses meant to be una↵ected by the policy, i.e. above-standard properties. The study leverages a dataset that combines energy efficiency and transaction data at the postcode level to capture this spatial externality. A concentration measure for sub-standard properties within a neighbourhood is constructed, which is applied to aggregate and property level analyses using a difference-in-difference specification. The aggregate analysis reveals that an incremental increase in the concentration of sub-standard housing within a postcode sector after introducing the standard leads to a 20.1% decrease in aggregate prices for above-standard houses. A repeated sales regression run on property-level data finds that an increase in concentration leads to a more plausible 4.03% decrease in prices for above-standard properties. These results imply potential problems for homeowners who may find themselves in negative equity due to the aggregate price drop, which may also negatively impact their pro-environmental investments
    Keywords: C43 ; Q54 ; Q58 ; R31 JEL classifications: Climate Policy ; Transition Risk ; House Prices ; Concentration Measure
    Date: 2023
  16. By: Martín Nistal (Department of Economics, Universidad de San Andres)
    Abstract: We investigate to what extent lengthening the primary school days affects learning trajectories. We use national administration reports at the school level to estimate the impact of more school hours on grade retention at the primary level. Using microdata available in Argentina from 2011 to 2019, we use the variation of 1, 297 schools that added more hours of instructional time. The fact that the change from a simple regime (4 hours per day) to an extended regime (more than 4 hours but less than 8) was progressively and exogenous, conditional on infrastructure capacity, allows for estimating the effect through a difference- in-difference approach. We find that lengthening the school day reduces the grade retention of primary students by 23.1%.
    Keywords: length day
    Date: 2022–07
  17. By: Tomohiro Hirano; Alexis Akira Toda
    Abstract: Empirically observed rent-price ratios suggest a disconnection between fundamentals and prices. We analyze equilibrium housing prices in an overlapping generations model with perfect housing and rental markets. We prove that the economy exhibits a two-stage phase transition: as the income of home buyers rises, the equilibrium regime changes from fundamental only to coexistence of fundamental and bubbly equilibria. With even higher incomes, fundamental equilibria disappear and housing bubbles become inevitable. Expectation-driven housing booms containing a bubble and their collapse can occur. Contrary to widely-held beliefs, fundamental equilibria in the coexistence region are inefficient despite housing being a productive non-reproducible asset.
    Date: 2023–03
  18. By: Morris, J.
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effect of qualitative reviews on racial statistical discrimination. Using a fine-tuned Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) language model that was developed specifically for this task, I include the effects of recent qualitative reviews on the log listing price difference between Black and White hosts on Airbnb. For properties without guest reviews, I find a 4% log listing price difference between Black and White hosts for comparable properties. Once review information becomes available, this pricing difference reduces to 1%, providing evidence against the persistence of racial listing price differences on Airbnb, and furthermore, suggesting that race is used as the primary signal of property quality only in the absence of better information. Beyond its applications within the context of Airbnb, this paper aims to explain how the early provision of detailed qualitative information can reduce the effects of statistical discrimination against minorities.
    Keywords: Airbnb, Discrimination, Race, Online marketplace
    JEL: D83 J15 L84
    Date: 2023–03–22
  19. By: Marta A. Santamaría; Jaume Ventura; Uğur Yeşilbayraktar
    Abstract: We use the new dataset of trade flows across 269 European regions in 24 countries constructed in Santamaría et al. (2020) to systematically explore for the first time trade patterns within and across country borders. We focus on the differences between home trade, country trade and foreign trade. We document the following facts: (i) European regional trade has a strong home and country bias, (ii) geographic distance and national borders are important determinants of regional trade, but cannot explain the strong regional home bias and (iii) the home bias is heterogeneous across regions and seems to be driven by political regional borders.
    JEL: F0 F14 F15
    Date: 2023–03
  20. By: Cécile Batisse (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Stéphanie Truchet (Territoires - Territoires - AgroParisTech - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Nong Zhu (INRS-UCS - Urbanisation Culture Société - INRS - INRS - Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique [Québec])
    Abstract: In France, migratory flows between rural and urban areas have gradually reversed over the past decades, leading to a phenomenon of counter-urbanization. Nevertheless, this migration dynamic appears contrasted and there is a socio-demographic differentiation of residential flows to rural areas. So that migrations could modify socio-demographic composition and increase inequalities between territories. The present study aims to examine the link between residential migration to rural and peri-urban areas and socio-spatial segregation. Using data from 2014 population census aggregated at the catchment area level, we analyze the impacts of territories' characteristics on migratory flows to rural and peri-urban areas. According to our econometric results, individuals are sensitive to sociodemographic characteristics of neighborhood in their places of origin and destination. First, human capital is a retention force at origin place and a pull force at destination place. Second, migrants are less attracted by rural and periurban areas with greater social heterogeneity in terms of education and this push effect is reinforced by high share of executives in the population. Third, we observe a differentiation in migratory flows according to socio-professional groups. Indeed, while social heterogeneity at origin place constitutes a retention factor for executives, it constitutes a push factor for workers and employees. Likewise, whilst migrants mainly flock to areas where median tax income is lower, when migration occurs between rural areas, the executives prefer areas with higher income level, which could lead to rural gentrification. Thus, our study suggest that residential migration towards rural and periurban areas could lead to a concentration of people with similar socio-demographic characteristics.
    Abstract: A partir des données issues du recensement général de la population de 2014, nous analysons à l'échelle des bassins de vie, le lien entre migration résidentielle à destination des espaces ruraux et périurbains et ségrégation socio-spatiale. Nos résultats montrent que les individus sont sensibles aux caractéristiques sociodémographiques du voisinage dans leurs territoires d'origine et de destination. Alors que le capital humain est source de rétention pour les territoires d'origine, les individus mobiles apparaissent sensibles au degré d'homogénéité sociale des territoires. Enfin, l'influence des caractéristiques sociodémographiques sur les migrations résidentielles vers les territoires ruraux et périurbains varie selon les catégories socioprofessionnelles.
    Keywords: Migration, Rural and periurban areas, Socio-spatial Segregation, Espaces ruraux et périurbains, Ségrégation socio-spatiale
    Date: 2021–04–09
  21. By: Andrew J. Morgan; Minh Nguyen; Eric A. Hanushek; Ben Ost; Steven G. Rivkin
    Abstract: Efforts to attract and retain effective educators in high poverty public schools have had limited success. Dallas ISD addressed this challenge by using information produced by its evaluation and compensation reforms as the basis for effectiveness-adjusted payments that provided large compensating differentials to attract and retain effective teachers in its lowest achievement schools. The Accelerating Campus Excellence (ACE) program offers salary supplements to educators with records of high performance who are willing to work in the most educationally disadvantaged schools. We document that ACE resulted in immediate and sustained increases in student achievement, providing strong evidence that the multi-measure evaluation system identifies effective educators who foster the development of cognitive skills. The improvements at ACE schools were dramatic, bringing average achievement in the previously lowest performing schools close to the district average. When ACE stipends are largely eliminated, a substantial fraction of highly effective teachers leaves, and test scores fall. This highlights the central importance of the performance-based incentives to attract and retain effective educators in previously low-achievement schools.
    JEL: H0 I21 I28 J01 J45
    Date: 2023–03
  22. By: Dinh, Hien Thi Thu; Nguyen, Quyen Le Hoang Thuy To; Nguyen, Phong Thanh
    Abstract: Sustainable development of cities was among the goals aimed by either country or region since the 1980s. Ho Chi Minh City was ranked as the most rapid urban development in Vietnam, which challenged the accommodation of the necessities for a pleasant life in a city with limited resources, including housing, public infrastructure, a clean environment, security, safety, employment, and other necessities. The purpose of this study was to measure city sustainability by employing fuzzy decision analysis. A systematic review of the literature has provided the theoretical framework for measuring sustainable cities. Further consent on the criteria of a sustainable city in the context of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam was confirmed based on the evaluation of thirty experts with academic and practical experience in the field. The research findings provided the measurement model of city sustainability at three levels with three main criteria at 2nd level and twenty sub-criteria at 3rd level. The research results revealed that there is great consent for city performance and priority ranking in terms of the social dimension. However, great conflict in the importance and performance of economic and environmental dimensions has been found. This practically implied the strategies for bridging the gap between the city’s actual criteria performance and priority ranking in target city sustainability.
    Keywords: Ho Chi Minh City, fuzzy logic, hierarchy, sustainability, sustainable development
    JEL: C6 O18 Q5 Q56 R4
    Date: 2022–09
  23. By: Ouassim Manout (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Azise Oumar Diallo (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Thibault Gloriot
    Abstract: In many cities, shared micromobility services (SMMS) have become popular. These services contribute to the popularity of car-alternative mobility by promoting the use of micro-vehicles. Bike-sharing and escooter-sharing systems are examples of these services. Despite their potential, SMMS are still marginal. To unlock this full potential, there is a need to comprehend the implications of the introduction strategies of SMMS on the adoption, use, and profitability of these services. This paper investigates the implications of the size of the fleet and pricing of shared bikes and escooters. This research relies on an agent-based transport simulation framework of Lyon, France. The results show that despite their actual marginal share, SMMS have a non negligible growth potential in Lyon. This potential is actually unfulfilled due to sub-optimal pricing and fleet size strategies. More optimal strategies from the point of view of service providers and customers are discussed in the paper.
    Keywords: Shared micromobility services, E-scooter, Bike-sharing, Pricing, Fleet size, Agent-based
    Date: 2023–03–07
  24. By: FIORETTI Carlotta (European Commission - JRC); SARACENO Pier (European Commission - JRC); PERPIÑA CASTILLO Carolina; TESTORI Giulia (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Small urban areas (SUAs) form the backbone of the polycentric urban structure of the EU. As such, their role in ensuring a balanced territorial development has been widely recognised at EU level. The diversity of SUAs – in terms of their settlement structures, functional roles and development trends – make it challenging to develop overarching recipes for SUA development pathways. The ‘Policy Atlas of Sustainable Urban Development for Small Urban Areas’ serves as a valuable tool for policy makers, practitioners and academics seeking to gain insight into the unique characteristics of SUAs in the EU. By offering evidence-based insights and practical recommendations, the atlas provides a compass for navigating the policy challenges of sustainable urban development in SUAs and facilitates the promotion of strategies tailored to their needs.
    Keywords: Urban development, cohesion policy, small urban areas, towns, territorial strategies
    Date: 2023–03
  25. By: Liu, Lu (The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: Long-term fixed-rate mortgage contracts protect households against interest rate risk, yet most countries have relatively short interest rate fixation lengths. Using administrative data from the UK, the paper finds that the choice of fixation length tracks the life-cycle decline of credit risk in the mortgage market: the loan-to-value (LTV) ratio decreases and collateral coverage improves over the life of the loan due to principal repayment and house price appreciation. High-LTV borrowers, who pay large initial credit spreads, trade off their insurance motive against reducing credit spreads over time using shorter-term contracts. To quantify demand for long-term contracts, I develop a life-cycle model of optimal mortgage fixation choice. With baseline house price growth and interest rate risk, households prefer shorter-term contracts at high LTV levels, and longer-term contracts once LTV is sufficiently low, in line with the data. The mechanism helps explain reduced and heterogeneous demand for long-term mortgage contracts.
    Keywords: Mortgage choice; house prices; credit risk; interest rate risk; household risk management; household finance.
    JEL: D15 E43 G21 G22 G50 G52
    Date: 2023–01–06
  26. By: Carolina Castaldi; Kyriakos Drivas;
    Abstract: This paper examines how regions develop new innovation specializations, covering different activities in the whole process from technological invention to commercialization. We develop a conceptual framework anchored in two building blocks: first, the conceptualization of innovation as a process spanning technology, design and market activities; second, the application and extension of the principle of relatedness to understand developments within and between the different innovation activities. We offer an empirical investigation where we operationalize the different innovation activities using three intellectual property rights (IPRs): patents, industrial designs and trademarks. We provide two separate analyses of how relatedness and cross-relatedness matter for the emergence of new specializations: for 259 NUTS-2 European regions and for 363 MSAs of the US. While relatedness is significantly associated with new regional specializations for all three innovation activities, cross-relatedness between activities also plays a significant role. Our study has important policy implications for developing and monitoring Smart Specialization regional strategies.
    Keywords: innovation, relatedness, regional specialization, patents, trademarks, designs, NUTS-2 regions, Metropolitan Statistical Areas.
    JEL: O34 O38 R11
    Date: 2023–03
  27. By: Peters, Jan Cornelius (Thünen Institute); Niebuhr, Annekatrin (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany ; Univ, Kiel)
    Abstract: "Using linked employer-employee data on labor market biographies of workers in Germany, this paper analyzes where valuable work experience is primarily acquired. It distinguishes between learning effects related to firm size and labor market size. We show that wages increase with the size of the cities and establishments in which experience was accumulated. Almost 40 percent of the dynamic benefits of working in large cities are in fact due to working in large firms. We provide evidence on two potential explanations for the role of size: formal training increases with firm size and the frequency of job changes with city size." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: IAB-Open-Access-Publikation
    JEL: J31 R12 R23
    Date: 2023–03–30
  28. By: Bell, Brian; Blundell, Jack; Machin, Stephen
    Abstract: We present a new analysis of intergenerational mobility across three cohorts in England and Wales using linked decennial census microdata, focusing on occupation, homeownership, and education. Four main results emerge. First, area-level differences in upward occupational mobility are highly persistent over time. Second, measures of absolute and relative mobility tend to be spatially positively correlated. Third, there is a robust relationship between upward educational and upward occupational mobility. Last, there is a small negative relationship between upward homeownership mobility and upward occupational mobility, revealing that social mobility comparisons based on different outcomes can have different trends.
    Keywords: Intergenerational mobility; ES/R00823X/1; Europe Center at Stanford University
    JEL: J62 R23 R31
    Date: 2023–01–01
  29. By: Qingyi Wang; Shenhao Wang; Yunhan Zheng; Hongzhou Lin; Xiaohu Zhang; Jinhua Zhao; Joan Walker
    Abstract: Classical demand modeling analyzes travel behavior using only low-dimensional numeric data (i.e. sociodemographics and travel attributes) but not high-dimensional urban imagery. However, travel behavior depends on the factors represented by both numeric data and urban imagery, thus necessitating a synergetic framework to combine them. This study creates a theoretical framework of deep hybrid models with a crossing structure consisting of a mixing operator and a behavioral predictor, thus integrating the numeric and imagery data into a latent space. Empirically, this framework is applied to analyze travel mode choice using the MyDailyTravel Survey from Chicago as the numeric inputs and the satellite images as the imagery inputs. We found that deep hybrid models outperform both the traditional demand models and the recent deep learning in predicting the aggregate and disaggregate travel behavior with our supervision-as-mixing design. The latent space in deep hybrid models can be interpreted, because it reveals meaningful spatial and social patterns. The deep hybrid models can also generate new urban images that do not exist in reality and interpret them with economic theory, such as computing substitution patterns and social welfare changes. Overall, the deep hybrid models demonstrate the complementarity between the low-dimensional numeric and high-dimensional imagery data and between the traditional demand modeling and recent deep learning. It generalizes the latent classes and variables in classical hybrid demand models to a latent space, and leverages the computational power of deep learning for imagery while retaining the economic interpretability on the microeconomics foundation.
    Date: 2023–03
  30. By: Krieger, Bastian
    Abstract: This paper estimates the effect of heterogeneous university funding stemming from the German Excellence Initiative on a regional firm's probability to innovate by using a multi-valued two-way fixed effects difference-in-differences model. The estimations show that funding an additional Excellence Cluster focused on internationally competitive research within a labor market region increases a regional firm's probability to innovate between 0.3 and 0.9 percentage points. This effect is driven by firms within labor market regions receiving a high number of Excellence Clusters. There is no statistically significant effect for receiving a low number of Excellence Clusters. Moreover, we find no consistent statistically significant effect of funding Graduate Schools concentrating on training scientists nor of funding University Strategies promoting the overall long-term plan of a university.
    Keywords: University funding, Firm innovation, Knowledge transfer
    JEL: O32 O33 O38
    Date: 2023
  31. By: Jonathan I. Dingel; Joshua D. Gottlieb; Maya Lozinski; Pauline Mourot
    Abstract: We measure the importance of increasing returns to scale and trade in medical services. Using Medicare claims data, we document that “imported” medical care — services produced by a medical provider in a different region — constitute about one-fifth of US healthcare consumption. Larger regions specialize in producing less common procedures, which are traded more. These patterns reflect economies of scale: larger regions produce higher-quality services because they serve more patients. Because of increasing returns and trade costs, policies to improve access to care face a proximity-concentration tradeoff. Production subsidies and travel subsidies can impose contrasting spillovers on neighboring regions.
    JEL: F12 F14 I11 R12
    Date: 2023–03
  32. By: Andres Rodriguez-Pose; Javier Terrero-Davila; Neil Lee
    Abstract: Economic change over the past twenty years has rendered many individuals and territories vulnerable, leading to greater interpersonal and interterritorial inequality. This rising inequality is seen as a root cause of populism. Yet, there is no comparative evidence as to whether this discontent is the consequence of localised interpersonal inequality or stagnant growth in ‘left-behind’ places. This paper assesses the association between levels and changes in local GDP per capita and interpersonal inequality, and the rise of far-right populism in Europe and in the US. The analysis —conducted at small region level for Europe and county level for the US— shows that there are both similarities and differences in the factors connected to populist voting on both sides of the Atlantic. In the US, neither interpersonal inequality nor economic decline can explain populist support on their own. However, these factors gain significance when considered together with the racial composition of the area. Counties with a large share of white population where economic growth has been stagnant and where inequalities have increased supported Donald Trump. Meanwhile, counties with a similar economic trajectory but with a higher share of minorities shunned populism. In Europe, the most significant factor behind the rise of far-right populism is economic decline. This effect is particularly large in areas with a high share of immigration.
    Keywords: populism, anti-system voting, interpersonal inequality, interterritorial inequality, economic growth, Europe, US.
    JEL: D31 D72 R11
    Date: 2023–03
  33. By: TERAS Jukka; EIKELAND Sveinung; KOIVUROVA Timo; SALENIUS Viktor
    Abstract: This report provides a general analysis on how sustainability challenges and Sustainable Development Goals are embedded in ongoing Smart Specialisation processes in the European Arctic at regional and local level. The report provides insights into Arctic smart specialisation strategies and offers illustrative case studies of projects and initiatives relevant to achieving sustainable development in Arctic Finland, Arctic Sweden and Arctic Norway.
    Keywords: Smart Specialisation, Sustainability, Sustainable Development Goals, Arctic
    Date: 2023–03
  34. By: Phoebe W. Ishak (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of weather shocks on violent crime using disaggregated data from Brazilian municipalities over the period 1991–2015. Employing a distributed lag model that takes into account temporal correlations of weather shocks and spatial correlation of crime rates, I document that adverse weather shocks in the form of droughts lead to a significant increase in violent crime in rural regions. This effect appears to persist beyond the growing season and over the medium run in contrast to the conventional view perceiving weather effects as transitory. To explain this persistence, I show that weather fluctuations are positively associated not only with agriculture yields, but also with the overall economic activity. Moreover, evidence shows the dominance of opportunity cost mechanism reflected in the fluctuations of the earnings especially for the agriculture and unskilled workers, giving credence that it is indeed the income that matters and not the general socio-economic conditions. Other factors such as local government budget capacity, (un)-employment, poverty, inequality, and psychological factors do not seem to explain violent crime rates.
    Keywords: Weather shocks, Violent crime, Labor market, Brazil
    Date: 2022–09
  35. By: Dupraz, Yannick
    Abstract: Vellore Arthi, Brian Beach and W. Walker Hanlon (2022) investigate the effect of the Lancashire Cotton Famine on mortality, accounting for the migration response to the downturn. They use difference-indifferences to estimate the effect of the cotton famine on mortality. To account for the migration response to the cotton famine, they construct a linked dataset giving mortality rates by district of residence during the cotton famine, rather than by district of residence at the time of death. They find that the cotton famine increased mortality in cotton-textile producing districts, and that accounting for migration matters, in the sense that their estimates would have been markedly different had they not accounted for it. I check that ABH results are fully reproducible using their data and code, and that their claims are robust to (1) decreasing the age window for building the linked dataset, (2) modifying the specification and (3) computing different standard errors. The only significant discrepancy in results is that I find stronger effects of the cotton famine when I decrease the age window for building the linked dataset, likely because this reduces measurement errors.
    Date: 2023
  36. By: Bisset, Jordan; Czarnitzki, Dirk; Doherr, Thorsten
    Abstract: Previous work suggests a general uncertainty surrounding the migration process acts as a barrier to outmigration. In this paper, we argue that this barrier is exacerbated when relative economic policy uncertainty is higher in the target country and mitigated when relatively higher in the origin country. We use a novel inventor career panel to observe inventor migration from 12 European countries between 1997 and 2012 and test the premise that a higher relative uncertainty in the origin country raises the probability of inventor outmigration. Our results suggest a 1 standard deviation increase in the relative uncertainty of the home country is associated with a near 20% increase in the probability of inventor outmigration. The relationship is highly non-linear, with relative uncertainty values in the top centile leading to an increase of over 70%. The observed effects can be amplified or dampened by inventor specific characteristics, as would be expected given the prior art.
    Keywords: Outmigration, Uncertainty, Human Capital, Inventors
    JEL: J61 O15
    Date: 2023
  37. By: Bennett, P.; Liu, K.; Salvanes, K.;
    Abstract: How does a large structural change to the labor market affect education investments made at young ages? Exploiting differential exposure to the national decline in routine-task intensity across local labor markets, we show that the secular decline in routine tasks causes major shifts in education investments of high school students, where they invest less in vocational-trades education and increasingly invest in college education. Our results highlight that labor demand changes impact inequality in the next generation. Low-ability and low-SES students are most responsive to task-biased demand changes and, as a result, intergenerational mobility in college education increases.
    Keywords: Routine tasks, education investment, mobility, task-biased demand change.
    Date: 2023–03–20
  38. By: Gessner, Johannes; Habla, Wolfgang; Wagner, Ulrich J.
    Abstract: In a field experiment with 341 participants, we study whether social comparisons, either in isolation or in combination with a climate-related moral appeal, can change the use of public and car-related transportation. We do so in the context of a mobility budget offered to employees of a large German company as an alternative to a company car. The budget can be used to pay for both leisure and commuting trips, and for various modes of transport. Behavioral interventions in this setting are of particular interest, since companies are constrained to significantly alter financial benefits to employees yet strive to lower carbon emissions via a shift to low-emission transport modes. We find strong evidence for a reduction in car-related mobility in response to the combined treatment, driven by reduced expenditures for taxi and UBER rides. This is accompanied by substitution towards micromobility, but not towards public transport. Furthermore, we do not find any effects of the social comparison alone. Our results demonstrate that norm-based nudges are able to change transportation behavior, at least temporarily.
    Keywords: mobility behavior, randomized experiment, nudging, descriptive norm, injunctive norm, social norms, moral appeal, habit formation
    JEL: C93 D04 D91 L91
    Date: 2023
  39. By: GAZZARRI Maurizio
    Abstract: This report analyses the experience of Italian municipalities monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), using the Sustainable Municipalities Network’s indicator set. In particular, the report explores the ways in which Italian municipalities have been involved in the identification of data sources to locally monitor the SDGs. It synthetises how those data have been analysed and how the results have been disseminated. The report also describes how the indicator set has been defined, tested and under which conditions a similar experience could be replicated in other European countries. The analysis covers both the implementation of the Sustainable Municipalities Network’s indicator set and the local contribution to the achievement of the SDGs in the Italian municipalities of the Network. According to the results, the Network of Sustainable Municipalities was able to involve in the monitoring of SDGs a number of local administrations that were not yet localising the SDGs. From the point of view of the contents of the 2030 Agenda, the 24 analysed municipalities achieved good results with respect to the localisation and progress toward the achievement of the goals. The report was compiled by an external expert to the European Commission as part of the URBAN 2030-II project developed by the Joint Research Centre to support local governments in monitoring the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
    Keywords: SDG, municipalities, monitoring, indicators, data, localisation, 2030 Agenda, Italy
    Date: 2023–03
  40. By: Green, David A. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver); Simard-Duplain, Gaëlle (University of British Columbia); Sweetman, Arthur (McMaster University); Warburton, William P. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver)
    Abstract: Linked administrative data on education, health, social services, and crime from British Columbia, Canada, are used to document the relationship between measures of secondary educational attainment and indicators of poor outcomes later in life. Poor outcomes are seen to manifest primarily among high school dropouts. Next, we document the ability of characteristics observed in administrative data in grade 4 to predict high school graduation using a very simple model. It is straightforward to identify more than one fifth of future dropouts reasonably accurately. Non-cognitive measures (esp. social and emotional characteristics) are better predictors of educational attainment than cognitive ones. We discuss the implications of these findings for a scientific approach for developing interventions to prevent poor outcomes later in life.
    Keywords: poverty alleviation, high school graduation
    JEL: I24 I24 I38
    Date: 2023–03
  41. By: Camilla Stronati
    Abstract: How is upper secondary education organised across OECD countries? This level of education, which most frequently serves students aged between 15 to 18, is generally the first time when learners have significant capacity to shape the content of their learning, for example by opting for general or vocational education, choosing their subjects and developing a specialisation. Across the OECD, education systems have developed different ways to be responsive to different student needs and interests while trying to ensure that learners develop coherent foundational skills. This paper captures the diversity of countries’ upper secondary systems by: 1) developing a common language that sets the foundation for internationally comparative analysis; 2) categorising how countries organise their programmes in upper secondary education to manage choice, coherence and specialisation; and 3) identifying benefits and strategies to mitigate the risks associated with different approaches to upper secondary programmes for students, education systems and society.
    Date: 2023–04–05
  42. By: Changli He (Tianjin University of Finance and Economics); Jian Kang (Dongbei University of Finance and Economics); Annastiina Silvennoinen (Queensland University of Technology); Timo Teräsvirta (Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University)
    Abstract: In this paper the relationship between the surface air temperatures in 28 European cities and towns and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are modelled using the Vector Seasonal Shifting Mean and Covariance Autoregressive model, extended to contain exogenous variables. The model also incorporates season-specific spatial correlations that are functions of latitudinal, longitudinal, and elevation differences of the various locations. The empirical results, based on long monthly time series, agree with previous ones in the literature in that the NAO is found to have its strongest effect on temperatures during winter months. The transition from the winter to the summer is not monotonic, however. The strength of the error correlations of the model between locations is inversely related to the distance between the locations, with a slower decay in the east-west than north-south direction. Altitude differences also matter but only during the winter half of the year.
    Keywords: Changing seasonality, climate change, nonlinear model, spatial correlation, vector smooth transition autoregression
    JEL: C32 C52 Q54
    Date: 2023–04–03
  43. By: Osei-Tutu, Francis; Weill, Laurent
    Abstract: We examine the effect of regional favoritism on the access of firms to credit. Using firm-level data on a large sample of 29, 000 firms covering 47 countries, we investigate the hypothesis that firms in the birth regions of national political leaders have better access to credit. Our evidence suggests that firms located in birth regions of political leaders are less likely to be credit constrained. The effect takes place through the demand channel: firms in leader regions face fewer hurdles in applying for loans. We find no evidence, however, of preferential lending from banks to firms in leader regions. Thus, regional favoritism affects access to credit through differences in perceptions of firm managers, not deliberate changes in the allocation of resources by political leaders.
    Keywords: regional favoritism, access to credit, borrower discouragement
    JEL: D72 G21
    Date: 2023
  44. By: Tho Pham (University of York); Oleksandr Talavera (University of Birmingham); Zhuangchen Wu (University of Birmingham)
    Abstract: This study examines the short- and medium-term impacts of the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war on the labor market for Ukrainian workers. Using a unique dataset of 5.4 million online job ads for Ukrainian job seekers in Poland and Ukraine over the 2021-2022 period, we show a short-term surge in demand for Ukrainians to work in Poland while the number of jobs in Ukraine is relatively stable. Since February 2022, the demand for soft and analytical skills in Ukraine has increased, while the demand for such skills in Poland has remained the same. Moreover, there is variation in labor demand depending on skills level and occupational gender segregation. Further analysis suggests a persistent shift (to the left) in wage distribution driven by both the decline of wages within job titles and the change in job composition.
    Keywords: labor demand, forced migration, stayers, wage, Ukraine-Russia war, online vacancies
    JEL: J20 J30 J61 N30
    Date: 2023–03
  45. By: Michele Baggio (University of Connecticut); Metin M. Cosgel (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: In this paper we contribute to the literature on diversity and team performance by exploiting unique data from the natural experiment of American offshore whaling industry during the period between 1807 and 1912. Teams are represented by the crew operating onboard of whaling vessels and performance is measured by the value of the output captured during voyage. Combining information from multiple data sources, we document the existence of a U-shaped relationship between racial diversity and team performance. The nonlinear effect was transmitted by conflicts and skill complementarity among the whalemen. Crews adapted to diversity over time, as the effect shifted from being negative to negligible and then positive between short, medium, and long term voyages.
    JEL: D24 J15 J24 L25 M14 N11 O47
    Date: 2023–03
  46. By: Guillaume Monchambert (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper investigates pricing decisions when a monopolistic multi-sided platform is myopic, that is unable to distinguish between two agents who participate on the same side of the platform but produce different externalities. We find that the structure of prices is the same for profit- and welfare-maximizing platforms. The unique price supplied to the two undistinguishable agents is a weighted average of the perfect information prices, where the weights depend on demand elasticities and externalities produced by the other undistinguishable agent. The prices supplied to the distinguishable agents are also affected by information asymmetry through an extra term than can be positive or negative. Introducing Hotelling competition does not affect results. We apply the model to a monopolistic short-distance carpooling platform with and without HOV lane, and show that the profit-maximizing platform does not subsidize efficiently the "good" side of the market, leading to very little traffic reduction. These results call for a discussion of the regulation of myopic platforms in general, and those of carpooling in particular.
    Keywords: Network effect, Information asymmetry, Externality, Working Papers du LAET
    Date: 2023–02–14
  47. By: Dianzhuo Zhu (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In recent years ridesharing, for both local and inter-city trips, has been a fast-growing sector in France.Nonprofessional drivers and passengers share the same ride under the cost-sharing principle. The practice isencouraged by the 2019 Loi d'Orientation de la Mobilité (hereafter called LOM), or mobility orientation law, which gives it more policy clout. In this note, we will review the historical development of ridesharing and showhow it is connected to the main business models in today's French market. We then highlight some common trendsin organizing ridesharing services. Business models diverge according to distance and geography and convergeinside each market. We also review the debates on the environmental and societal impacts of ridesharing. Weconclude by giving insights on promoting ridesharing in the long term. On the basis of research findings, we arguethat although tangible benefits are indispensable for behavioural change, non-monetary incentives should be givenmore attention to sustain the behaviour in the long run. Practitioners, policy makers and academics shouldcollaborate to achieve this goal.
    Date: 2022
  48. By: Erik Brynjolfsson; Catherine Buffington; Nathan Goldschlag; J. Frank Li; Javier Miranda; Robert Seamans
    Abstract: We use data from the Annual Survey of Manufactures to study the characteristics and geography of investments in robots across U.S. manufacturing establishments. We find that robotics adoption and robot intensity (the number of robots per employee) is much more strongly related to establishment size than age. We find that establishments that report having robotics have higher capital expenditures, including higher information technology (IT) capital expenditures. Also, establishments are more likely to have robotics if other establishments in the same Core-Based Statistical Area (CBSA) and industry also report having robotics. The distribution of robots is highly skewed across establishments’ locations. Some locations, which we call Robot Hubs, have far more robots than one would expect even after accounting for industry and manufacturing employment. We characterize these Robot Hubs along several industry, demographic, and institutional dimensions. The presence of robot integrators and higher levels of union membership are positively correlated with being a Robot Hub.
    Keywords: robot, technology adoption, manufacturing, labor
    Date: 2023–03
  49. By: Pierre Lefebvre (Department of Economics, University of Quebec in Montreal); Claude Felteau (Department of Economics, University of Quebec in Montreal)
    Abstract: This study estimates the average multivalued treatment effects (ATET), of preschool attendance measured in years, on students’ international reading, math and science test z-scores in Grade 4. The causal treatment effects come from multiple-years observational data on three levels of preschool duration before entering Grade 1. Among European countries that participated in five international education surveys, PIRLS (2006, 2011, 2016) and TIMSS (2015, 2019), those renowned for having adopted early childhood education (ECE) programs starting at a young age, growing in intensity and improving the number of qualified child-care providers were selected. In addition to four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden), France, two Belgium jurisdictions (French, Flemish), and two participating Canadian provinces, Ontario and Québec, were retained. The approach exploits the repeated surveys and cross-national comparative international z-scores tests. The data sets besides their test scores provide unique information from a parent questionnaire on their education and occupation levels, literacy and numeracy preschool activities, on child preschool educational childcare span in years and two program types (for some years; before and after age 3). Four key findings can be identified from the data sets and estimations. First, there are large differences in the average scale score and percentiles deviation when converted into the z-score metric, for all categories of test scores across jurisdiction participants, and over time. Second, the estimates of the preschool treatment effects display rather heterogeneous impacts on z-scores with increasing significant and positive achievements over year surveys. Third, in general, preschool treatment effects are scattered in function of duration, programs types, and parental education. Four, results highlight stark gaps in scores related to parental education, socioeconomic statuses, and home learning resources for all year-samples. Evidence from a diversity of estimated gradients suggests established social inequalities in education achievement at ages 9-10 in Grade 4 could be difficult to reverse, even in cases where preschool education and care are implemented at a very young age in rich countries with very generous family policies.
    Keywords: Preschool education years intensities; fourth graders reading, math and science tests scores; multivalued treatment effects; PIRLS (2006, 2011, 2016); TIMSS (2015, 2019); Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Belgium French, Belgium Flemish, France; Canadian provinces of Québec and Ontario
    JEL: I2
    Date: 2023–02
  50. By: Kanis Saengchote; Voraprapa Nakavachara; Yishuang Xu
    Abstract: When land becomes more connected, its value can change because of network externalities. This idea is intuitive and appealing to developers and policymakers, but documenting their importance is empirically challenging because it is difficult to isolate the determinants of land value in practice. We address this challenge with real estate in The Sandbox, a virtual economy built on blockchain, which provides a series of natural experiments that can be used to estimate the causal impact of land-based of network externalities. Our results show that when new land becomes available, the network value of existing land increases, but there is a trade-off as new land also competes with existing supply. Our work illustrates the benefits of using virtual worlds to conduct policy experiments.
    Keywords: Metaverse; NFT; Hedonic Land Price; Network Externalities; Natural Experiment
    JEL: G12 G14 R30
    Date: 2023–03
  51. By: Erik Brynjolfsson; Cathy Buffington; Nathan Goldschlag; J. Frank Li; Javier Miranda; Robert Seamans
    Abstract: We use data from the Annual Survey of Manufactures to study the characteristics and geography of investments in robots across U.S. manufacturing establishments. We find that robotics adoption and robot intensity (the number of robots per employee) is much more strongly related to establishment size than age. We find that establishments that report having robotics have higher capital expenditures, including higher information technology (IT) capital expenditures. Also, establishments are more likely to have robotics if other establishments in the same Core-Based Statistical Area (CBSA) and industry also report having robotics. The distribution of robots is highly skewed across establishments’ locations. Some locations, which we call Robot Hubs, have far more robots than one would expect even after accounting for industry and manufacturing employment. We characterize these Robot Hubs along several industry, demographic, and institutional dimensions. The presence of robot integrators and higher levels of union membership are positively correlated with being a Robot Hub.
    JEL: L64 O34 O36 O4
    Date: 2023–03
  52. By: Xinming Du
    Abstract: This paper provides the first causal evidence that hostile activities online lead to physical violence. Given the recently documented relationship between pollution and social media, I exploit exogenous variation in local air quality as the first step to instrument for online aggression. In an event study setting, I find volatile organic compounds (VOCs) increase by 7% when refineries experience unexpected production outages. Together with higher air pollution, I find more aggressive behaviors both online and offline, as well as worse health outcomes near refineries. A one standard deviation increase in surrounding VOCs leads to 0.16 more hate crimes against Black people and 0.23 more hospital visits per thousand people each day. Second, I consider how emotional contagion spreads through social networks. On days with pollution spikes, surrounding areas see 30% more offensive and racist tweets and 12% more crimes; those geographically distant but socially networked regions also see offensive and racist tweets increase by 3% and more crimes by 4.5%. Nationally, overlooking spillovers would underestimate crime effects of pollution by 24%. My findings highlight the consequences of social media hostility and contribute to the public debate on cyberspace regulation.
    Date: 2023
  53. By: Pierre-Carl Michaud; Pascal St. Amour
    Abstract: Annuities, long-term care insurance and reverse mortgages remain unpopular to manage longevity, medical and housing price risks after retirement. We analyze low demand using a life-cycle model structurally estimated with a unique stated-preference survey experiment of Canadian households. Low risk aversion, substitution between housing and consumption and low marginal utility when in poor health explain most of the reduced demand. Bequests motives are found to be a luxury good and play a limited role. The remaining disinterest is explained by information frictions and behavioural status-quo biases. We find evidence of strong spousal co-insurance motives motivating LTCI and of responsiveness to bundling with a near doubling of demand for annuities when reverse mortgages can be used to annuitize, instead of consuming home equity.
    JEL: G51 G53 I13 J14
    Date: 2023–03
  54. By: George Kapetanios (King’s College London); Panagiotis Koutroumpis (Queen Mary University London); Christopher Tsoukis (Keele University)
    Abstract: We estimate the fiscal (spending) multiplier using quarterly U.S. data, 1986-2017. We define government spending shocks as actual minus expected expenditure growth, the latter obtained from the Survey of Professional Forecasters. We employ the ST-VAR model with the local projections method. A key testable conjecture is that the effects of positive and negative spending shocks have numerically different effects (the latter being stronger). Although we cannot formally reject the null of equality, the conjecture does hold in general. We also nd evidence of state-dependence of multipliers as previously pointed out.
    Keywords: fiscal multiplier, government spending, stabilisation policy, local projections
    JEL: E60 E62 H30
    Date: 2022–05–03
  55. By: David Roodman
    Abstract: This paper reanalyzes Khanna (2023), which studies labor market effects of schooling in India through a regression discontinuity design. In graphical preliminaries, reversing overrides of the plotting software's defaults greatly reduces the appearance of discontinuities. Absent from the data are four districts close to the discontinuity; restoring them cuts the reduced-form impacts on schooling and log wages by 62% and 75%. Using a consistent variance estimator, and clustering it at the geographic unit of treatment, further weakens the inference of positive impact. The estimates of general equilibrium effects and elasticities of substitution are not unbiased and have effectively infinite variance.
    Date: 2023–03
  56. By: Huynh, Vy Dang Bich; Nguyen, Quyen Le Hoang Thuy To; Nguyen, Phong Thanh
    Abstract: Economic growth has recently been crowded out by life quality in the new development pattern. Unlike the income-based measurement of economic growth, the life quality measure has become a challenge because it is a multidimensional concept that relies on the subjective evaluation of the involved stakeholders in a particular context. The objective of this study was to investigate the model of quality of urban life in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam based on subjective indicators. The grey analytical hierarchy process were employed to analyze the data from thirty in-depth interviews with experts in the field. The empirical model of quality of urban life in Ho Chi Minh City was found with three levels. The ranking results at the second level emphasized the high shares of health, employment, and income compared to self-esteem, socialization, and family happiness. The ranking results at the second level emphasized the high shares of health, employment, and income compared to self-esteem, socialization, and family happiness. Further investigation at the third level has confirmed the superiority of non-material components in the quality of urban life model in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The findings were critical in implying the policy concentration on non-material values enhancement to raise the quality level of urban life. It was a milestone in switching the focus from material to nonmaterial factors in the life quality model in Vietnam.
    Keywords: Grey system theory, grey analytical hierarchy process, life quality, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
    JEL: I3 I31 J17 O18 P25
    Date: 2022–10
  57. By: Mark T. Kanazawa (Carleton College)
    Abstract: This paper explores the politics of eminent domain, using a specific historical episode: the enactment of the new California constitution in 1879. It presents evidence that the failure of a constitutional provision that would have codified eminent domain powers for water development resulted from a complex interchange of economic interests among farmers, miners, and urban residents. This evidence was manifested in delegate behavior on the floor of the constitutional convention in 1878, including various roll-call votes, which are subjected to an econometric analysis. The results have implications for the interpretation of legislative eminent domain decisions, and the degree to which economic development processes are shaped by the institutional environment in which they occur.
    JEL: K4 N5 O1 Q1
    Date: 2023–03
  58. By: Jesús Peiró-Palomino (Universiy of Valencia and INTECO); Lisa Gianmoena (University of Pisa); Andrés J. Picazo-Tadeo (Universiy of Valencia and INTECO); Vicente Ríos (Universiy of Pisa)
    Abstract: Social trust is a heavily rooted element whose positive impact on economic performance has been widely corroborated for many contexts. However, the understanding of social progress disparities in aspects other than income is attracting increasing attention and is a key goal for the European Commission. European regions present notable disparities in many non-economic aspects that characterize advanced societies such as personal rights, freedom, tolerance and inclusion and access to advanced education. This paper provides fresh evidence on the impact of social trust on a wide array of aspects categorized as advanced features of social progress in the framework of the European Social Progress Index 2020 (EU-SPI). The results show a positive impact of social trust on most of the indicators, which is robust to endogeneity issues. These insights help to understand the enormous differences in terms of social progress across European regions and provide useful information for the design of future policies that pursue a more equal Europe.
    Keywords: European regions; European Social Progress Index; Social trust
    JEL: R11 Z10
    Date: 2023–04
  59. By: Oliver Cruz-Milán (Texas A&M University [Corpus Christi])
    Abstract: Tourism destinations constitute a conglomerate of attractions, service providers, and retailers that make up the overall offerings and experiences that attract visitors. However, given the severe consequences that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on the tourism industry, it is crucial to appraise consumer loyalty towards destinations in the context of the coronavirus disruptions. An increasing number of academic works examining the factors that influence destination loyalty have been carried out since the pandemic breakout, but no evaluation of their cumulative results and findings has been offered in the literature. Therefore, this research conducts a review of studies that have empirically investigated the drivers of destination loyalty during the pandemic in diverse geographical settings. By analyzing 24 journal articles selected from the Web of Science (WoS) database, this work adds to the literature by providing an assessment of the state-of-the-art body of knowledge about the explanation and prediction of loyalty for tourism destinations in the context of COVID-19.
    Keywords: COVID-19, loyalty, destination, tourism, literature review, explanation, prediction, theory
    Date: 2023–02–15

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