nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2023‒04‒03
67 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Changes in warehouse spatial patterns and rental prices: are they related? Exploring the case of US metropolitan areas By Renata de Oliveira; Laetitia Dablanc; Matthieu Shorung
  2. Housing, Neighborhoods and Inequality By Guillaume G.C. Chapelle; Gerard Domènech-Arumí; Paula Eugenia Gobbi
  3. The economics of cities: from theory to data By Stephen J. Redding
  4. Do long-distance moves discourage homeownership? Evidence from England By Ha, Sejeong; Hilber, Christian A. L.; Schöni, Olivier
  5. The revealed preferences in the Pozna residential housing market By Justyna Tanas
  6. Measuring the Attractiveness of Trip Destinations: A Study of the Kansai Region By Keisuke Kondo
  7. Race and the income-achievement gap By Bacic, Ryan; Zheng, Angela
  8. The effect of socioeconomic status on the student achievement gap in the United States: Race/ethnic disparities By Ogundari, Kolawole
  9. Spatial, Social and Data Gaps in On-Demand Mobility Services: Towards a Supply-Oriented MaaS By Ronit Purian; Daniel Polani
  10. The Real Estate Price Quandary: Issues and Way forward By Ahmed Waqar Qasim
  11. The Dissimilarity Index Was Never Compositionally Invariant By Barron, Boris; Hall, Matthew; Rich, Peter; Arias, Tomas A.
  12. Extended School Day and Teenage Fertility in Dominican Republic By Santiago Garganta; Florencia Pinto
  13. More time less time? The effect of lengthening the school day on learning trajectories By Martin Nistal; María Edo
  14. High Rise, Town-Planning & Current Urban Paradigm of Pakistan By Aimen Shakeel Abbasi
  15. Why do Gender Differences in Daily Mobility Behaviours persist among workers? By Nathalie Havet; Caroline Bayart; Patrick Bonnel
  16. Exploring European regional trade By Marta Santamaría; Jaume Ventura; Uğur Yeşilbayraktar
  17. The Determinants of Office Cap Rates: The International Evidence By Jędrzej Białkowski; Sheridan Titman; Garry Twite
  18. The geography of structural transformation: Effects on inequality and mobility By Kohei Takeda
  19. (In)convenient stores? What do policies pushing stores to town centres actually do? By Paul C. Cheshire; Christian A. L. Hilber; Piero Montebruno; Rosa Sanchis-Guarner
  20. Immigrating into a recession: Evidence from family migrants to the U.S. By Barsbai, Toman; Steinmayr, Andreas; Winter, Christoph
  21. Adapting to Climate Risk? Local Population Dynamics in the United States By Agustín Indaco; Francesc Ortega
  22. Intergenerational and Sibling Spillovers in High School Majors By Dahl, Gordon B.; Rooth, Dan-Olof; Stenberg, Anders
  23. Real Estate Regulatory Authority (RERA) Another Regulatory Burden? By Irum Bhatti
  24. Sports Clubs and Populism: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from German Cities By Mona Foertsch; Felix Roesel
  25. Do incompetent politicians breed populist voters? Evidence from Italian municipalities By Federico Boffa; Vincenzo Mollisi; Giacomo A. M. Ponzetto
  26. When do more police induce more crime? By Federico Weinschelbaum; Casilda Lasso de la Vega; Oscar Volij
  27. The distributional effect of a migratory exodus in a developing country: the role of downgrading and regularization By Carlo Lombardo; Julián Martinez-Correa; Leonardo Peñaloza-Pacheco; Leonardo Gasparini
  28. Universal Preschool Lottery Admissions and Its Effects on Long-Run Earnings and Outcomes By Randall Akee; Leah R. Clark
  29. How Middle-Skilled Workers Adjust to Immigration: The Role of Occupational Skill Specificity By Pregaldini, Damiano; Backes-Gellner, Uschi
  30. Accidents at work in Italy: an empirical analysis at the regional level By Andrea Salustri; Marco Forti; Maria Alessandra Antonelli; Alessia Marrocco
  31. Integrating Micromobility with Public Transit: A Case Study of the California Bay Area By Ferguson, Beth; Sanguinetti, Angela
  32. Import Competition and Informal Employment: Empirical Evidence from China By Feicheng Wang; Zhe Liang; Hartmut Lehmann
  33. Team size and diversity By Brais Alvarez Pereira; Shan Aman-Rana; Alexia Delfino
  34. Institutional reforms and the employment effects of spatially targeted investment grants: The case of Germany's GRW By Bj\"orn Alecke; Timo Mitze
  35. Challenges Facing People with Disabilities in Private Vehicular Transportation in the United States of America By Venkataram, Prashanth S; Flynn, Justin A; Circella, Giovanni; Sperling, Daniel
  36. Home, green home: Policies to decarbonise housing By Peter Hoeller; Volker Ziemann; Boris Cournède; Manuel Bétin
  37. The spillover effect of services offshoring on local labour markets By Martina Magli
  38. Progressive cities: urban–rural polarisation of social values and economic development around the world By Luca, Davide; Terrero-Davila, Javier; Stein, Jonas; Lee, Neil
  39. Future of Aviation: Advancing Aerial Mobility through Technology, Sustainability, and On-Demand Flight By Cohen, Adam; Shaheen, Susan PhD
  40. The characteristics and trajectories of ‘left behind places’ in the EU15 By Velthuis, Sanne; Le Petit-Guerin, Mehdi; Royer, Jeroen; Cauchi-Duval, Nicolas; Franklin, Rachel S.; Leibert, Tim; MacKinnon, Danny; Pike, Andy
  41. On the fiscal behavior of subnational governments. A long-term vision for Argentina By Jorge Puig; Alberto Porto
  42. Determinants of the social acceptability of Low Emission Zones (LEZ) in France: the case of the future LEZ in Grenoble By Rim Rejeb; Hélène Bouscasse; Sandrine Mathy; Carole Treibich
  43. Energy Price Shocks and the Demand for Energy-Efficient Housing: Evidence from Russia's Invasion of Ukraine By Braakmann, Nils; Dursun, Bahadir; Pickard, Harry
  44. Money under the mattress: economic crisis and crime By Eleni Kyrkopoulou; Alexandros Louka; Kristin Fabbe
  45. Inequality and Social Distancing during the Pandemic By Martin Ravallion; Caitlin Brown
  46. Building Floorspace in China: A Dataset and Learning Pipeline By Peter Egger; Susie Xi Rao; Sebastiano Papini
  47. The Psychosocial Value Of Employment Evidence From The Rohingya Refugee Camps By Ayesha Fatima
  48. Collective bargaining and spillovers in local labor markets By Ihsaan Bassier
  49. Beyond Winning By Fida Muhammad Khan
  50. Do International Tourist Arrivals Change Residents' Attitudes Towards Immigration? A Longitudinal Study of 28 European Countries By Ivlevs, Artjoms; Smith, Ian
  51. Do role models matter in large classes? New evidence on gender match effects in higher education By Stephan Maurer; Guido Schwerdt; Simon Wiederhold
  52. Import competition and social mobility: Evidence from Brazil By Matías Ciaschi; Andrés César; Guillermo Falcone; Guido Neidhöfer
  53. Differential Effects of Macroprudential Policy By Sophia Chen; Nina Biljanovska
  54. Nudging Pakistan Railways By Saba Anwar
  55. Changing local customs: Long-run impacts of the earliest campaigns against female genital cutting By Congdon Fors, Heather; Isaksson, Ann-Sofie; Annika, Lindskog
  56. Re-examining Regional Income Convergence: A Distributional Approach By Kevin Rinz; John Voorheis
  57. The value of cultural similarity for predicting migration: evidence from digital trace data By Carolina Coimbra Vieira; Sophie Lohmann; Emilio Zagheni
  58. Robot adoption, worker-firm sorting and wage inequality: Evidence from administrative panel data By Ester Faia; Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano; Saverio Spinella
  59. Determinants of Performance in European ATM -- How to Analyze a Diverse Industry By Thomas Standfuss; Georg Hirte; Frank Fichert; Hartmut Fricke
  60. International migration and income inequality By Nicola Daniele Coniglio; Vitorocco Peragine; Davide Vurchio
  61. Using Transport Activity-Based Model to Simulate the Pandemic By Moez Kilani; Ousmane Diop; Ngagne Diop
  62. Who Registers? Village Networks, Household Dynamics, and Voter Registration in Rural Uganda By Romain Ferrali; Guy Grossman; Melina Platas; Jonathan Rodden
  63. The Initial Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Regional Economies and Income Inequality in Indonesia: A Bi-dimensional Inequality Decomposition Analysis By Takahiro Akita; Armida Salsiah Alisjahbana
  64. With a Little Help from My Friends? Surviving the Lockdown Using Social Networks in Rural South India By Isabelle Guérin; Christophe Jalil Nordman; Cécile Mouchel
  65. The Effects of Access to Medicaid on the Employment and Academic Progress of College Students By Anand, Priyanka; Gicheva, Dora
  66. Platform Models and Strategic Interaction on a Multi-Agent Transport Network By Jolian McHardy
  67. Does Schooling Affect Political Attitudes? Quasi-Experimental Evidence By Dominik Stelzeneder

  1. By: Renata de Oliveira (CEFET-MG - Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais); Laetitia Dablanc (LVMT - Laboratoire Ville, Mobilité, Transport - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Gustave Eiffel); Matthieu Shorung (LVMT - Laboratoire Ville, Mobilité, Transport - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Gustave Eiffel)
    Abstract: In this paper, two hypotheses are explored linking urban characteristics to the spatial structure of warehouses: (i) the location of warehouses is closely related to the land/rent values of logistics facilities; and (ii) logistics sprawl is higher in cities with a high differential between land/rent values in city centers and peripheral areas. For that, we have considered logistics real estate and urban data for 48 United States metropolitan areas to analyze the urban spatial structure and the relationship among urban variables, warehouse location, and real estate rental prices. We also deliver a comparative analysis among the 48 metropolitan areas. The main results are (i) it is essential to classify metropolitan areas into a typology in order to perform comparative studies; (ii) warehouse location and rent prices are related to the concentration of urban activity; (iii) logistics sprawl is not significantly related to differential warehouse rental prices in the database that we explored.
    Date: 2022–01–01
  2. By: Guillaume G.C. Chapelle; Gerard Domènech-Arumí; Paula Eugenia Gobbi
    Abstract: This chapter provides an up-to-date review of the literature on housing, inequality, and neighborhoods while highlighting their many intersections. Inequality across and within countries is generally high and growing, particularly in terms of wealth. Levels and trends in inequality depend on multiple factors, such as institutions and varying exposure to shocks, and cannot be understood without accounting for the role of housing. Housing is a major component of households’ expenditures and the most important and evenly distributed asset in the population. Moreover, regional inequalities may not be as severe as they initially appear after accounting for differences in housing costs across geographies. Conversely, the negative outlook on these inequalities may be exacerbated when considering the implications of households’ uneven sorting within cities – with the most disadvantaged individuals predominantly residing in neighborhoods with lower-quality local public goods and amenities. Sorting endogenously arises due to multiple factors and impacts the dynamics and persistence of inequality through neighborhood effects, with schools playing a crucial role. National housing policies and interventions at the local level can help revert segregation and undesirable inequality dynamics. Housing allowances, tax incentives to build affordable housing in high-income neighborhoods, and school desegregation policies appear to be the most promising avenues to that goal.
    Keywords: Housing; Neighborhoods; Inequality
    Date: 2023–03
  3. By: Stephen J. Redding
    Abstract: Economic activity is highly unevenly distributed within cities, as reflected in the concentration of economic functions in specific locations, such as finance in the Square Mile in London. The extent to which this concentration reflects natural advantages versus agglomeration forces is central to a range of public policy issues, including the impact of local taxation and transport infrastructure improvements. This paper reviews recent quantitative urban models, which incorporate both differences in natural advantages and agglomeration forces and can be taken directly to observed data on cities. We show that these models can be used to estimate the strength of agglomeration forces and evaluate the impact of transportation infrastructure improvements on welfare and the spatial distribution of economic activity.
    Keywords: cities, commuting, transportation, urban economics
    Date: 2023–01–25
  4. By: Ha, Sejeong; Hilber, Christian A. L.; Schöni, Olivier
    Abstract: We hypothesize that as the distance of a residential move increases, the amount and quality of information collected on the destination housing market fall. This in turn increases the chances of making an ill-informed housing purchase decision, thus reducing the likelihood of such a purchase. Using data from the Survey of English Housing from 1993 to 2008, we document that, consistent with our prior, households moving over long distances – defined as 50 miles or more – have, on average, a 5.5 percentage point lower probability of owning their next home compared to shorter-distance movers. We also provide evidence consistent with the views that long-distance movers (i) are aware that they possess less and/or lower quality information and (ii) are more likely, especially if they are renters, to move again quickly after presumably having accrued better information on the property and local area.
    Keywords: residential mobility; distance of residential relocation; information cost; ownership risk; homeownership; tenure choice
    JEL: J61 R21 R23
    Date: 2021–09
  5. By: Justyna Tanas
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to determine the revealed preferences of buyers in the secondary housing market in Pozna in 2010-2018 by age, gender, and marital status. The study was conducted based on data on transactions of real estate premises made on the secondary market in 2010-2018 in Pozna. These data were supplemented with the information contained in the Land Register (section II - ownership), in the real estate cadastre and using Google Street View. Based on hedonic models and unique datasets of over 30 thousand observations, the revealed preferences were investigated more thoroughly than before.
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2022–01–01
  6. By: Keisuke Kondo (Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry and Research Institute for Economics and Business Administration, Kobe University, JAPAN)
    Abstract: This study proposes a novel concept of regional attractiveness index based on human mobility flows. Assuming that individuals' mobility choice is based on utility maximization, this study aims to recover the attractiveness of trip destinations by estimating the gravity equation for interregional trip flows. Using data from a Person Trip Survey in the Kansai region of Japan, this study investigates whether different trip purposes (e.g., commuting to office and school, recreational trips, business trips, and returning home) can reveal variations in the attractiveness of trip destinations in a geographical space. This study found that the proposed approach using interregional trip flows can effectively capture the extent to which trip destinations attract people from a region-wide perspective. As real-time human mobility data becomes increasingly available in the age of Big Data, the new index of regional attractiveness is expected to become a key performance indicator for daily monitoring of urban and regional economies.
    Keywords: Regional attractiveness index; Person trip survey; Gravity equation
    JEL: J61 R23 R41
    Date: 2023–03
  7. By: Bacic, Ryan; Zheng, Angela
    Abstract: We study whether racial disparities in economic opportunity appear at an early age. Using administrative education data linked to tax records, we study the income-achievement gap across different races and find important variation. The income-achievement gap is small for East Asian children while it is close to twice as large for Indigenous children. Sorting by income into schools accounts for a large portion of the variation in the income-achievement gap across all student groups. In addition, our results suggest that the large income-achievement gap for Indigenous students may be rooted in inequality in health outcomes and poor housing conditions. Our findings on income-achievement gaps across race could partially explain the different intergenerational mobility outcomes by race documented by others.
    Keywords: test scores, income-achievement gaps, race
    JEL: I20 I24 J15
    Date: 2023
  8. By: Ogundari, Kolawole
    Abstract: This study investigates the effects of socioeconomic status on racial achievement gaps. The educational achievement gap is based on the study's standardized test scores and grade point averages. And for the empirical analysis, we used a trend analysis and regression approach based on two-way fixed and multilevel mixed-effects regression models. The trend analysis showed that the achievement gap between White and Black students is positive and substantially large, followed by White and Hispanic students. However, the differences in the achievement gap between white and Asian are negative, which shows that student achievement is much higher among Asian students than the White students. Furthermore, the estimated regression models showed that the achievement gap increased significantly as the socioeconomic status between white/black and white/Hispanic students increased. In contrast, the achievement gap significantly decreased as the socioeconomic status gap between white and Asian students changed.
    Keywords: Education, inequality, racial achievement gap, Socioeconomic status, USA
    JEL: I21 I24
    Date: 2023–03–08
  9. By: Ronit Purian; Daniel Polani
    Abstract: After a decade of on-demand mobility services that change spatial behaviors in metropolitan areas, the Shared Autonomous Vehicle (SAV) service is expected to increase traffic congestion and unequal access to transport services. A paradigm of scheduled supply that is aware of demand but not on-demand is proposed, introducing coordination and social and behavioral understanding, urban cognition and empowerment of agents, into a novel informational framework. Daily routines and other patterns of spatial behaviors outline a fundamental demand layer in a supply-oriented paradigm that captures urban dynamics and spatial-temporal behaviors, mostly in groups. Rather than real-time requests and instant responses that reward unplanned actions, and beyond just reservation of travels in timetables, the intention is to capture mobility flows in scheduled travels along the day considering time of day, places, passengers etc. Regulating goal-directed behaviors and caring for service resources and the overall system welfare is proposed to minimize uncertainty, considering the capacity of mobility interactions to hold value, i.e., Motility as a Service (MaaS). The principal-agent problem in the smart city is a problem of collective action among service providers and users that create expectations based on previous actions and reactions in mutual systems. Planned behavior that accounts for service coordination is expected to stabilize excessive rides and traffic load, and to induce a cognitive gain, thus balancing information load and facilitating cognitive effort.
    Date: 2023–02
  10. By: Ahmed Waqar Qasim (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: PIDE (RAPID) Reform Agenda for Accelerated and Sustained Growth (2021) argues that the real estate market of Pakistan is both inefficient and poorly structured. Large information gaps exist in the properties supplied, demanded, bids and offers, and the contract prices. This generates suspicions and claims of real estate parking illegal or black money. Government instead of structuring the market has set up artificial administered prices—the DC rate and the FBR rate—further contaminating the information gaps and issues in the market.
    Date: 2022
  11. By: Barron, Boris; Hall, Matthew; Rich, Peter; Arias, Tomas A.
    Abstract: The prevailing view is that White/Black segregation has experienced modest declines in recent decades, while White/Hispanic and White/Asian segregation have remained stable. This consensus is based on the assumption that segregation measures, such as the ubiquitous dissimilarity index, are free of systematic bias on city compositions, a property known as compositional invariance. This property is necessary because, while the Black population has remained stable in the U.S., the Hispanic and Asian populations have experienced significant growth. In this paper, we demonstrate that the assumption of compositional invariance for the dissimilarity index is fundamentally flawed and propose an easily-implementable adjustment factor to facilitate meaningful segregation comparisons of cities over space and time. The implications of this adjustment are stark: we find that White/Hispanic and White/Asian segregation have substantially decreased, with Hispanic segregation declining more rapidly than Black segregation. Our findings also highlight the exceptional nature of Black segregation, with the gap in their measured dissimilarity - after adjusting for compositional changes - persisting when compared to White segregation with other racial/ethnic groups.
    Date: 2023–02–24
  12. By: Santiago Garganta; Florencia Pinto
    Abstract: This paper investigates the potential impact of extended school days to reduce teenage fertility. We study the "Jornada Escolar Extendida" program, which doubled the school-day length from 4 to 8 hours in the Dominican Republic, and exploit the geographic and time variation induced by its gradual implementation. We find evidence that a higher exposure to JEE in the municipality, measured as the percentage of secondary students covered by the program, reduces the incidence of teenage pregnancies, and that the effect is stronger after the program has reached at least half of secondary students in the municipality. The estimates are robust to various specifications and alternative checks. These results suggest that extended school-day policies can have spillover effects regarding teenagers' fertility choices.
    JEL: H52 J13
    Date: 2022–11
  13. By: Martin Nistal; María Edo
    Abstract: We investigate to what extent lengthening the primary school days affects learning trajectories. We use national administration reports at the school level to estimate the impact of more school hours on grade retention at the primary level. Using microdata available in Argentina from 2011 to 2019, we use the variation of 1, 297 schools that added more hours of instructional time. The fact that the change from a simple regime (4 hours per day) to an extended regime (more than 4 hours but less than 8) was progressively and exogenous, conditional on infrastructure capacity, allows for estimating the effect through a difference-in-difference approach. We find that lengthening the school day reduces the grade retention of primary students by 23.1%.
    JEL: I2
    Date: 2022–11
  14. By: Aimen Shakeel Abbasi (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: The situation of the Urban population: Looking back on history, globally, the rural component had a higher number than the urban population till 2008. Post-2009, the urban population started growing. The migrated population from rural to urban areas concentrated in a few specific urban centers resulting in unequal distribution and uncontrolled Urban centers. In last 50 years there have been a rapid increase in urbanization around the globe.
    Date: 2022
  15. By: Nathalie Havet (SAF - Laboratoire de Sciences Actuarielle et Financière - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon); Caroline Bayart (SAF - Laboratoire de Sciences Actuarielle et Financière - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon); Patrick Bonnel (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Gender is commonly identified as a key explanatory factor for travel behaviour. Since women's role in societal structure has changed in the past few decades, the question arises as to whether the "gender" factor still plays a decisive role in differences in mobility within the working population. The aim of this paper is to extend the research on gendered differences in mobility by providing an in-depth analysis of how the main determinants of daily mobility affect male and female workers differently. Unlike previous research, our econometric models included terms that express the interactions between the explanatory variables (socioeconomic variables and transport mode access) and a dichotomous gender variable, to accurately identify the marginal impact of gender on mobility indicators. Based on the Rhône-Alpes regional household travel survey (2012–2015), which includes France's second largest urban area, the results show that even if gender differences in employment status and access to the private car are eliminated, differences in travel patterns between men and women would still be observed because the two genders do not have identical factor sensitivities. From a policy perspective, these results suggest that authorities have to adopt a gender perspective to ensure that in the future urban mobility policies provide gender equity in the context of the sustainable development of transport networks.
    Keywords: Travel behaviour, Commute distance and time, Gender differences, Gender interactions, Bivariate tobit model, Zero-one inflated beta regression
    Date: 2021–03
  16. By: Marta Santamaría; Jaume Ventura; Uğur Yeşilbayraktar
    Abstract: We use the new dataset of trade flows across 269 European regions in 24 countries constructed in Santamaria et al. (2020) to systematically explore for the first time trade patterns within and across country borders. We focus on the differences between home trade, country trade and foreign trade. We document the following facts: (i) European regional trade has a strong home and country bias, (ii) geographic distance and national borders are important determinants of regional trade, but cannot explain the strong regional home bias and (iii) the home bias is heterogeneous across regions and seems to be driven by political regional borders.
    Date: 2022–12
  17. By: Jędrzej Białkowski (University of Canterbury); Sheridan Titman; Garry Twite
    Abstract: We examine commercial office cap rates in 89 large cities in 33 developed and developing countries in the 2000-2019 period. We find that cap rates decline throughout the world over this period, reflecting a corresponding decline in the real rate of interest. In the cross-city analysis our most robust findings are that office cap rates are lower in wealthier cities, especially those that are either considered gateway cities or financial centers. In addition, cap rates tend to be higher in countries with lower credit ratings and higher inflation rates. We find that cap rates in suburban office markets are higher than in central business districts, and for a given metropolis, suburban cap rates are lower in suburbs with better public transport connections to the central business district. Finally, evidence from regressions with city fixed effects reveal that cap rates rise as the discount rate and vacancy rates increase and fall as cities get wealthier.
    Keywords: Global real estate market, Capitalization rate, Office cap rates, Financial centers, Public Transport
    JEL: R3 R4
    Date: 2023–01–01
  18. By: Kohei Takeda
    Abstract: The interplay between structural transformation in the aggregate and local economies is key to understanding spatial inequality and worker mobility. This paper develops a dynamic overlapping generations model of economic geography where historical exposure to different industries creates persistence in occupational structure, and non-homothetic preferences and differential productivity growth lead to different rates of structural transformation. Despite the heterogeneity across locations, sectors, and time, the model remains tractable and is calibrated with the U.S. economy from 1980 to 2010. The calibration allows us to back out measures of upward mobility and inequality, thereby providing theoretical underpinnings to the Gatsby Curve. The counterfactual analysis shows that structural transformation has substantial effects on mobility: if there were no productivity growth in the manufacturing sector, income mobility would be about 6 percent higher, and if amenities were equalized across locations, it would rise by around 10 percent. In these effects, we find that different degrees of historical exposure to industries in local economies play an important role.
    Keywords: structural transformation, upward mobility, labor mobility, economic geography
    Date: 2022–12–12
  19. By: Paul C. Cheshire; Christian A. L. Hilber; Piero Montebruno; Rosa Sanchis-Guarner
    Abstract: England's Town Centre First Policy, introduced in 1996, restricted the opening of new retail and other 'traditional town centre activities' to 'Town Centre' (TC) locations. The aim was to halt the decay of high streets. We explore the impact of the policy on the supply and location of grocery shops and patterns of shopping by comparing English with Scottish TCs before and after the policy change in England. Using store level census data, we show first that supply trends for grocery stores in TCs were similar in both countries prior to the implementation of the policy. After the policy took effect, however, stores in TCs increased relatively more strongly in England, but with no change in grocery employment. Second, using survey data, we show that the policy changed the composition of shops in TCs in favour of convenience-type shops supplied by the 'big four' grocery chains. However, although it increased the number of TC shops, the policy had no effect on the number of shoppers choosing TC locations.
    Keywords: land use planning, retail location, shopping destinations, town centre, decay of high street
    Date: 2022–12–12
  20. By: Barsbai, Toman; Steinmayr, Andreas; Winter, Christoph
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of economic conditions at arrival on the economic integration of family-sponsored migrants in the U.S. A one pp higher unemployment rate at arrival decreases annual wage income by four percent in the short run and two percent in the longer run. The loss in wage income results primarily from lower hourly wages due to occupational downgrading. Migrant and family networks help mitigating the negative labor market effects. Migrants who arrive during a recession take up occupations with higher concentrations of fellow countrypeople and are more likely to reside with family members, potentially reducing their geographical mobility.
    Keywords: Immigrant integration, family reunification, chain migration, migrant networks, labor market, business cycle
    JEL: E32 F22 J31 J61
    Date: 2023
  21. By: Agustín Indaco (Carnegie Mellon University in Qatar); Francesc Ortega (CUNY, Queens College)
    Abstract: Using a new composite climate-risk index, we show that population in high-risk counties has grown disproportionately over the last few decades, even relative to the corresponding commuting zone. We also find that the agglomeration is largely driven by increases in the (white) working-age population. In addition, we show that high-risk tracts have typically grown more than low-risk tracts within the same county, suggesting the presence of highly localized amenities in high-risk areas. We also document heterogeneous population dynamics along a number of dimensions. Specifically, population has been retreating from high-risk, lowurbanization locations, but continues to grow in high-risk areas with high residential capital. The findings above hold for most climate hazards. However, we document that tracts with high risk of coastal flooding have grown significantly less than other tracts in the same county
    Keywords: Climate risk; Agglomeration; Migration
    JEL: J3 J7
    Date: 2023–03
  22. By: Dahl, Gordon B. (University of California, San Diego); Rooth, Dan-Olof (Stockholm University); Stenberg, Anders (SOFI, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: This paper estimates family spillovers in high school major choice in Sweden, where admission to oversubscribed majors is determined based on GPA. Using a regression discontinuity design, we find large sibling and intergenerational spillovers that depend on the gender mix of a dyad. Same-gender siblings copy one another, while younger brothers recoil from older sister's choices. Fathers and mothers influence sons, but not their daughters, except when a mother majors in the male-dominated program of Engineering. Back of the envelope calculations reveal these within family spillovers have sizable implications for the gender composition of majors.
    Keywords: intergenerational spillovers, sibling spillovers, high school majors, gender composition of majors
    JEL: I21 J24
    Date: 2023–02
  23. By: Irum Bhatti (Ph. D Scholar, Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad)
    Abstract: Pakistan’s real estate has had a significant impact on the country’s economy, with a market value ranging from $300 billion to $400 billion. Construction output accounts for 2% of GDP in Pakistan, according to the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, boosts economic growth in terms of output. Despite, it’s importance in terms of the economy and labor benefits, many irregularities exist when purchasing a plot of land or a residential property in Pakistan.
    Date: 2022
  24. By: Mona Foertsch; Felix Roesel
    Abstract: Does social capital always promote solidarity and democracy, or are social networks such as sports clubs also vulnerable to populism? We exploit quasi-experimental variation in sports club membership in German cities. Sports clubs are booming in cities with successful soccer teams which pass the promotion threshold for a higher division, but not where teams marginally missed on promotion. Difference-in-differences estimations show that far-right populists enjoy more support in cities with higher sports club membership rates in the wake of marginally promoted soccer teams. The populist momentum is however rather short-living, indicating that sports clubs intensify group polarization but are not a spot of permanent radicalization.
    Keywords: social capital, sports clubs, populism, Gemany
    JEL: D71 D72 Z20
    Date: 2023
  25. By: Federico Boffa; Vincenzo Mollisi; Giacomo A. M. Ponzetto
    Abstract: Poor performance by the established political class can drive voters towards anti-establishment outsiders. Is the inffectiveness of incumbent politicians an important driver of the recent rise of populist parties? We provide an empirical test exploiting a sharp discontinuity in the wage of local politicians as a function of population in Italian municipalities. We find that the more skilled local politicians and more effective local government in municipalities above the threshold cause a signiÂ…cant drop in voter support for the populist Five-Star Movement in regional and national elections. Support for incumbent governing parties increases instead.
    Keywords: Populism, Government e¢ ciency, Politician quality, Political agency
    JEL: D72 D73 H70
    Date: 2023–03
  26. By: Federico Weinschelbaum; Casilda Lasso de la Vega; Oscar Volij
    Abstract: We provide a necessary and sufficient condition on the equilibrium of a Walrasian economy for an increase in police expenditure to induce an increase in crime. It turns out that this is essentially the condition for the Laffer curve to be downward sloping at a given ad valorem tax rate. Notably, such a perverse effect of police on crime is consistent with any appropriation technology and could arise even if the level of police protection is the socially optimal one.
    JEL: D7 H2
    Date: 2022–11
  27. By: Carlo Lombardo; Julián Martinez-Correa; Leonardo Peñaloza-Pacheco; Leonardo Gasparini
    Abstract: We study the distributional effect of the massive exodus of Venezuelans in Colombia and how public policy can shape its impact. Using RIF-regressions in an instrumental variables approach, we find that the exodus had a larger negative effect on the lower tail of the natives’ wage distribution, increasing inequality in the host economy. We propose downgrading as the driving mechanism: due to formal restrictions, immigrants ended up working in more routine and lower-paying jobs than natives with similar characteristics. Finally, we show that a large-scale amnesty program reduced the magnitude of downgrading, mitigating the unequalizing impact of the exodus.
    JEL: D30 F22 J61 O15
    Date: 2022–11
  28. By: Randall Akee; Leah R. Clark
    Abstract: We use an admissions lottery to estimate the effect of a universal (non-means tested) preschool program on students’ long-run earnings, income, marital status, fertility and geographic mobility. We observe long-run outcomes by linking both admitted and non-admitted individuals to confidential administrative data including tax records. Funding for this preschool program comes from an Indigenous organization, which grants Indigenous students admissions preference and free tuition. We find treated children have between 5 to 6 percent higher earnings as young adults. The results are strongest for individuals from the lower half of the household income distribution in childhood. Likely mechanisms include high-quality teachers and curriculum.
    Keywords: Children, Preschool, Returns to Education, Native Americans, Long-Run Outcomes, Income, Employment, Earnings, Wage Level
    JEL: I20 I21 I24 I26 J24 J31
    Date: 2023–03
  29. By: Pregaldini, Damiano (University of Zurich); Backes-Gellner, Uschi (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: Our study explores the effects of immigration on the employment of native middle-skilled workers, focusing on how this effect varies with the specificity of their occupational skill bundles. Exploiting the 2002 opening of the Swiss labor market to EU workers and using register data on the location and occupation of these workers, our findings provide novel results on the labor market effects of immigration. We show that the inflow of EU workers led to an increase in the employment of native middle-skilled workers with highly specific occupational skills and to a reduction in their occupational mobility. These findings can be attributed to immigrant workers reducing existing skill gaps, enhancing the quality of job-workers matches, and alleviating firms' capacity restrictions. This allowed firms to create new jobs, thereby providing increased employment options for middle-skilled workers with highly specialized skills and reducing the need to change their occupations. This research provides novel insights on the impact of immigration on the labor market.
    Keywords: migration, cross-border workers, occupational skill specificity
    JEL: J15 J24 J62
    Date: 2023–02
  30. By: Andrea Salustri; Marco Forti; Maria Alessandra Antonelli; Alessia Marrocco (Università Sapienza di Roma - Dipartimento di Studi Giuridici, Filosofici ed Economici)
    Abstract: This work proposes an analysis of occupational accidents in Italy at the regional level. To this end, INAIL and ISTAT data are used for the period 2010-2019 to apply different econometric estimation techniques (pooled OLS model, fixed effects model and random effects model) and to better consider regional specificities. As will be seen in the course of the work, in most of the estimates, the results show statistically significant correlations between some economic variables and the regional social context (GDP per capita, level of education, unemployment, fragility of the local labour market and level of crime in the region) and the accident phenomenon alternatively defined with different indicators. Therefore, the analysis seemingly confirms the relevance of the regional dimension, which should also be considered for possible policy interventions.
    Keywords: occupational accidents, business cycle, Italian regions, panel data
    JEL: J21 J28
    Date: 2023–03
  31. By: Ferguson, Beth; Sanguinetti, Angela
    Abstract: Micromobility is well-suited to address first- and last-mile connectivity with public transit by extending the catchment area around transit stations and bridging gaps in the existing transit network, ultimately facilitating access to jobs and services. However, the uptake of micromobility depends on a variety of factors including environmental design features at and around public transit stations that support or inhibit access. This research covered environmental audits at 18 BART stations to count arrivals, departures, and parked personal and shared micromobility vehicles, an online survey of BART and micromobility users, and interviews with government, industry, and community stakeholders. This research showed that in the California Bay Area, the prevalence of personal micromobility currently dwarfs rates of shared micromobility use, and that includes a burgeoning segment of transit users connecting with their own e-bikes and e-scooters. Successes and challenges were highlighted, and recommendations made for station design, including greater availability of shared micromobility vehicles, more affordable secure parking for personal micromobility vehicles, better signage and wayfinding. Beyond the station proper, there is a need for protected bike lanes and consistent design standards for bike facilities throughout the region. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Micromobility, public transportation, shared mobility, scooter, bike
    Date: 2023–02–01
  32. By: Feicheng Wang (University of Göttingen); Zhe Liang; Hartmut Lehmann
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of trade liberalisation induced labour demand shocks on informal employment in China. We employ a local labour market approach to construct a regional measure of exposure to import tariffs by exploiting initial differences in industrial composition across prefectural cities and then link it with the employment status of individuals. Using three waves of household survey data between 1995 and 2007, our results show that workers from regions that experienced a larger tariff cut were more likely to be employed informally. Further results based on firm-level data reveal a consistent pattern; tariff reductions increased the share of informal workers within firms. Such effects are more salient among smaller and less productive firms. Our findings suggest an important margin of labour market adjustment in response to trade shocks in developing countries, i.e. employment adjustment along the formal-informal dimension.
    Keywords: Trade liberalisation; Import competition; Informal employment; Firms; China
    JEL: F14 F16 F66 J46
    Date: 2021–09
  33. By: Brais Alvarez Pereira; Shan Aman-Rana; Alexia Delfino
    Abstract: We analyse the relationship of performance with team diversity and size. We first propose a model with knowledge spillovers in production, which predicts that the effect of team diversity on individual performance increases with team size. We experimentally test the model by randomly assigning students to solve knowledge questions in teams of different sizes, with or without diversity. Our main finding is that the benefit of diversity is increasing in team size. We further show that such benefit is heterogeneous depending on students’ gender and the gender composition of teams. This has implications for how organizations can design their teams to maximize knowledge flows and performance.
    Keywords: Gender, Diversity, Team performance, Information, Communication
    JEL: J1 J15 J16 M50 O15
    Date: 2023
  34. By: Bj\"orn Alecke; Timo Mitze
    Abstract: Spatially targeted investment grant schemes are a common tool to support firms in lagging regions. We exploit exogenous variations in Germany's main regional policy instrument (GRW) arriving from institutional reforms to analyse local employment effects of investment grants. Findings for reduced-form and IV regressions point to a significant policy channel running from higher funding rates to increased firm-level investments and newly created jobs. When we contrast effects for regions with high but declining funding rates to those with low but rising rates, we find that GRW reforms led to diminishing employment increases. Especially small firms responded to changing funding conditions.
    Date: 2023–02
  35. By: Venkataram, Prashanth S; Flynn, Justin A; Circella, Giovanni; Sperling, Daniel
    Abstract: The majority of people with disabilities in the United States of America (US) are licensed drivers or use transportation modes based on private vehicles. Despite this, people with disabilities, including licensed drivers, still often encounter difficulties that limit their overall mobility and quality of life. Research about the problems with private vehicular modes facing people with disabilities remains sparse. Existing research suggests that some disabilities make driving impossible, while poverty often associated with disability makes owning and modifying vehicles to fit users’ needs unaffordable. People with disabilities who cannot drive or cannot afford to own a vehicle may use rental cars or carsharing services, get rides from friends or family, or use ridehailing services or taxis, but car-oriented land use patterns and the higher costs of modified vehicles together may compromise the availability of these modes for people with disabilities. Better understanding of the challenges that people with disabilities face with these modes and of associated land use issues is critical for new modes & policies to sustainably improve the mobility of people with disabilities.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2023–03–01
  36. By: Peter Hoeller; Volker Ziemann; Boris Cournède; Manuel Bétin
    Abstract: The housing sector is one of the main sources of CO2 emissions in OECD countries, accounting for over a quarter of the total. Robust and rapid action is required to reach the net zero emission target by 2050. Decarbonising housing involves halting the use of fossil fuels in homes, ensuring that electricity is generated from carbon-free sources, using high-energy-efficiency appliances and heating systems, ensuring effective insulation and encouraging behavioural changes. This paper discusses which policy instruments can prompt this transformation of the housing sector, ranging from carbon pricing through energy labelling requirements to green housing finance.
    Keywords: decarbonisation, energy efficiency, Housing, insulation
    JEL: F64 H23
    Date: 2023–03–20
  37. By: Martina Magli
    Abstract: I provide new empirical evidence on the direct and indirect impact of services off-shoring on local employment and wages, using a unique dataset on firms in the UK for the period 2000-2015. Exploiting variation in firms' services offshoring across labour markets, I show positive aggregate local labour employment and wage elasticity to services offshoring. Spillovers from offshoring to non-offshoring firms explain the positive results, and services offshoring complementary to firms' production has a larger effect than the offshoring competing with firms' outputs. Finally, I show that services offshoring widens firms' employment and wage dispersion within local labour markets. This work contains statistical data from the Office for National Statistics supplied by the UK Dataservice. The use of these data does not imply the endorsement of the ONS or the UK Data Service at the UK Data Archive in relation to the interpretation or analysis of the data. This work uses research datasets which may not exactly reproduce National Statistics aggregates. The author thanks the UK Dataservice for their assistance and the Economic and Social Research Council (award number ES/J500100/1) for financial support.
    Keywords: services offshoring, local labour market, spillover effect, quantile analysis
    Date: 2022–12–09
  38. By: Luca, Davide; Terrero-Davila, Javier; Stein, Jonas; Lee, Neil
    Abstract: In contrast to the conservative values of rural populations, cities are often seen as bulwarks of more tolerant, liberal and progressive values. This urban–rural divide in values has become one of the major fault lines in Western democracies, underpinning major political events of the last decade, not least the election of Donald Trump. Yet, beyond a small number of countries, there is little evidence that cities really are more liberal than rural areas. Evolutionary modernisation theory suggests that socio-economic development may lead to the spread of progressive, self-expression values but provides little guidance on the role of cities in this process. Has an urban–rural split in values developed across the world? And does this gap depend on the economic development of a country? We answer these questions using a large cross-sectional dataset covering 66 countries. Despite the inherent challenges in identifying and operationalising a globally-consistent definition of what is ‘urban’, we show that there are marked and significant urban–rural differences in progressive values, defined as tolerant attitudes to immigration, gender rights and family life. These differences exist even when controlling for observable compositional effects, suggesting that cities do play a role in the spread of progressive values. Yet, these results only apply at higher levels of economic development suggesting that, for cities to leave behind rural areas in terms of liberal values, the satisfying of certain material needs is a prerequisite.
    Keywords: cities; economic development; modernisation; progressive values; urban–rural polarisation; International Inequalities Institute.
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2023–02–02
  39. By: Cohen, Adam; Shaheen, Susan PhD
    Abstract: Advanced air mobility (AAM) is a broad concept enabling consumers access to air mobility, cargo and package delivery, healthcare applications, and emergency services through an integrated and connected multimodal transportation network. AAM includes local use cases of about a 50-mile radius in rural or urban areas and intraregional use cases of up to approximately 500 miles that occur within or between urban and rural areas. The Future of Aviation Conference: Advancing Aerial Mobility through Technology, Sustainability, and On-Demand Flight was held in person at the San Francisco International Airport from August 2 to 5, 2022. The conference commenced with an AAM 101 workshop hosted by the Community Air Mobility Initiative (CAMI) on August 2nd. The full conference program began on August 3rd. This event advanced key research and policy discussions around environmental impacts, safety, security, equity, multimodal integration, and the role of government.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2023–03–01
  40. By: Velthuis, Sanne; Le Petit-Guerin, Mehdi; Royer, Jeroen; Cauchi-Duval, Nicolas; Franklin, Rachel S. (Newcastle University); Leibert, Tim; MacKinnon, Danny; Pike, Andy
    Abstract: Over the past ten years or so, concern has mounted about places in the Global North that have been ‘left behind’ by the growth and prosperity experienced in superstar cities and other wealthy regions. This briefing paper summarises the findings from the first stage of the ‘Beyond Left Behind Places’ project, which involved quantitative analysis of changes experienced by regions across the EU15 over the past four decades and draws out key policy implications.
    Date: 2023–02–21
  41. By: Jorge Puig; Alberto Porto
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the evolution of subnational fiscal variables in Argentina with a long-term vision. The period covers 1959-2019. The first part shows stylized facts of the main provincial fiscal variables over time. The second part studies the interaction between intergovernmental transfers on the level and the structure of provincial own revenues and expenditures. Econometric analysis, that controls for typical endogeneity problems, indicates that higher transfers do not reduce provincial own revenues and increase public expenditure. Higher transfers also bias the composition of provincial own resources towards non-distortive taxes and towards higher capital expenditure. The remarkable heterogeneity of the subnational governments in Argentina plays a key role when determining the results. As a whole findings might have important policy implications on subnational governments' public finance.
    JEL: H25 H29 H41 H71 H77
    Date: 2022–11
  42. By: Rim Rejeb; Hélène Bouscasse; Sandrine Mathy; Carole Treibich
    Abstract: Although France is exposed to significant levels of air pollution, it is lagging behind its European neighbors in the implementation of low-emission zones (LEZs). Acceptability issues seem to be central to this delay. The Climate and Resilience Law passed in 2021 introduces the obligation for cities with more than 150, 000 inhabitants to implement a LEZ by the end of 2024. Thirty-three new urban areas in France are thus concerned, including the Grenoble metropolitan area. Using original survey data, this article proposes an ex-ante evaluation of the acceptability of this future LEZ and its determinants. The analysis is based on original data collected through a telephone survey. Using bivariate analysis and binary logit regression, we found a good level of acceptability of the LEZ on average, but with lower levels for individuals directly affected by the traffic restrictions. The results show that acceptability is mainly determined by positive attitudes and individual perceptions of the LEZ and less influenced by socio-demographic characteristics.
    Keywords: Low Emission Zones, Social Acceptability, Econometric Analysis, France
    JEL: Q48 Q52 Q53 R58
    Date: 2023–02
  43. By: Braakmann, Nils (Newcastle University); Dursun, Bahadir (Newcastle University); Pickard, Harry (Newcastle University)
    Abstract: How do private consumers adapt to changes to energy prices, in particular do they invest in energy-saving measures? We study this question in the context of the rapid rise in energy prices caused by the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 and the demand for energy efficiency in the UK housing market. We find that the housing market barely reacted to a 60% increase in the price of energy. This finding holds in multiple contexts and across various robustness checks. Supplementary survey evidence suggests that people believe the energy price increases are temporary, not permanent.
    Keywords: gas prices, energy efficiency, property markets
    JEL: Q35 Q41 Q51 R31
    Date: 2023–02
  44. By: Eleni Kyrkopoulou (University of Piraeus); Alexandros Louka (Foundation for Economic and Industrial Research); Kristin Fabbe (Harvard Business School)
    Abstract: The paper investigates the effect of a (semi-) deposit run during a debt crisis on crime rates. The study focuses on Greece’s protracted debt crisis (2009-2018) and analyzes the response of crime to deposit outflows. It shows that deposit outflows corresponded to a significant increase in property crimes (thefts and burglaries), but not other types of offenses. Our findings suggest that policy makers should also consider the potential criminogenic effects of financial destabilization.
    Keywords: Crime rate; Greece; crisis; bank deposits;property crime
    JEL: K42
    Date: 2022–12
  45. By: Martin Ravallion (Department of Economics, Georgetown University); Caitlin Brown (University of Manchester)
    Abstract: We study how pre-pandemic inequalities in America influenced social distancing over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. Richer counties tended to see more protective mobility responses in the initial (pre-pharmaceutical) phase, but less protective responses later. Near linearity of this income effect implies that inequality between counties contributed very little to overall mobility reductions. By contrast, higher within-county inequality and/or poverty measures came with substantially larger attenuations to non-residential mobility at given average incomes. There were also significant effects of the county’s racial and age composition. Standard epidemiological covariates of contact rates were also relevant, controlling for the socioeconomic factors.
    Keywords: Epidemiology; COVID-19; poverty; inequality; race
    JEL: I14 I15 O15
    Date: 2022–11–08
  46. By: Peter Egger; Susie Xi Rao; Sebastiano Papini
    Abstract: This paper provides the first milestone in measuring the floor space of buildings (that is, building footprint and height) and its evolution over time for China. Doing so requires building on imagery that is of a medium-fine-grained granularity, as longer cross-sections and time series data across many cities are only available in such format. We use a multi-class object segmenter approach to gauge the floor space of buildings in the same framework: first, we determine whether a surface area is covered by buildings (the square footage of occupied land); second, we need to determine the height of buildings from their imagery. We then use Sentinel-1 and -2 satellite images as our main data source. The benefits of these data are their large cross-sectional and longitudinal scope plus their unrestricted accessibility. We provide a detailed description of the algorithms used to generate the data and the results. We analyze the preprocessing steps of reference data (if not ground truth data) and their consequences for measuring the building floor space. We also discuss the future steps in building a time series on urban development based on our preliminary experimental results.
    Date: 2023–03
  47. By: Ayesha Fatima (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: The government of Myanmar started a massive ethnic cleansing campaign which resulted in the expulsion of 750-800000 Rohingya refugees- the world’s largest refugee camp now. If you go to the people living there and ask them how you can help them? They answer, “help us go back home and give us work.”
    Date: 2022
  48. By: Ihsaan Bassier
    Abstract: How does collective bargaining affect the broader wage structure? How are such spillovers transmitted? I present a model where firms with wage-setting power that are not covered by collective bargaining agreements, but are close to collective bargaining firms, are incentivized to increase their wages alongside these wage agreements. My model suggests an empirically rich measure of closely connected firms, the flow of workers between them. I test my hypotheses across a decade of wage agreements matched with worker-level data in South Africa. I show that bilateral worker flows reflect a wide range of firm characteristics, capturing firm links which are poorly predicted by industry and location. Observed wages in collective bargaining firms follow sharp increases in prescribed wages, and indeed firms more closely connected by worker flows to covered firms differentially increase wages more. My implied cross-wage elasticity is higher than comparable estimates in the literature because I am able to pin down the labor market segments empirically relevant to wage spillovers. A microdata simulation suggests that spillovers double the intensive and extensive margin effects of collective bargaining agreements on the full wage distribution.
    Keywords: collective bargaining, spillovers, worker flows, monopsony
    Date: 2022–12–13
  49. By: Fida Muhammad Khan (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: Sports can be used as a tool that could bridge gaps in a diverse society as that of Karachi, a diverse society with ethnic, religious, sectarian diversity. However, sports organized by local private sport associations some of local bodies had shown positive results in terms of directing the energies of the youth in a positive direction. Dr. Abro shared his findings that sports provide an option, a way out from extremism and deviant behavior and the youth associated with sports are less likely to indulge in such activities.
    Date: 2022
  50. By: Ivlevs, Artjoms (University of the West of England, Bristol); Smith, Ian (University of the West of England, Bristol)
    Abstract: Can international tourist arrivals change residents' attitudes towards immigrants and immigration? We discuss possible underlying mechanisms and provide the first evidence on this question using data from the European Social Survey (2002-2019; n=333, 505). We find that, as tourist arrivals grow, residents become more positive towards immigration in Eastern Europe. In Western Europe, the relationship tends to turn from positive to negative at relatively high levels of tourism. The instrumental variable analysis suggests that incoming tourism has a positive causal effect on attitudes towards immigration in both Western and Eastern Europe. Overall, our study reveals an overlooked dimension of the tourism-migration nexus and highlights the role that international tourism may play in shaping attitudes towards immigration and, through these attitudes, immigration policy and flows, immigrant integration and more open and inclusive societies in tourism-receiving countries.
    Keywords: tourism, attitudes towards immigration, inclusion, Europe, instrumental variable analysis
    JEL: J61 L83
    Date: 2023–02
  51. By: Stephan Maurer; Guido Schwerdt; Simon Wiederhold
    Abstract: We study whether female students benefit from being taught by female professors, and whether such gender match effects differ by class size. We use administrative records of a German public university, covering all programs and courses between 2006 and 2018. We find that gender match effects on student performance are sizable in smaller classes, but do not exist in larger classes. This difference suggests that direct and frequent interactions between students and professors are important for the emergence of gender match effects. Instead, the mere fact that one's professor is female is not sufficient to increase performance of female students.
    Keywords: gender gap, role models, tertiary education, professors
    Date: 2023–01–09
  52. By: Matías Ciaschi; Andrés César; Guillermo Falcone; Guido Neidhöfer
    Abstract: There is a large body of literature studying the effects of trade shocks on worker’s job and wage losses. However, little is known about whether these effects transmit into the next generation. In this paper, we exploit the increased Chinese import competition in Brazil to evaluate how this shock affected children of exposed fathers. We use an specific survey module containing precise retrospective questions on parental employment and education, among other characteristics. Our findings suggest that children from more exposed fathers have less education and earnings in their adulthood. We also find a higher likelihood of having and informal or operational employment and social assistance dependence. Importantly, these effects are larger for children from low socioeconomic backgrounds, suggesting that the trade shock decreased intergenerational mobility and accentuated poverty traps.
    JEL: I24 J62 F14 F16 J23
    Date: 2022–11
  53. By: Sophia Chen; Nina Biljanovska
    Abstract: We explore the differential effects of lender-based macroprudential policies on new mortgage borrowing for households of different income using a comprehensive dataset that links macroprudential policy actions with household survey data for European Union countries. The main results suggest that higher-income households on average experience a larger reduction in mortgage loan size than lower-income households when regulation targeting total lenders’ assets tightens. In contrast, lower-income households on average experience a larger reduction in mortgage loan size than higher-income households when regulation targeting lenders’ capital requirements tightens. We also provide evidence of the different channels through which the differential effects operate.
    Keywords: Household borrowing; macroprudential policy; income distribution
    Date: 2023–02–24
  54. By: Saba Anwar (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: The losses incurred by Pakistan Railways during the five years period (2015 – 2020) have amounted to a prodigious 144 billion PKR. The stiff competition from road transport and inability of PR to adopt a customer centric business plan because of complex bureaucratic structure, has led to an inefficient, underfinanced and overstaffed public agency running in losses since last three and a half decades. Placed in the “Retain and Restructure “category after the State Owned Enterprises (SOE) triage exercise in March 2021, the 19th century infrastructure still grapples with the challenges of 21st century after several repeated rounds of halfhearted reforms.
    Date: 2022
  55. By: Congdon Fors, Heather (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Isaksson, Ann-Sofie (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Annika, Lindskog (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the long-run impacts of Christian missionary expansion on the practice of female genital cutting (FGC) in sub-Saharan Africa. The empirical analysis draws on historical data on the locations of early European missions geographically matched with Demographic and Health Survey data on FGC practices of around 410, 000 respondents from 42 surveys performed over a 30-year period (1990-2020) in 14 African countries. The results suggest that historical Christian missions have impacted FGC practices today. The benchmark estimates imply that a person living 10 km from a historical mission is 4-6 percentage points less likely to have undergone FGC than someone living 100 km from a mission site. Similarly, having one more mission per 1000 km2 in one’s ancestral ethnic homeland decreases the probability of having undergone FGC by around 8 percentage points. The effect is robust across a large number of specifications and control variables, both modern and historic. We use ethnographic data on pre-colonial FGC to show that the location of missions was not correlated with the practice of FGC in the local population.
    Keywords: Female genital cutting; missions; norms; Africa
    JEL: D71 D91 I15 O55
    Date: 2023–03
  56. By: Kevin Rinz; John Voorheis
    Abstract: We re-examine recent trends in regional income convergence, considering the full distribution of income rather than focusing on the mean. Measuring similarity by comparing each percentile of state distributions to the corresponding percentile of the national distribution, we find that state incomes have become less similar (i.e. they have diverged) within the top 20 percent of the income distribution since 1969. The top percentile alone accounts for more than half of aggregate divergence across states over this period by our measure, and the top five percentiles combine to account for 93 percent. Divergence in top incomes across states appears to be driven largely by changes in top incomes among White people, while top incomes among Black people have experienced relatively little divergence.
    Date: 2023–02
  57. By: Carolina Coimbra Vieira (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Sophie Lohmann (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Emilio Zagheni (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2023
  58. By: Ester Faia; Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano; Saverio Spinella
    Abstract: Leveraging the geographic dimension of a large administrative panel on employer-employee contracts, we study the impact of robot adoption on wage inequality through changes in worker-firm assortativity. Using recently developed methods to correctly and robustly estimate worker and firm unobserved characteristics, we find that robot adoption increases wage inequality by fostering both horizontal and vertical task specialization across firms. In local economies where robot penetration has been more pronounced, workers performing similar tasks have disproportionately clustered in the same firms ('segregation'). Moreover, such clustering has been characterized by the concentration of higher earners performing more complex tasks in firms paying higher wages ('sorting'). These firms are more productive and poach more aggressively. We rationalize these findings through a simple extension of a well-established class of models with two-sided heterogeneity, on-the-job search, rent sharing and employee Bertrand poaching, where we allow robot adoption to strengthen the complementarities between firm and worker characteristics.
    Keywords: robot adoption, worker-firm sorting, wage inequality, technological change, finite mixture models
    Date: 2023–02–10
  59. By: Thomas Standfuss; Georg Hirte; Frank Fichert; Hartmut Fricke
    Abstract: Air traffic control is considered to be a bottleneck in European air traffic management. As a result, the performance of the air navigation service providers is critically examined and also used for benchmarking. Using quantitative methods, we investigate which endogenous and exogenous factors affect the performance of air traffic control units on different levels. The methodological discussion is complemented by an empirical analysis. Results may be used to derive recommendations for operators, airspace users, and policymakers. We find that efficiency depends significantly on traffic patterns and the decisions of airspace users, but changes in the airspace structure could also make a significant contribution to performance improvements.
    Date: 2023–02
  60. By: Nicola Daniele Coniglio; Vitorocco Peragine; Davide Vurchio
    Abstract: In this paper we explore the links between international migration and income inequality. After presenting a simple model which considers the role of income distribution in individual decisions to migrate, we estimate a set of models on the determinants of yearly bilateral migration from a very large pool of countries in the period 1960-2019. The empirical results confirm that inequality—in both origin and destination countries—significantly shapes individual choices about where, and whether, to migrate.
    Keywords: International migration, Income inequality, Income distribution, Inequality
    Date: 2023
  61. By: Moez Kilani (ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, LEM - Lille économie management - UMR 9221 - UA - Université d'Artois - UCL - Université catholique de Lille - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Ousmane Diop (ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, LEM - Lille économie management - UMR 9221 - UA - Université d'Artois - UCL - Université catholique de Lille - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Ngagne Diop (ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, TVES - Territoires, Villes, Environnement & Société - ULR 4477 - ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale - Université de Lille)
    Abstract: We use an activity-based transport model to simulate the progression of a virus at the regional scale. We analyse several scenarios corresponding to distinct situations and describing how small initial clusters of infected agents expand and reach a pandemic level. We evaluate the effectiveness of some public restrictions and compare the number of infections with respect to the base-case scenario, where no restrictions are in place. We consider the wearing of masks in public transport and/or in some activities (work, leisure and shopping) and the implementation of a lockdown. Our analysis shows that education, including the primary level, is one of the major activities where infections occur. We find that the wearing of masks in transportation only does not yield important impacts. The lockdown is efficient in containing the spread of the virus but, at the same time, significantly increases the length of the wave (factor of two). This is because the number of agents who are susceptible to be infected remains high. Our analysis uses the murdasp tool specifically designed to process the output of transport models and performs the simulation of the pandemic.
    Keywords: Kilani, M. Diop, O. Diop, N. Using Transport Activity-Based activity-transport simulations the dynamic of the pandemic (COVID-19) social and physical distancing, M., Diop, O., N. Using Transport Activity-Based activity-transport simulations, the dynamic of the pandemic (COVID-19), social and physical distancing
    Date: 2023–02–01
  62. By: Romain Ferrali (New York University [Abu Dhabi] - NYU - NYU System, AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Guy Grossman (University of Pennsylvania); Melina Platas (New York University [Abu Dhabi] - NYU - NYU System); Jonathan Rodden (Stanford University)
    Abstract: Who registers to vote? Although extensive research has examined the question of who votes, our understanding of the determinants of political participation will be limited until we know who is missing from the voter register. Studying voter registration in lower-income settings is particularly challenging due to data constraints. We link the official voter register with a complete social network census of 16 villages to analyze the correlates of voter registration in rural Uganda, examining the role of individual-level attributes and social ties. We find evidence that social ties are important for explaining registration status within and across households. Village leaders-and through them, household heads-play an important role in explaining the registration status of others in the village, suggesting a diffuse process of social influence. Socioeconomic factors such as income and education do not explain registration in this setting. Together these findings suggest an alternate theory of participation is required.
    Keywords: African politics, elections, public opinion, voting behavior, representation, electoral systems
    Date: 2022–05
  63. By: Takahiro Akita (IUJ Research Institutey, International University of Japan); Armida Salsiah Alisjahbana (Universitas Padjadjaran)
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted an enormous impact on the Indonesian economy. In 2020, the country contracted by 2.7%. But, the impact has been spatially heterogeneous. Based on provincial GDP by industrial sectors, this study examines how structural changes caused by the pandemic have affected the determinants of inter-provincial inequality in Indonesia by conducting a bi-dimensional inequality decomposition analysis. It also investigates how the pandemic has affected provincial economies by performing a panel data regression analysis. According to the regression analysis, the pandemic appears to have affected the convergence speed of provincial economies. Provinces with larger GDP shares of the tourism sector were affected more severely by the pandemic. Meanwhile, the impact of the financial sector on provincial growth was not affected. According to the decomposition analysis, after the outbreak of the COVID-19, the tourism sector reduced its contribution to inter-provincial inequality. On the other hand, the IC and financial services sectors were not affected by the pandemic and raised their contributions. When Indonesia will recover from the pandemic, it is likely that the tourism sector will regain its position as an important determinant of inter-provincial inequality. However, the most important sectors in determining inter-provincial inequality will be IC, financial and business services sectors, particularly in the Java-Bali region. With the rapid advancement of IC, financial and e-business technologies, the roles of these high-inequality sectors are likely to increase unless policies that could facilitate spatial dispersion of these services activities are implemented.
    Keywords: Indonesia, COVID-19 pandemic, structural changes, inter-provincial income inequality, bi-dimensional inequality decomposition analysis
    JEL: I14 O15 R12
    Date: 2023–03
  64. By: Isabelle Guérin (IRD, CESSMA (Paris, France), IFP (Pondicherry, India)); Christophe Jalil Nordman (IRD, UMR LEDa, DIAL, PSL, Université Paris Dauphine, IFP (Pondicherry, India)); Cécile Mouchel (Université Paris Diderot, CESSMA (Social Science Center Studies in African, American and Asian Worlds), DIAL)
    Abstract: How have rural populations in India mobilized their social networks in times of forced "social distancing"? Focusing on a rural region in Tamil Nadu, mixing Social Network Analysis, descriptive statistics and qualitative interviews conducted before the lockdown, during the lockdown and its aftermath, this paper shows that kinship ties and caste-based relationships are still used as inescapable economic resources, especially when it comes to surviving in this unprecedented worldwide economic and social crisis. The region under study has undergone profound changes in recent decades, combining the disappearance of agrarian forms of dependency and the strengthening of intra-caste interdependence among the lower-caste group (measured here in terms of homophily and homogeneity) with a focus on access to credit and selfhelp to access employment. The crisis is putting these social networks to the test. Subsidized food, the main pro-poor measure of the Indian government, prevented famine, even if it did not prevent severe malnutrition. Although kin and caste solidarity played a key role in helping households survive, they did not prevent the resurgence of old forms of patronage.
    Keywords: social networks, homophily, name generators, India, lockdown, caste, employment, debt, kinship
    JEL: D85 J15 Q12
    Date: 2023–03
  65. By: Anand, Priyanka (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Gicheva, Dora (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether expanding Medicaid eligibility affects the employment patterns and academic progress of college students. To estimate causal relationships, we use variation in eligibility due to the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansions that occurred in a subset of U.S. states. Using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, we show that expanding Medicaid resulted in a decrease in employment intensity that is most pronounced for students at community colleges. We also see evidence of students making better progress towards graduation, suggesting that expanding Medicaid may have benefited some students by allowing them to shift their focus from work to school. These findings provide insight into how access to publicly-provided health insurance can reduce inequalities in long-term education and socioeconomic outcomes.
    Keywords: postsecondary education; labor supply; health insurance; Medicaid expansion;
    JEL: I13 I21 I22 I23
    Date: 2023–03–09
  66. By: Jolian McHardy (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield, UK)
    Abstract: Strategic price interaction on networks with rival and interchangeable services are well-known to produce damaging externalities with which the number of agents acting independently can interact in non-linear ways. We examine how varying the number of independent agents can impact the relative performance of platform models on a transport network whose design can mitigate some of the damaging externalities in the 2-agent setting. We show that increasing the number of agents can preserve or enhance some of the benefits of the platform models under some circumstances but the platform structure, that abates damaging externalities with 2-agents, can constrain beneficial competitive forces with more agents, damaging relative performance.
    Keywords: Platform; Strategic Interaction; Multi-operator; Transport Network; Pricing; Welfare
    JEL: D43 L13 L91 R40
    Date: 2023–03
  67. By: Dominik Stelzeneder
    Abstract: In this paper I study the direct causal effects of schooling on political attitudes of vocational students in Austria. I exploit that classes of apprentices of the same grade level and vocation are as good as randomly assigned to different school terms. This allows to compare apprentices who were at school for ten weeks with apprentices who were at work in their training firms during that time. I find that schooling has a positive direct causal effect on political interest of vocational students. This increase in political interest is, however, not accompanied by a significant increase in voting intention. Furthermore, my results suggest that apprentices who went to school while being exposed to a political affair support different parties than those apprentices who were exposed to the affair at work.
    Date: 2023–03

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