nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2023‒02‒13
seventy papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Price and Hedonic Heterogeneity Measures in Local Housing Markets By Sommervoll, Dag Einar
  2. The Pricing-Out Phenomenon in the U.S. Housing Market By Mr. Yunhui Zhao; Francesco Beraldi
  3. Do Elections Affect Immigration? Evidence From French Municipalities By Schmutz, Benoît; Verdugo, Gregory
  4. Knocking It Down and Mixing It Up: The Impact of Public Housing Regenerations By Blanco, Hector; Neri, Lorenzo
  5. Don't Look Up: House Prices in Emerging Europe By Mr. Serhan Cevik; Sadhna Naik
  6. School Accountability and Student Achievement: Neighboring schools matter By MOROZUMI Atsuyoshi; TANAKA Ryuichi
  7. Inefficiency in School Consolidation Decisions By TANAKA Ryuichi; Eric WEESE
  8. Place-Based Policies: Opportunity for Deprived Schools or Zone-and-Shame Effect? By Manon Garrouste; Miren Lafourcade
  9. Ability Composition in the Class and the School Performance of Immigrant Students By Elena Meschi; Caterina Pavese
  10. Like an Ink Blot on Paper: Testing the Diffusion Hypothesis of Mass Migration, Italy 1876-1920 By Yannay Spitzer; Ariell Zimran
  11. Classroom assignment and social cohesion: Why ethnic origin and gender of students should be considered together By Clemens Kroneberg; Hanno Kruse; Andreas Wimmer
  12. Knowledge Networks and their Implications for the Growth of Industrial Innovation Clusters By Kim, Jisoo; Byeon, Chang-Uk
  13. Evaluating the potential environmental impacts of a large scale shift to off-hour deliveries By Ibrahim Savadogo; Adrien Beziat
  14. House price expectations By Gohl, Niklas; Haan, Peter; Michelsen, Claus; Weinhardt, Felix
  15. Working from home and corporate real estate By Bergeaud, Antonin; Eyméoud, Jean-Benoît; Garcia, Thomas; Henricot, Dorian
  16. The Rank of Socioeconomic Status within a Class and the Incidence of School Bullying and School Absence By INOUE Atsushi; TANAKA Ryuichi
  17. Regional Passenger Rail Efficiency: Measurement and Explanation in the case of France By Christian Desmaris; Guillaume Monchambert
  18. The impact of public transportation and commuting on urban labour markets: evidence from the new survey of London life and labour, 1929-32 By Seltzer, Andrew J.; Wadsworth, Jonathan
  19. Measuring local, salient economic inequality in the UK By Suss, Joel
  20. Learning Through Repetition? A Dynamic Evaluation of Grade Retention in Portugal By Hugo Reis; Emilio Borghesan; Petra E. Todd
  21. Ramadan intensity and subsequent student achievement By Erik Hornung; Guido Schwerdt; Maurizio Strazzeri
  22. Advancing Social Equity and Congestion Relief: Understanding the Travel Needs of Underserved Populations That Rely on Transportation Network Companies in the San Francisco Bay Area By Shaheen, Susan; Gosselin, Kate; Broader, Jacquelyn; Cohen, Adam
  23. Determinants of Offshore Regional Income Outflow and Policy Implications in Korea By Cho, Sung-min
  24. Social policy gone bad educationally: unintended peer effects from transferred students By Genakos, Christos; Kyrkopoulou, Eleni
  25. Do Police Reduce Crime? Evidence from the 1829 Introduction of the London Metropolitan Police By Anna Bindler; Randi Hjalmarsson
  26. Can the stock market boost economic growth? Evidence from the Mexican real estate investment trust (REIT) By Razo-De-Anda, Jorge Omar; Cruz-Aké, Salvador; Venegas-Martínez, Francisco
  27. The Long-Run Effects of South Africa’s Forced Resettlements on Employment Outcomes By Alexia Lochmann; Nidhi Rao; Martin A. Rossi
  28. Citizen satisfaction in the service delivery of city corporations in Bangladesh By Mahmud, Rifat
  29. House Price Expectations, Household Indebtedness and Macroprudential Policy in Slovakia By Indrani Manna; Martin Suster; Biswajit Banerjee
  30. First to $ 15: Alberta's minimum wage policy on employment by wages, ages, and places By Fossati, Sebastian; Marchand, Joseph T.
  31. Human Capital Spillovers and Returns to Education By Hugo Reis; Paulo Guimarães; Pedro Portugal; Ana Rute Cardoso
  32. An Analysis of the Innovation-Driven Regional Growth Strategy at the Regional Level in South Korea By Lee, Doohee
  33. The research university, invention and industry: evidence from German history By Dittmar, Jeremiah; Meisenzahl, Ralf R.
  34. The Social Construction of Ignorance: Experimental Evidence By Ivan Soraperra; Joël van der Weele; Marie Claire Villeval; Shaul Shalvi
  35. Can Maths Apps Add Value to Learning? A Systematic Review By Laura A. Outhwaite; Erin Early; Christothea Herodotou; Jo Van Herwegen
  36. How does testing young children influence educational attainment and well-being? By Colin P. Green; Ole Henning Nyhus; Kari Vea Salvanes
  37. Peer effects and debt accumulation: Evidence from lottery winnings By Magnus A. H. Gulbrandsen
  38. The Evolution of Labor Market Disparities between Hispanic and Non-hispanic Men: 1970-2019 By Kospentaris, Ioannis; Stratton, Leslie S.
  39. Coworker Networks and the Role of Occupations in Job Finding By Attila Gyetvai; Maria Zhu
  40. Search, Transport Costs, and Labor Markets in South Africa By Kishan Shah; Federico Sturzenegger
  41. Interregional contact and national identity By Christopher Roth; Manuel Bagues
  42. Disrupted Routines Anticipate Musical Exploration By Khwan Kim; Noah Askin; James A. Evans
  43. The Impact on Stock Returns of Introducing MaaS (Japanese) By NOGATA Daisuke
  44. Riding the Green Wave – How Countdown Timers at Bicycle Traffic Lights Impact on Cycling Behavior By Christina Brand; Thomas Hagedorn; Till Kösters; Marlena Meier; Gernot Sieg; Jan Wessel
  45. "Geographical distribution of the COVID-19 pandemic across waves in Spain". By Rosina Moreno; Esther Vayá
  46. Organisation of public employment services at the local level in Sweden By OECD
  47. Residential Location and the Male-Female Gap in Labor Market Outcomes - A Lesson from Newcomers to Israel By Moshe Buchinsky; Chemi Gotlibovski; Osnat Lifshitz
  48. The Strange and Awful Path of Productivity in the U.S. Construction Sector By Austan Goolsbee; Chad Syverson
  49. Social Identity, Redistribution, and Development By Yuki, Kazuhiro
  50. The effects of schooling on cognitive skills: evidence from education expansions. By Lorenzo Cappellari; Daniele Checchi; Marco Ovidi
  51. The National and Regional Economy: Navigating Near-term Changes and Long-term Challenges By Susan M. Collins
  52. Does eligibility requirements matter for academic achievements? A quasi-experimental retrospective study of students studying intermediate statistics By Pettersson, Nicklas; Karlsson, Niklas; Andrén, Daniela
  53. Inference for ranks with applications to mobility across neighborhoods and academic achievement across countries By Magne Mogstad; Joseph P. Romano; Azeem M. Shaikh; Daniel Wilhelm
  54. Class Boundaries in Spain: Intergenerational and regional changes in the wake of the 2008 economic crisis By Pierre Blavier
  55. ‬أثر شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي في تسويق المقصد السياحي في ظل جائحة كوفيد-19 "دراسة تحليلية في الوكالات السياحية في الجزائر". By Benzeghioua Hibatellah; Radjef Nacera; Benzeghioua Mohamed
  56. Mineral resources and the salience of ethnic identities By Nicolas Berman; Mathieu Couttenier; Victoire Girard
  57. Proportional Fairness in Obnoxious Facility Location By Haris Aziz; Alexander Lam; Bo Li; Fahimeh Ramezani; Toby Walsh
  58. Differences in the voting patterns of experts, peers, and fans: Analyzing the NFL's all-star team selections By Kunz-Kaltenhäuser, Philipp; Gänßle, Sophia; Budzinski, Oliver
  59. Time Savings When Working from Home By Aksoy, Cevat Giray; Barrero, Jose Maria; Bloom, Nick; Davis, Steven J.; Dolls, Mathias; Zarate, Pablo
  60. Infrastructure Financing in Kyrgyzstan By Jannat Salimova-Tekay
  61. Cliometrics of Learning-Adjusted Years of Schooling: Evidence from a New Dataset By Nadir Altinok; Claude Diebolt
  62. Community Matters: Heterogeneous Impacts of a Sanitation Intervention By Laura Abramovsky; Britta Augsburg; Melanie Lührmann; Francisco Oteiza; Juan Pablo Rud
  63. Analysis of Tourism Trends and Attitudes under the COVID-19 Pandemic (Japanese) By KONDO Akiko
  64. Immigration and the Adequacy of Labor Force – Evaluation of the Economic Effects By Alho, Juha; Kangasharju, Aki; Lassila, Jukka; Valkonen, Tarmo
  65. Does the Community Reinvestment Act Improve Consumers’ Access to Credit By Jacob Conway; Jack Glaser; Matthew Plosser
  66. Endogenous cross-region human mobility and pandemics By Chen, Xiao; Huang, Hanwei; Ju, Jiandong; Sun, Ruoyan; Zhang, Jialiang
  67. The Transition to the Service Economy and Development Strategies for Regional Service Industries By Kim, C.K.; Choi, Eun Hee
  68. Multitasking while driving: a time use study of commuting knowledge workers to access current and future uses By Teodorovicz, Thomaz; Kun, Andrew L.; Sadun, Raffaella; Shaer, Orit
  69. Terrorist violence and the fuzzy frontier : national vs supranational identities in Britain By Efthyvoulou, Georgios; Pickard, Harry; Bove, Vincenzo
  70. How does working from home during Covid-19 affect what managers do? Evidence from time-use studies By Teodorovicz, Thomaz; Sadun, Raffaella; Kun, Andrew L.; Shaer, Orit

  1. By: Sommervoll, Dag Einar (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: In this paper, we develop a local housing stock heterogeneity measure. This measure may be used to monitor housing stock heterogeneity over time and in combination with other measures of policy interest. We illustrate the latter by looking at local housing stock heterogeneity, house price variation (measured by local Gini coefficients), and affordability measures.
    Keywords: Housing market; Heterogeneity; segregation
    JEL: C43 R21 R31
    Date: 2023–01–28
  2. By: Mr. Yunhui Zhao; Francesco Beraldi
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic further extended the multi-year housing boom in advanced economies and emerging markets alike against massive monetary easing during the pandemic. In this paper, we analyze the pricing-out phenomenon in the U.S. residential housing market due to higher house prices associated with monetary easing. We first set up a stylized general equilibrium model and show that although monetary easing decreases the mortgage payment burden, it would raise house prices, lower housing affordability for first-time homebuyers, and increase housing wealth inequality between first-time and repeat homebuyers. We then use the U.S. household-level data to quantify the effect of the house price change on housing affordability relative to that of the interest rate change. We find evidence of the pricing-out effect for all homebuyers; moreover, we find that the pricing-out effect is stronger for first-time homebuyers than for repeat homebuyers. The paper highlights the importance of accounting for general equilibrium effects and distributional implications of monetary policy while assessing housing affordability. It also calls for complementing monetary easing with well-targeted policy measures that can boost housing affordability, particularly for first-time and lower-income households. Such measures are also needed during aggressive monetary tightening, given that the fall in house prices may be insufficient or too slow to fully offset the immediate adverse impact of higher rates on housing affordability.
    Keywords: Pricing-Out, U.S. Housing Market, Housing Affordability, Distributional Effects, Monetary Policy
    Date: 2023–01–06
  3. By: Schmutz, Benoît (CREST); Verdugo, Gregory (University of Evry)
    Abstract: Using thirty years of municipal elections in France, we show that election results affect the share of immigrants across municipalities. In municipalities where a left- instead of right-wing mayor has been elected, the share of immigrants in the population grows faster by 1.5 p.p. within six years after the elections, and by 3 p.p. within twelve years. To a large extent, these effects are driven by partisan differences in public housing constructions and changes in the composition of the population within existing public housing units. They also are associated with greater incumbency advantage, in line with a model of strategic partisan behavior.
    Keywords: immigration, public housing, local elections
    JEL: D72 H4 H7 R38
    Date: 2023–01
  4. By: Blanco, Hector (New York University); Neri, Lorenzo (University of St. Andrews)
    Abstract: Due to their negative effects on surrounding neighborhoods, some countries have gradually been replacing distressed public housing developments with mixed-income housing. This paper studies the effects of such policies on local housing markets in London (UK), where local authorities demolished and rebuilt several public housing developments while adding market-rate units on-site. We show that these 'regeneration' programs lead to large increases in nearby house prices and rents over a six-year period, although house prices decrease farther away. The results are consistent with strong demand effects from observed amenity improvements near the buildings and downward price pressures from increased supply dominating in the broader area. We provide suggestive evidence that regenerations involving larger socioeconomic composition changes are associated with higher price increases.
    Keywords: public housing, mixed-income housing, house prices, amenities
    JEL: I38 H75 R23 R31
    Date: 2023–01
  5. By: Mr. Serhan Cevik; Sadhna Naik
    Abstract: This paper investigates how housing prices respond to economic, financial and demographic conditions in emerging markets in Europe. We use quarterly data covering 10 countries over the period 1998–2022 and implement a panel quantile regression approach to obtain a granular analysis of real estate markets. Overall, economic, financial and demographic factors explain the changes in real house prices in emerging Europe, with income growth having the most significant impact. Quantile regression estimations show that income growth matters more for higher housing prices than those at the lower quantiles of the property market. We also find that an increase in short-term or long-term interest rates have a price-dampening impact, indicating that a higher cost of borrowing is associated with lower real house prices. These results indicate that the downturn in house prices could deepen with the looming economic recession and soaring interest rates.
    Keywords: House prices; quantile regression; instrumental variable; emerging markets; Europe; price-dampening impact; quantile regression estimation; panel quantile regression approach; interest rate elasticity; regression approach; lower-price range; Housing prices; Long term interest rates; Short term interest rates; Income; Inflation
    Date: 2022–12–02
  6. By: MOROZUMI Atsuyoshi; TANAKA Ryuichi
    Abstract: Previous research on school accountability has shown that the disclosure of school-level results of a national standardized student achievement test has a heterogeneous impact on student achievement across schools. This paper, highlighting a type of standardized test that has no stakes for students (called a national assessment), sheds further light on circumstances under which the disclosure of such information has a desirable impact on student learning. Specifically, utilizing an unanticipated disclosure of the school-level results of Japan's national assessment, which occurred only in one prefecture in 2013, and treating schools in other prefectures as a control group, we show that the information disclosure has a significantly more positive impact on student achievement when the school has a larger number of schools in close proximity (i.e., neighboring schools). The results are robust to the consideration of other possible conditioning factors of the information effect such as school budget autonomy.
    Date: 2023–01
  7. By: TANAKA Ryuichi; Eric WEESE
    Abstract: We study school consolidation decisions and examine how the decisions are inefficient. First, we estimate willingness to accept (WTA) a school consolidation of the current school and an adjacent school and the determinants of WTA using an original survey. Then we examine the impact of actual school consolidations on the expenditure of municipalities to estimate the amount that the prefecture and municipality can save from such school consolidations. We find that much of the savings are due to class reductions, and about half the savings are at the prefectural level rather than the municipal level. The estimated WTA of and saving from school consolidations suggest a particular mechanism where the closure of schools could be delayed by inefficient decision-making due to the presence of fiscal externalities.
    Date: 2023–01
  8. By: Manon Garrouste (LEM - Lille économie management - UMR 9221 - UA - Université d'Artois - UCL - Université catholique de Lille - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IÉSEG School Of Management [Puteaux], Université de Lille, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Miren Lafourcade (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, RITM - Réseaux Innovation Territoires et Mondialisation - Université Paris-Saclay, UB - Universitat de Barcelona)
    Abstract: Even though place-based policies involve large transfers toward low-income neighborhoods, they may also produce territorial stigmatization. This paper appeals to the quasi-experimental discontinuity in a French reform that redrew the zoning map of subsidized neighborhoods on the basis of a sharp poverty cutoff to assess the effect of place-based policies on school enrollment into lower secondary education. Using a difference-indifferences approach, we find strong evidence of stigma from policy designation, as public middle schools in neighborhoods below the policy cutoff , which qualified for place-based subsidies, saw a significant 3.5pp post-reform drop in pupil enrollment, compared to their counterfactual analogues in unlabeled areas lying just above the poverty threshold. This "zone-and-shame" effect is immediate but does not persist, as it is only found for the first pupil-entry cohort in middle schools immediately after the reform. We show that it was triggered by the behavioral reactions of parents from all socioeconomic backgrounds, who avoided public schools in policy areas and shifted to those in other areas or, only for richer parents, to private schools. We uncover, on the contrary, only weak evidence of stigma reversion after an area loses its designation, suggesting hysteresis in bad reputations.
    Keywords: School choices, Territorial stigmatization, Redlining, Urban segregation, Sorting
    Date: 2022–12
  9. By: Elena Meschi; Caterina Pavese
    Abstract: Using longitudinal data from the Italian National Institute for the Evaluation of the Education System (INVALSI), this paper investigates whether the ability of classmates affects the educational attainment of immigrant students. We focus not only on the average quality of peers in the class, but we further investigate which part of the ability distribution of peers drives the effect, by assessing the role played by the extreme tails of the ability distribution. Our empirical strategy addresses students’ endogenous sorting into classes by exploiting the within-student across-subjects variation in achievements and the simultaneity problem by using predetermined measures of peers’ ability. We show that peers’ ability matters. While native students are mostly influenced by the average quality of their peers, immigrant children are detrimentally affected by the fraction of very low achievers in the classroom. Our findings provide valuable guidance to policymakers concerning the allocation of students to classes in order to foster immigrant students’ integration and learning
    Keywords: Peer effects, immigrant students, education
    JEL: J15 I21
    Date: 2023
  10. By: Yannay Spitzer; Ariell Zimran
    Abstract: Why were the poorer countries of the European periphery latecomers to the Age of Mass Migration? We test the diffusion hypothesis, which argues that mass emigration was delayed because it was primarily governed by a gradual process of spatial diffusion of migration networks. We propose a model of migration within a spatial network to formalize this hypothesis and to derive its testable predictions. Focusing on post-unification Italy, we construct a comprehensive municipality- and district-level panel of emigration data over four decades, and use it to show that the testable predictions of the diffusion hypothesis are validated by the data. The emerging picture is that Italian mass migration began in a few separate epicenters from which it expanded over time in an orderly pattern of spatial expansion, and that the epidemiological characteristics of this expansion match those underlying our model. These findings strongly support the diffusion hypothesis, and call for a revision of our understanding of one of the most important features of the Age of Mass Migration--the delayed migration puzzle.
    JEL: F22 J61 N33 N34
    Date: 2023–01
  11. By: Clemens Kroneberg (University of Cologne); Hanno Kruse (University of Amsterdam); Andreas Wimmer (Columbia University)
    Abstract: Assigning students to school classes is a regular task for school administrators. With current practices focusing on equal class sizes, a balanced sex ratio, and pre-existing ties between students, schools miss out on a fundamental sociological insight: that social cohesion tends to benefit when students’ socio-demographic attributes crisscross each other. Using survey data on school classes in four European countries, we study how the degree to which ethnic and gender boundaries align with each other affects students’ friendships and identities. Our results show that, when classmates of different ethnic origins tend to be also of the opposite sex, minority students will have few inter-ethnic friendships and end up identifying less as members of the nation.
    Date: 2021–05
  12. By: Kim, Jisoo (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade); Byeon, Chang-Uk (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: A cluster is a geographic concentration of interconnected companies and associated institutions in a particular field. It is widely accepted that clusters generate better economic performance than simple aggregations of companies, as mutual influence between clustered firms makes knowledge sharing and diffusion much easier. In this process, the novelty and diversity of accumulated knowledge is an important source of sustainable innovation and growth for the cluster. The more diversified the combined knowledge, the greater the scope and possibility of new knowledge creation. This study focuses on the relationship between cluster growth, knowledge heterogeneity and knowledge networks. First, we measure the degree of knowledge heterogeneity for each regional cluster, and verify the relationship between cluster growth and heterogeneity through empirical analysis. By analyzing this relationship for each life-cycle of a cluster, we place particular emphasis on understanding the development factor of the cluster. Second, we investigate the role of knowledge networks in cluster evolution by identifying the structural characteristics of networks. The structural characteristics cover the scope, strength, and closeness of the relationships among the network members as well as a quantitative scale. This approach will provide meaningful information in seeking cluster growth policies in terms of the formation and development of knowledge relations.
    Keywords: regional clusters; knowledge heterogeneity; cluster growth
    JEL: O32 O38 R58
    Date: 2023–01–08
  13. By: Ibrahim Savadogo (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Adrien Beziat (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the potential environmental impacts of a large-scale deployment of off-hour deliveries (OHD), focusing on CO2 and pollutant emissions. We use a methodological framework involving four steps: transport demand estimation, traffic simulation, emissions calculation and emissions environmental social cost calculation. Based on five scenarios, depending on the scale of the shift to OHD, and applied to the case of the Lyon urban area, we find that OHDs lead to a reduction in CO2 and pollutant emissions. However, their impact is rather small. The maximum reduction in CO2 emissions is 3.4% for 100% OHD for the whole urban area of Lyon (1.9 million inhabitants and 3325 km2). Some factors (population size, density, traffic conditions, research methodology, vehicle fleet composition, etc.) limit the comparability of the results obtained from other case studies. One of the reasons for this low environmental impact of OHDs is that the LUA is a small and not very congested metropolitan area. This impact is 5% when we focus on the densest area (core of area with 0.7 million inhabitants on 2.2% of surface area) which is more important than in the least dense area (outskirts of area with 0.6 million inhabitants on 83.6% of surface area) with 2.6%. These results confirm the limited impacts of OHDs in smaller, less congested urban areas. It also reaffirms the need for OHDs to be implemented in the densest parts of metropolitan areas. The maximum decrease in the environmental social cost is 4.25 million euros per year. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that the adoption of OHD makes it possible to achieve gains of 2.5 million hours per year in travel time that augur a productivity gain for all the actors involved in urban goods movement.
    Keywords: Off-hour deliveries, Urban goods movements, Environmental impacts, Large-scale simulation
    Date: 2021–01
  14. By: Gohl, Niklas; Haan, Peter; Michelsen, Claus; Weinhardt, Felix
    Abstract: This study examines short-, medium-, and long-run price expectations in housing markets. We derive and test six hypothesis about the incidence, formation, and relevance of price expectations. To do so, we use data from a tailored household survey, past sale offerings, satellites, and from an information RCT. As novel findings, we show that price expectations exhibit mean reversion in the long-run. Moreover, we do not find evidence for biases related to individual housing tenure decisions or regret aversion. Confirming existing findings, we show that local market characteristics matter for expectations throughout, as well as aggregate price information. Lastly, we corroborate existing evidence that expectations are relevant for portfolio choice.
    Keywords: housing; house prices; CRC TRR 190
    JEL: R21 R31
    Date: 2022–02–10
  15. By: Bergeaud, Antonin; Eyméoud, Jean-Benoît; Garcia, Thomas; Henricot, Dorian
    Abstract: We examine how corporate real estate market participants adjust to the take-off of teleworking. We develop an indicator of the exposure of counties to teleworking in France by combining teleworking capacity with incentives and frictions to its deployment. We study how this indicator relates to prices and quantities in the corporate real estate market. We find that for offices in counties more exposed, the Covid-19 crisis has led to (1) higher vacancy rates, (2) less construction, (3) lower prices. Our findings reveal that teleworking has already an impact on the office market. Furthermore, forward-looking indicators suggest that market participants are anticipating the shift to teleworking to be durable.
    Keywords: corporate real estate; commercial real estate; teleworking
    JEL: G11 G14 G23 J60 R33
    Date: 2022–02–24
  16. By: INOUE Atsushi; TANAKA Ryuichi
    Abstract: Does the relative wealth of students’ households affect the incidence of risky behaviors of students in school? We estimate the effect of the rank of the socioeconomic status (SES) of the students’ household within a class on the incidence of school bullying and school absence. We exploit the variation of SES rank within a class generated by the almost-random assignment of students to classes. Using the data from middle-school students in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), we find that although the absolute level of SES is negatively associated with these incidences, students with a high SES rank within a class are more likely to be the victims of school bullying and to be absent from school.
    Date: 2023–01
  17. By: Christian Desmaris (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IEP Lyon - Sciences Po Lyon - Institut d'études politiques de Lyon - Université de Lyon); Guillaume Monchambert (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the productive efficiency of French regional rail operators. Benefiting from unique databases (2012-2016), we use a panel stochastic frontier model to measure and explain the productive efficiency. We consider the regional monopoly nature of these operators by introducing specific contract-related variables into the model. The technical efficiency level of regional operators ranges from 59 to 98 per cent, revealing a high degree of heterogeneity in productive performance between regional operators. Factors related to the societal environment (density and delinquency rate), the characteristics of the rail system (network length and number of stations) and contractual design are significantly correlated with the technical efficiency. The policy implications of these results are substantial for both public authorities and rail operators.
    Keywords: Productive efficiency, Rail regulation, Regional rail passenger market, Stochastic frontiers, France, TER, Working Papers du LAET
    Date: 2023
  18. By: Seltzer, Andrew J.; Wadsworth, Jonathan
    Abstract: This paper examines the consequences of the commuter transport revolution on working-class labour markets in London, circa 1930. Using GIS-based data constructed from the New Survey of London Life and Labour, we examine the extent of commuting and estimate the earnings returns to commuting. We show that commuting was an important feature for most working-class Londoners in the early-twentieth century. Using a variety of identifying procedures to address the endogeneity of distance commuted, we estimate a likely causal return of between 1.5 to 3.5 percent of earnings for each additional kilometre travelled. We also show that commuting was an important contributor to improvements in quality of life in the early-twentieth century.
    Keywords: commuting; public transport; earnings; London
    JEL: N34 N74 N94 J01 L91
    Date: 2022–09–05
  19. By: Suss, Joel
    Abstract: Neighbourhood-level economic inequality is thought to have important implications for social, political, and economic attitudes and behaviours. However, due to a lack of available data, to date it has been impossible to investigate how inequality varies across neighbourhoods in the UK. In this paper, I develop a novel measure of within-neighbourhood inequality in the UK by exploiting data on housing values for over 26.6 million addresses – nearly the universe of residential properties in the UK. Across two surveys, I demonstrate that housing value inequality is perceptually-salient – what people see around them in terms of housing discrepancies is associated with their beliefs about inequality. This new measure of local, salient inequality represents a powerful tool with which to investigate both the anatomy of local inequality in the UK, as well as its attitudinal and behavioural consequences.
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2022–01–12
  20. By: Hugo Reis; Emilio Borghesan; Petra E. Todd
    Abstract: High grade retention rates are a matter of much worldwide debate. Although some students learn more with extended school time, others get discouraged and drop out. This paper develops and implements a dynamic modeling approach for estimating retention effects in Portuguese high schools where over 40% of students were retained. The estimated model is used to simulate academic achievement under existing and alternative retention policies. Results show that the current policy’s average impact on 12th grade math and Portuguese test scores is positive (0.2-0.5 s.d.), but it substantially increases dropout. We solve for the optimal policy to maximize lifetime earnings.
    JEL: J
    Date: 2022
  21. By: Erik Hornung (University of Cologne); Guido Schwerdt (University of Constance); Maurizio Strazzeri (University of Bern)
    Abstract: The observance of Ramadan has been widely associated with detrimental health effects as well as poor economic performance. Less attention has been given to the potential benefits generated by the social aspects associated with this religious practice. This column argues that Muslim students achieve higher scores in educational performance tests following a more intense Ramadan. This effect is explained by the formation of social capital and social identity among students sharing the intensive experience of this religious practice.
    Date: 2022–01
  22. By: Shaheen, Susan; Gosselin, Kate; Broader, Jacquelyn; Cohen, Adam
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2022–11–01
  23. By: Cho, Sung-min (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: Regional development that includes income distribution and qualitative growth is one of the major issues in regional economics. Furthermore, Korean regional governments set regional development as a main goal and strive to improve it. However, regional income-Product(Gross Regional Domestic Product, GRDP) in non-capital area has been flowing out into capital area. Consequently, income-distributed (Gross Regional National Income, GRNI) towards non-capital area residents is lower than income-produced by them. Inter-regional income flow is a natural phenomenon in an open economy where physical constraints are relatively low. Yet it is problematic that the amount of income outflow from certain non-capital regions is gradually increasing. In addition, the regions from which income flows often bear a cost of negative externalities, such as congestion and other environmental disutility, without fully benefitting from economic growth. On the other hand, regions into which income flows benefit economically without paying such costs. There are also rising concerns that income outflow biased toward certain regions is a problem in terms of the equity of income distribution. Offshore regional income outflows are divided into following categories: employee compensation, operating surplus and property income. Among them, employee compensation and operating surplus account for a large proportion of outflows. Fundamentally, employee compensation outflows are caused by a spatial mismatch between workplaces and residences. The outflow of operating surplus is due to a spatial mismatch between corporate headquarters and regional branches (office and factories). Since the direct cause of the outflow of income is apparently evident, it seems easy to solve the problem. However, this phenomenon is intertwined with various factors such as space, industry, human resources, and living environment. This is supported by the fact that offshore regional income outflows in certain regions have intensified, even though such regions have struggled to stem their regressive regional income distribution via a series of policy effort. Thus, it is necessary to analyze various factors of offshore regional income outflows and to set a new initiative to soothe intensification of income leakage in certain regions. This paper aims to analyze the determinants of offshore regional income outflows, especially outflows of employee compensation and operating surplus. The analysis is performed through four dimensions: space, industry, human resources, and living environment.
    Keywords: regional development; regional economic cycle; regional income distribution
    JEL: R58
    Date: 2023–01–08
  24. By: Genakos, Christos; Kyrkopoulou, Eleni
    Abstract: Policy makers frequently use education as a welfare policy instrument. We examine one such case, where students from large and financially constrained families, were given the opportunity to be transferred to university departments in their hometown as part of the social policy of the Ministry of Education in Greece. Multiple law changes meant that there was a large and quasi-random variability in the number of transferred students over time, which was orthogonal to the quality of receiving students. We construct a novel dataset by linking students' characteristics and pre-university academic performance with their university academic record until graduation for the top economics department. We present consistent evidence showing how a social policy that is meant to help poor families and to alleviate inequalities has gone bad educationally, by lowering the academic performance of receiving students.
    Keywords: peer effects; externalities; university education; unintended consequences
    JEL: H52 I20
    Date: 2022–04–28
  25. By: Anna Bindler (University of Cologne); Randi Hjalmarsson
    Date: 2021–03
  26. By: Razo-De-Anda, Jorge Omar; Cruz-Aké, Salvador; Venegas-Martínez, Francisco
    Abstract: This paper develops a stochastic dynamic general equilibrium model to assess the impact of Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) in the growth rate of the real estate sector through direct investment in infrastructure. Based on the theoretical relationships that the model provides we show empirical evidence, through a quantile econometric analysis of time series, of the positive impact of the REITs in the construction sector. The growth in the construction sector comes from the demand for real estate by those trusts, which would lead to a price increase, promoting gross fixed capital formation, and increasing the value of output in the construction industry.
    Keywords: real estate investment trust, real estate markets, financial markets, general equilibrium.
    JEL: G10 G11
    Date: 2022–06–01
  27. By: Alexia Lochmann (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Nidhi Rao; Martin A. Rossi
    Abstract: Can South Africa’s segregation policies explain, at least partially, its current poor employment outcomes? To explore this question, we study the long-term impact of the forced resettlement of around 3.5 million black South Africans from their communities to the so-called “homelands” or “Bantustans”, between 1960 and 1991. Our empirical strategy exploits the variability in the magnitude of resettlements between communities. Two main findings. First, the magnitude of outgoing internal migrations was largest for districts close to former homelands. Second, districts close to former homelands have higher rates of non-employed population in 2011. Together the evidence suggests that districts that experienced racial segregation policies most intensely, as measured by outgoing forced resettlements, have worse current employment outcomes.
    Keywords: Homelands; Employment; Apartheid; Segregation policies
    JEL: J15 J21 J61 J71 N37
    Date: 2023–01
  28. By: Mahmud, Rifat
    Abstract: Citizen satisfaction in service delivery is an essential indicator in the governance mechanism involving the level of confidence that citizens have towards the local government institutions. The present study aims to find out the level of citizens’ satisfaction with urban local government institutions, i.e., city corporations in Bangladesh. The study seeks to identify the factors that can explain the variations in citizens’ satisfaction level in urban local government institutions. The study adopted a quantitative approach based on the survey data, which involved the opinions of 2, 160 respondents from all 12 city corporations in the country. The study found that, first, citizens’ level of satisfaction in city corporations is low. Second, the public responsiveness variable involving the speed and accuracy of city corporations in service delivery has the strongest overall effect on variations in citizens’ satisfaction. Third, the service quality variables, along with the prior experience determinants involving timeliness and promptness in giving services, act as a determining variable affecting satisfaction in city corporations. The contribution of this study lies in its pointing out some new directions to better explain the level of citizen satisfaction towards city corporations in Bangladesh.
    Date: 2021–11–14
  29. By: Indrani Manna; Martin Suster; Biswajit Banerjee (National Bank of Slovakia)
    Abstract: By incorporating a data generating process for house price expectations in a standard new-Keynesian DSGE model calibrated to Slovakia, this paper differentiates between the macroeconomic impact of endogenous and exogenous sources of expectation shocks and the role of fiscal and macroprudential policy (in the absence of monetary policy) in managing these shocks in the housing market. The paper concludes that endogenous shocks pre-dominate exogenous shocks to expectations in home prices in accelerating credit growth and household indebtedness. But endogenous shocks can still be accredited with ’good housing booms’ tag as they raise the ability to pay-off rising debt significantly. In terms of policy, the paper finds that loan-to-value ratios score over payment to income ratios as a potent macroprudential instrument to manage housing market dynamics as constraint switching is limited in case of LTV because of an expectation sensitive factor market. Macroprudential instruments set as a function of household debt to GDP ratio reinforces the transmission channels and turn out to be counterproductive in case of endogenous shocks but effective in managing exogenous shocks. The paper also finds that property tax can be potential instrument to arrest rising house prices, but it works effectively in coordination with other policies. We also show that endogenous refinancing decisions of households can be effectively used as a channel for transmission of monetary and macroprudential policy through timely coordination of two policies.
    JEL: E30 E44 E50
    Date: 2022–10
  30. By: Fossati, Sebastian; Marchand, Joseph T.
    Abstract: Most minimum wage studies are identified on small, plentiful, and expected wage changes, spread out over time. A recent set of changes have instead been large, unexpected, and quick, following the "Fight for $ 15" movement. Alberta is the first state or province to have this $ 15 minimum wage, with an unexpectedly large increase (47%) occurring over a short horizon (3 years). The employment effects of this policy are estimated using a synthetic control approach on Labour Force Survey data. Similar to the existing literature, workers moved up the wage distribution, increment by increment, reaching past the 15th percentile, but not all remained employed. Employment losses were found mostly among younger workers, at magnitudes similar to previous elasticities. Newer to the literature, regional employment losses were found mostly outside of Alberta's two main cities, but youth employment losses were similar between urban and non-urban areas, with an urban older worker offset.
    Keywords: employment, Fight for $ 15, geography, minimum wage, synthetic control
    JEL: J21 J38 J48 J82 R23
    Date: 2022
  31. By: Hugo Reis; Paulo Guimarães; Pedro Portugal; Ana Rute Cardoso
    Abstract: In this paper, we quantify the impact of co-workers’ human capital on a worker’s productivity and, more specifically, the spillovers of co-workers’ education within the workplace. We identify the impact of peer quality and provide an unambiguous decomposition of the impact of unobserved heterogeneity on the estimated returns to education. We find that peer effects are quite sizeable. A one standard deviation increase in the measure of peer quality leads to a wage increase of 2.1 percent. We also unveil that an additional year of average education of co-workers yields a 0.5 percent increase in the individual own wage.
    JEL: I26 J24 J31
    Date: 2022
  32. By: Lee, Doohee (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: The economies of China, the U.S., Korea and Japan are rapidly changing. Amid trade issues and the ongoing Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) the Korean economy is entering an era of low growth. In this era, Korea is facing crises and opportunities in terms of its industrial economy. The problem is that in local areas outside the capital Seoul area, these issues are more crisis than opportunity. Is there any regional industrial policy that will turn the current crises into opportunities? When the Korean economy was a fast-follower, the central government prepared a somewhat predictable roadmap and thus the efficiency of resource allocation and utilization of national assets and economic growth could be expected. Now a first mover in a low-growth phase, the Korean economy needs a rapid response and industrial strategy based on innovation in the era of regional industrial crises and the 4IR. In particular, it is important for industrial policies to take account of local assets that have not yet been utilized for regional industrial transformation and innovation that requires an immediate response to industrial issues. However, there are not many studies on decentralization and region-led innovation growth strategies that make the best use of various regional assets, respond quickly to industrial crises or transitions or lead to innovation. Therefore, this study aims to study innovation-driven regional industrial policies and industrial strategies to overcome low-growth trends and cope with the industrial crises quickly. To this end, this paper examines theories related to decentralization and innovation-led growth, and then presents a research and analysis framework for an empirical analysis of innovation-led regional growth. Through the empirical analysis of innovation-driven regional growth through decentralization and innovation, we will identify the determinants and the policy implications they carry.
    Keywords: innovation growth; regional innovation; regional policy; regional industrial policy; industrial strategy
    JEL: O32 R11 R12 R58
    Date: 2023–01–08
  33. By: Dittmar, Jeremiah; Meisenzahl, Ralf R.
    Abstract: We examine the role of universities in knowledge production and industrial change using historical evidence. Political shocks led to a profound pro-science shift in German universities around 1800. To study the consequences, we construct novel microdata. We find that invention and manufacturing developed similarly in cities closer to and farther from universities in the 1700s and shifted towards universities and accelerated in the early 1800s. The shift in manufacturing was strongest in new and high knowledge industries. After 1800, the adoption of mechanized technology and the number and share of firms winning international awards for innovation were higher near universities.
    Keywords: industrialization; invention; universities; cities
    JEL: O14 O18 O30 N13 R10
    Date: 2022–06–30
  34. By: Ivan Soraperra; Joël van der Weele; Marie Claire Villeval (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Étienne - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Shaul Shalvi
    Abstract: We experimentally study the social transmission of \inconvenient" information about the externalities generated by one's own decision. In the laboratory, we pair uninformed decision makers with informed senders. Compared to a setting where subjects can choose their information directly, we find that social interactions increase selfi sh decisions. On the supply side, senders suppress almost 30 percent of \inconvenient" information, driven by their own preferences for information and their beliefs about the decision maker's preferences. On the demand side, about one-third of decision makers avoids senders who transmit inconvenient information (\shooting the messenger"), which leads to assortative matching between information-suppressing senders and information-avoiding decision makers. Having more control over information generates opposing effects on behavior: sel sh decision makers remain ignorant more often and donate less, while altruistic decision makers seek out informative senders and give more. We discuss applications to information sharing in social networks and to organizational design.
    Keywords: Social interactions, Information avoidance, Assortative matching, Ethical behavior, experiment
    Date: 2023
  35. By: Laura A. Outhwaite (University College London); Erin Early (University College London); Christothea Herodotou (Open University); Jo Van Herwegen (University College London)
    Abstract: Educational maths applications (apps) are an emerging trend in young children’s learning environments aiming to raise attainment. The current systematic review aimed to thematically synthesise quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods studies examining the impact of maths app interventions used at home or at school for young children in the first three years of compulsory education. The thematic narrative synthesis included 50 studies evaluating 77 maths apps with 23, 981 children across 18 countries. Experimental methods were the most common designs, with 20 randomised control trials and 13 quasi-experimental designs. Most studies focused on mathematical learning outcomes with typically developing children and were conducted in the classroom, where practitioners implemented the app-based interventions. Studies predominately reported greater learning outcomes for young children using the evaluated maths apps compared to a range of control conditions. This provides promising evidence that maths apps can support young children’s learning. However, usage and mathematical outcomes before and after the intervention were not consistently or reliably reported across studies, which should be addressed in future research. Based on the current evidence, eight directions for future research are also outlined to enhance the evidence base in this field and raise attainment in mathematics for young children.
    Keywords: Education apps, student achievement, mathematics attainment
    Date: 2023–01
  36. By: Colin P. Green (Norwegian University of Science and Technology); Ole Henning Nyhus (NTNU Social Research); Kari Vea Salvanes (Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation)
    Abstract: Should young children be tested? Proponents view early testing as a necessary instrument for early targeting. Others consider it detrimental to child mental health and with little impact on educational performance. We exploit variation in test-taking in mathematics among primary school children in Norway, traditionally a low-testing environment. We examine both the introduction of difficult mathematics tests and simpler screening tests that were aimed at identifying children in need of assistance. We demonstrate zero effects of testing exposure on later attainment but some benefits from screening tests for low-performing students. There are no negative effects on student welfare, but testing appears to improve aspects of teaching practices, feedback and engagement.
    Keywords: student assessment, testing, student achievement
    JEL: I28 I24
    Date: 2023–01
  37. By: Magnus A. H. Gulbrandsen
    Abstract: I estimate the effect of lottery winnings on peers' debt accumulation using administrative data from Norway. I identify neighbors of lottery winners, and estimate an average debt response of 2.1 percent of the lottery prize among households that live up to ten houses from the winner. Analyzing heterogeneity, I find that neighborhood characteristics and shared characteristics with the winner matter for the debt response: there is a tendency for greater effects for those (1) residing closest to the winner, (2) residing in single-household dwellings, (3) with a longer tenure, and (4) with a household structure similar to that of the winner. Finally, estimates of the (imputed) expenditure response among neighbors indicate that they accumulate debt to finance increased spending, consistent with a "keeping-up-with-the Joneses" type explanation, where neighbors react to each others expenditure.
    Keywords: peer effects, debt accumulation, income shocks, network homophily, household finance
    JEL: D14 D31 D91 E21 G51
    Date: 2021–09
  38. By: Kospentaris, Ioannis (Virginia Commonwealth University); Stratton, Leslie S. (Virginia Commonwealth University)
    Abstract: We describe how ethnic disparities in the labor market between prime aged Hispanic and non-Hispanic white men have evolved over the last 50 years. Using data from the March CPS, the Census, and the ACS, we examine several employment and earning outcomes. Hispanics have experienced sizable gains to employment: from a negative 2% prior to 1990 to a positive 4% after 2010 compared to non-Hispanics. In terms of earnings, Hispanics face a substantial negative disparity between 20% and 30% with some improvement after 2000. Most of the employment gain is driven by those with less than a high school degree, while the earnings disparity increases with education. Comparing Hispanic immigrants with natives reveals much of the employment and earnings gains are attributable to Hispanic immigrants, particularly immigrants not fluent in English.
    Keywords: Hispanics, ethnicity, disparities, earnings, employment, education, immigration
    JEL: J15 J21 J31 J71
    Date: 2023–01
  39. By: Attila Gyetvai; Maria Zhu
    Abstract: Which former coworkers help displaced workers find jobs? We answer this question by studying occupational similarity in job finding networks. Using matched employer-employee data from Hungary, this paper relates the unemployment duration of displaced workers to the employment rate of their former coworker networks. We find that while coworkers from all occupations are helpful in job finding, there is significant heterogeneity in effects by occupation skill-level. For workers in low-skill jobs, coworkers in the same narrow occupation as the displaced worker are the most useful network contacts. For workers in high-skill jobs, coworkers from different occupations help the most.
    JEL: D85 J24 J64
    Date: 2022
  40. By: Kishan Shah (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Federico Sturzenegger
    Abstract: South Africa’s labor market exhibits a unique equilibrium with one of the highest unemployment rates in the world and yet a low level of informal employment. The unemployment rate has remained high and persistent over recent decades, in spite of the formal demise of the apartheid regime and subsequent transition to democracy in 1994. This paper uses a matching model of the labor market to argue that spatial considerations combined with low productivity of informal work may be responsible for such an outcome. Spatial dispersion inherited from the apartheid regime thins the labor market, creating exclusion and perpetuating spatial segregation. In most developing countries, the result would be higher employment in informal or own account employment. However, with low productivity in the informal sector, the high rate of exclusion shows itself in higher unemployment rates instead. Transportation costs and housing deregulation may become key factors in improving the working of the labor market in South Africa especially if it is not possible to raise informal productivity.
    Keywords: South Africa, labor markets
    Date: 2023–01
  41. By: Christopher Roth; Manuel Bagues
    Abstract: Countries across Europe have struggled in recent decades to prevent secessionist movements, win wide support for social safety nets, and tackle problems demanding collective action. This column argues that to accomplish such goals requires a sense of shared, national identity. Exploiting a unique natural experiment – the random assignment of conscripts in Spain to serve outside their home region – it finds that intergroup contact in early adulthood can encourage interregional social cohesion. Governments looking to promote national identity should consider policies, such as mobility in higher education, that bring together people from different regions.
    Date: 2022–01
  42. By: Khwan Kim; Noah Askin; James A. Evans
    Abstract: Prior research suggests that taste preferences relate to personality traits, values, shifts in mood, and immigration destination, but understanding everyday patterns of listening and the function music plays in life have remained elusive, despite speculations that musical nostalgia may compensate for local disruption. Using more than a hundred million streams of 4 million songs by tens of thousands of international listeners from a global music service catering to local tastes, here we show that breaches in personal routine are systematically associated with personal musical exploration. As people visited new cities and countries, their preferences diversified, converging towards their destinations. As people experienced COVID-19 lock-downs, and then again when they experienced reopenings, their preferences diversified further.
    Date: 2023–01
  43. By: NOGATA Daisuke
    Abstract: In Japan, MaaS demonstration experiments are underway in various regions in order to improve the convenience of transportation. This system is expected to lead to increased tourism demand and the revitalization of local economies. However, there are few quantitative evaluations of the impact that the introduction of the system had on local companies. This paper conducts an event study using stock price data from the start of the introduction of MaaS in Japan to the present (2018-2021) and considers how the introduction of the new transportation system affected each industry. Results of this study indicate that MaaS introduction activities did not have a significant impact on the stock price performances of transportation service providers such as land and air transportation. In the transportation equipment industry, the introduction of the system caused a negative stock price reaction. On the other hand, a significantly positive stock price reaction was confirmed for electronics manufacturers.
    Date: 2023–01
  44. By: Christina Brand (Institute of Transport Economics, Muenster); Thomas Hagedorn (Institute of Transport Economics, Muenster); Till Kösters (Institute of Transport Economics, Muenster); Marlena Meier (Institute of Transport Economics, Muenster); Gernot Sieg (Institute of Transport Economics, Muenster); Jan Wessel (Institute of Transport Economics, Muenster)
    Abstract: The Leezenflow system is an open-source green wave assistant designed specifically for cyclists and is installed 110 meters in front of a traffic light in Münster, Germany. The system indicates the remaining time of the current traffic light phase through an expiring bar, colored either green or red. This is intended to help cyclists adjust their speed in order to cross the traffic lights when green, and consequently optimize cycling flow. We conduct a natural field experiment in real traffic to analyze the impact of the Leezenflow system on cycling flow and safety, and find that it impacts statistically significantly on cycling flow. Due to the Leezenflow system, the number of cyclists that have to stop at the red lights decreases by 6.6 %. Accordingly, the share of cyclists that pass the green lights increases. The data also indicate positive effects on traffic safety. The results of the natural field experiment confirm and put into perspective the feedback of an accompanying online survey. The majority of surveyed users reports that the Leezenflow system does improve the cycling flow. The influence on traffic safety is predominantly seen as positive or neutral by the survey participants. The Leezenflow system can thus help city planners to promote cycling, thereby enabling more sustainable mobility.
    Keywords: Bicycle traffic flow, traffic safety, open-source green wave assistant, countdown timer, natural field experiment, survey
    JEL: R49 C93
    Date: 2023–01
  45. By: Rosina Moreno (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona.); Esther Vayá (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona.)
    Abstract: This paper pursues a deep insight in the evolution of the spatial distribution of the pandemic in the Spanish provinces along the six waves. Through the use of spatial exploratory techniques, we observe that the geographical spread of the COVID-19 has been changing considerably so that the conclusions obtained for specific points in time are not transferable to other moments of the pandemic. We also take into consideration the changes in the determinants of the spread of the pandemic across waves while considering the possibility of external effects across provinces through the estimation of spatial regressions.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Pandemic, Spatial analysis, Temperature, Non-climate factors, Spanish provinces. JEL classification: H75, R58.
    Date: 2023–01
  46. By: OECD
    Abstract: Sweden is undergoing a major reform of its public employment service (PES) Arbetsförmedlingen, shifting its main role from providing in-house services towards monitoring of providers and working with different stakeholders in guiding and implementing labour market policies. At the same time, the PES is undergoing a significant restructuring, resulting in a downscaling of physical presence across the country and an increased digitalisation of services. To support this reform and services to jobseekers across urban and rural settings, this report a describes the main features of the Swedish labour market and employment system and analyses the challenges of the reform from a local perspective. In light of international examples, it outlines policy options for contracting services to ensure coverage in all places and for all jobseekers, managing the balance between physical and digital services, and coordinating services at the local level.
    Keywords: Local Labour Markets, Public Employment Services, Reform
    JEL: H53 H75 J48 J68 P11 R58
    Date: 2023–01–27
  47. By: Moshe Buchinsky (UCLA - University of California [Los Angeles] - UC - University of California, NBER - National Bureau of Economic Research [New York] - NBER - The National Bureau of Economic Research, ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Chemi Gotlibovski (MTA - The Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yaffo); Osnat Lifshitz (Reichman University [Herzliya])
    Abstract: We estimated two dynamic programing models, one for men and one for women, on a sample of immigrants who arrived in Israel from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) between 1989 and 1995. Following the literature, we assume that the household maximizes its expected utility based only on the husband's human capital. Therefore, the family's residential location decision is based on the husband's labor market opportunities. We study the potential effect of this assumed behavior on the labor market's gender gaps. In the model estimated for men, we endogenize the decisions regarding residential location, employment location, and occupational choices. In contrast, in the model estimated for women the family's residential location is taken as given. Using the estimated parameters from the two models and a number of counterfactual simulations, we are able to decompose the observed gender wage gap into two parts–one based on behavioral differences and the other based on the lower labor market returns for women. The simulations indicate that if women had the same labor market returns and the same preferences as men, their outcomes would have been similar to those of men. Moreover, the simulations show that even without any changes in their labor market conditions, women would have gained in terms of both job quality and wages if the family's residential location was based on their human capital.
    Keywords: Family migration, Gender wage gap, Household Labor Supply, Residential Location
    Date: 2023
  48. By: Austan Goolsbee; Chad Syverson
    Abstract: Aggregate data show a large and decades-long decline in construction sector productivity. This decline in such a large sector has had a material effect on secular productivity growth for the economy as a whole. Prior work has focused on the role of potential measurement problems in construction, particularly output deflators in the measurement of productivity. This paper brings some new evidence to bear on the industry’s measured productivity problems and suggests that measurement error is probably not the sole source of the stagnation. First, using measures of physical productivity in housing construction, productivity is falling or, at best, stagnant over multiple decades. Second, there has been a noticeable decline over time in the efficiency with which construction firms translate materials inputs into output, and a corresponding shift toward more value-added-intensive production. Third, using state-level data, we do not find evidence of patterns of within-industry reallocation that might be expected of efficiently operating input and output markets. States with more productive construction sectors do not see growth in their shares of total U.S. construction activity; if anything, their shares fall. This may point to frictions in these markets that slow or stop what is in many other markets an important channel for productivity growth.
    JEL: D2 E23 L7
    Date: 2023–01
  49. By: Yuki, Kazuhiro
    Abstract: Empirical works suggest that income redistribution promotes economic growth and development by reducing inequality and increasing educational investment of the poor. However, the scale of redistribution, to be precise, the inequality-reducing effect of taxes and transfers, is limited in many developing countries. Why is the scale of redistribution small, and how does it affect development? This paper focuses on the role of social identity, whose importance in redistribution and development is supported in existing empirical studies. Under what conditions is national identity realized, and how does it affect the economic outcomes? To answer the questions, this paper develops a dynamic model of income redistribution and educational investment augmented with social identification and explores the interaction among identity, redistribution, and development theoretically.
    Keywords: social identity, redistribution, nation-building policies, economic development
    JEL: D72 I38 O11 O20
    Date: 2023–01
  50. By: Lorenzo Cappellari (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore; Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore); Daniele Checchi; Marco Ovidi (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore; Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: We quantify the causal effect of schooling on cognitive skills across 21 countries and the full distribution of working-age individuals. We exploit exogenous variation in educational attainment induced by a broad set of institutional reforms affecting different cohorts of individuals in different countries. We find a positive effect of an additional year of schooling on internationally-comparable numeracy and literacy scores. We show that the effect is substantially homogeneous by gender and socio-economic background and that it is larger for individuals completing a formal qualification rather than dropping out. Results suggest that early and late school years are the most decisive for cognitive skill development. Exploiting unique survey data on the use of skills, we find suggestive evidence that our result is mediated by access to high-skill jobs.
    Keywords: Cognitive skills, Educational Policies, Returns to schooling.
    JEL: H52 I21 I28
    Date: 2022–12
  51. By: Susan M. Collins
    Abstract: In her remarks, Susan Collins spoke briefly about monetary policy, then touched on what she has seen in the New England economy during her first six months in this role, and finally talked about an approach those at the Fed have found helps local community efforts to coalesce around challenges, in support of economic resurgence.
    Keywords: inflation; maximum employment; price stability; dual mandate; inclusive economy; working places; labor market; monetary policy
    Date: 2023–01–19
  52. By: Pettersson, Nicklas (Örebro University School of Business); Karlsson, Niklas (Örebro University School of Business); Andrén, Daniela (Örebro University School of Business)
    Abstract: Student achievements are expected to be affected by both educational activities and learning during a course and previous teaching and learning, and earlier eligibility requirements. Using data from a quasi-experimental retrospective study, we estimated the effect on exam scores in an intermediate course in statistical theory from both earlier eligibility requirements, the realignment of a prerequisite course in introductory statistics and students’ characteristics. We found that success in intermediate statistics was explained by the realignment and eligibility requirements in Mathematics, and also by the intersection between gender and foreign background.
    Keywords: statistics education; aligned course; eligibility requirements; academic evaluation; quasi-experimental retrospective design.
    JEL: A22 I20 I21
    Date: 2023–01–17
  53. By: Magne Mogstad; Joseph P. Romano; Azeem M. Shaikh; Daniel Wilhelm
    Abstract: It is often desired to rank different populations according to the value of some feature of each population. For example, it may be desired to rank neighborhoods according to some measure of intergenerational mobility or countries according to some measure of academic achievement. These rankings are invariably computed using estimates rather than the true values of these features. As a result, there may be considerable uncertainty concerning the rank of each population. In this paper, we consider the problem of accounting for such uncertainty by constructing confidence sets for the rank of each population. We consider both the problem of constructing marginal confidence sets for the rank of a particular population as well as simultaneous confidence sets for the ranks of all populations. We show how to construct such confidence sets under weak assumptions. An important feature of all of our constructions is that they remain computationally feasible even when the number of populations is very large. We apply our theoretical results to re-examine the rankings of both neighborhoods in the United States in terms of intergenerational mobility and developed countries in terms of academic achievement. The conclusions about which countries do best and worst at reading, math, and science are fairly robust to accounting for uncertainty. The confidence sets for the ranking of the 50 most populous commuting zones by measures of mobility are also found to be small. These rankings, however, become much less informative if one includes all commuting zones, if one considers neighborhoods at a more granular level (counties, Census tracts), or if one uses movers across areas to address concerns about selection.
    Date: 2023–01–26
  54. By: Pierre Blavier (CLERSÉ - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This chapter addresses social class boundaries in Spain. It presents various peculiarities of the country, such as its strong regional heterogeneity and the specific historical trajectory that it has followed since the end of the Franco dictatorship in the 1970s. Socioeconomic changes over the past two decades, including the property bubble, rapidly increasing female participation in the labour market, and substantial waves of migration have made it difficult to draw a simple picture in terms of social class analysis. The 2008 economic crisis disrupted the trends that were then under way, and raised awareness of both intergenerational and labour market inequalities. This contribution therefore focuses on the relations between these various dimensions, and in particular on regional and generational inequalities, which play a structuring role when Spanish society is analysed through the lens of social class. Finally, the chapter suggests that, in a way, the electoral changes witnessed in Spain since 2008 can be partly understood as reflecting these changes in social class boundaries. To this end, the chapter draws on several available sources of empirical data, from both the national statistical office and international surveys.
    Date: 2022–11–01
  55. By: Benzeghioua Hibatellah (TIPAZA UNIVERSITY CENTER DZA - Partenaires IRSTEA - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture); Radjef Nacera (TIPAZA UNIVERSITY CENTER DZA - Partenaires IRSTEA - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture); Benzeghioua Mohamed (UMBB - Université M'Hamed Bougara Boumerdes)
    Abstract: يعتبر القطاع السياحي من القطاعات الأكثر استفادة من شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي، وقد تعاظمت مكانة هذه المواقع من خلال الدور الذي لعبته في تسويق المقصد السياحي، وخصوصا المنتجات السياحية الداخلية للدول خلال فترة الجائحة العالمية (covid-19). ولتحقيق أهداف الدراسة تم الاستعانة بالمنهج الوصفي التحليلي، وتجميع البيانات من خلال الأدبيات المنشورة والاحصائيات الدولية والاعتماد على مقابلة. وخلصت الدراسة الى أنّ استخدام شبكات التواصل الاجتماعي ساهم في زيادة عدد الزبائن المتعاملين مع الوكالات عينة البحث.
    Abstract: The impact of social networks on marketing the tourist destination in light of the Covid-91 pandemic "An analytical study of the tourism agencies in Algeria". The tourism sector is considered one of the sectors that benefit the most from social networks; The status of these sites has increased through the role they played in marketing the tourist destination, especially the internal tourism products of countries during the pandemic (covid-19); to achieve the objectives of the study, the descriptive analytical approach was used, and data was collected through published literature and international statistics, as well as relying on interviews. The study concluded that the use of social networks contributed to an increase in the number of clients dealing with the agencies of the research sample
    Date: 2022–12–04
  56. By: Nicolas Berman (Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, EHESS, AMSE, Marseille, France.); Mathieu Couttenier (University of Lyon, ENS Lyon, GATE Lyon/St-Etienne and CEPR); Victoire Girard (NOVAFRICA, Nova School of Business and Economics, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, and LEO, Univ. Orleans.)
    Abstract: This paper shows how ethnic identities may become more salient due to natural resources extraction. We combine individual data on the strength of ethnic-relative to national-identities with geo-localized information on the contours of ethnic homelands and on the timing and location of mineral resources exploitation in 25 African countries, from 2005 to 2015. Our strategy takes advantage of several dimensions of exposure to resources exploitation: time, spatial proximity, and ethnic proximity. We find that the strength of an ethnic group identity increases when mineral resource exploitation in that group's historical homeland intensifies. We argue that this result is at least partly rooted in feelings of relative deprivation associated with the exploitation of the resources. We show that such exploitation has limited positive economic spillovers, especially for members of the indigenous ethnic group; and that the link between mineral resources and the salience of ethnic identities is reinforced among members of powerless ethnic groups, and groups with strong baseline identity feelings or living in poorer areas, or areas with a history of conflict. Put together, these finding suggest a new dimension of the natural resource curse: the fragmentation of identities, between ethnic groups and nations.
    Keywords: identity, ethnicity, natural resources
    JEL: J15 N57 O12 O55 Q32
    Date: 2023–01
  57. By: Haris Aziz; Alexander Lam; Bo Li; Fahimeh Ramezani; Toby Walsh
    Abstract: We consider the obnoxious facility location problem (in which agents prefer the facility location to be far from them) and propose a hierarchy of distance-based proportional fairness concepts for the problem. These fairness axioms ensure that groups of agents at the same location are guaranteed to be a distance from the facility proportional to their group size. We consider deterministic and randomized mechanisms, and compute tight bounds on the price of proportional fairness. In the deterministic setting, not only are our proportional fairness axioms incompatible with strategyproofness, the Nash equilibria may not guarantee welfare within a constant factor of the optimal welfare. On the other hand, in the randomized setting, we identify proportionally fair and strategyproof mechanisms that give an expected welfare within a constant factor of the optimal welfare.
    Date: 2023–01
  58. By: Kunz-Kaltenhäuser, Philipp; Gänßle, Sophia; Budzinski, Oliver
    Abstract: Experts' voting behavior is conjectured to be more objective than peer voting (own group/peers) and public voters (everyone interested), who are supposedly influenced by all sorts of subjective aspects. We examine differences in voting behavior between these groups by analyzing the voting outcomes for all-star teams in American Football. This paper analyzes the impact of performance as well as non-performance markers and team effects on the voting outcome. It contains a comparative analysis across the mentioned groups to elaborate on differences. The econometric analysis uses unbalanced panel data of All-Pro and Pro Bowl player selections over 78 seasons (1951-2019). It applies panel probit regression to assess the impact of the markers on the outcome probability of winning one of the All-Star awards. We find that expert, peer, and public voting show similarities and are partially driven by the same performance and non-performance markers. However, none of the three analyzed voting systems is free from the influence of non-performance markers. We find exposure effects as well as effects from team affiliation in all of them, including in fact expert voting. Positive effects of team success are found in expert and, to a lesser extent, in peer voting. Team-specific effects are found in public voting, providing evidence for partisanship voting by fans. Our results shed doubt on the suspected objectiveness of expert voting. Furthermore, they fortify the notion of public voting being inefficient at identifying objective quality and extend the literature on voting biases among experts, peers, and the general public.
    Keywords: Voting Behavior, Voting Bias, Expert Voting, Public Voting, Sports Economics, National Football League, American Football
    JEL: D72 Z20 L83
    Date: 2023
  59. By: Aksoy, Cevat Giray; Barrero, Jose Maria; Bloom, Nick; Davis, Steven J.; Dolls, Mathias; Zarate, Pablo
    Abstract: We quantify the commute time savings associated with work from home, drawing on data for 27 countries. The average daily time savings when working from home is 72 minutes in our sample. We estimate that work from home saved about two hours per week per worker in 2021 and 2022, and that it will save about one hour per week per worker after the pandemic ends. Workers allocate 40 percent of their time savings to their jobs and about 11 percent to caregiving activities. People living with children allocate more of their time savings to caregiving.
    Date: 2023–01–14
  60. By: Jannat Salimova-Tekay (Emerging markets infrastructure finance professional)
    Abstract: This study assesses the landscape of Kyrgyzstan’s infrastructure financing. It starts with an analysis of the investment needs in the various sectors of infrastructure. It then proceeds with an assessment of the financing sources available to Kyrgyzstan in addressing these investment needs. Following an analysis of the challenges in developing infrastructure in Kyrgyzstan, the paper outlines the opportunities and modalities to expanding infrastructure finance and offers recommendations to unlock them.
    Keywords: Kyrgyzstan, infrastructure, public-private partnership, SDGs, planning, tariff regulation, privatization
    JEL: H54 H60
    Date: 2022–03
  61. By: Nadir Altinok (BETA/CNRS & University of Lorraine); Claude Diebolt (BETA/CNRS & University of Strasbourg)
    Date: 2023
  62. By: Laura Abramovsky (The Institute for Fiscal Studies); Britta Augsburg (The Institute for Fiscal Studies); Melanie Lührmann (Department of Economics, Royal Holloway, and IFS); Francisco Oteiza (Oslo Economics); Juan Pablo Rud (Department of Economics, Royal Holloway, and IFS)
    Abstract: Sanitation is at the heart of public health policies in most of the developing world, where around 85% of the population still lack access to safe sanitation. We study the effectiveness of a widely adopted participatory community-level information intervention aimed at improving sanitation. Results from a randomized controlled trial, implemented at scale in rural Nigeria, reveal stark heterogeneity in impacts: the intervention has immediate, strong and lasting effects on sanitation practices in less wealthy communities, realized through increased sanitation investments. In contrast, we find no evidence of impacts among wealthier communities. This suggests that a targetedimplementation of CLTS may increase its effectiveness in improving sanitation. Our findings can be replicated in other contexts, using microdata from evaluations of similar interventions.
    Keywords: sanitation, community intervention, randomized controlled trial, Nigeria
    JEL: O12 O18 O13 I12 I15 I18
    Date: 2023–01
  63. By: KONDO Akiko
    Abstract: This paper aims to clarify tourism trends and awareness under the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. By analyzing the results of a web-based survey conducted by the author, a model is constructed to quantitatively identify the influence of economic trends and the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of travelers. The model is applied to all of Japan for the 26-year period from 1995 to 2020. The overall trend in the survey was that there was no significant difference in the importance of tourism objectives and tourist attractions before or after the disease spread. The current trend in tourism relate to nature-seeking and healing, with high importance placed on food, scenery, and staying overnight itself. In addition to the attractiveness of these tourist destinations, factors related to cost and convenience such as round-trip transportation costs between the destination and the place of departure, are also seen as highly important when choosing a tourist destination, including the costs associated with transportation. Differences in climate and atmosphere from the place of residence also seem to be relatively important factors in decision-making. In addition, factors such as Japan’s economy and global and regional pandemics have a strong influence on the number of domestic travelers.
    Date: 2023–01
  64. By: Alho, Juha; Kangasharju, Aki; Lassila, Jukka; Valkonen, Tarmo
    Abstract: Abstract This Report analyzes the impacts of population ageing on the Finnish economy and the possibilities to avoid its negative effects by increasing net migration. Our calculations show that a yearly net migration of 44, 000 persons is needed to stabilize the size of the birth cohorts and the labor force with the current age and gender structure of net migration. The reason for a such high number is the projected low total fertility rate. As a baseline for our economic analysis, we consider future net migration of 15, 000 persons, also projected by Statistics Finland. We utilize in our numerical calculations a dynamic general equilibrium model, which provides, e.g., the change in investments induced by the additional migration. The calculations require many assumptions related, for example, to the educational level and the use of social services of the immigrants. This means that the economic results must be considered as approximate. The results indicate that the assumed immigration would have large positive effects on the economic growth and especially on the fiscal sustainability.
    Keywords: Migration, Population projection, Economy
    JEL: J11 H68
    Date: 2023–02–03
  65. By: Jacob Conway; Jack Glaser; Matthew Plosser
    Abstract: We study the impact of the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) on access to consumer credit since 1999 using an individual-level panel and three distinct identification strategies: a regression discontinuity design centered on a CRA-eligibility cutoff; a comparison of neighboring census blocks; and an event study of changes in eligibility. All three rule out a significant effect of the CRA on consumer borrowing. We show that this is in part explained by a shift in mortgages from nonbanks, which are free from CRA obligations, to banks in need of CRA-eligible mortgages. Our findings underscore the pitfalls of a circumscribed regulatory regime.
    Keywords: Community Reinvestment Act (CRA); household finance; banks
    JEL: G21 G28
    Date: 2023–01–01
  66. By: Chen, Xiao; Huang, Hanwei; Ju, Jiandong; Sun, Ruoyan; Zhang, Jialiang
    Abstract: We study infectious diseases using a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Deceased model with endogenous cross-region human mobility. Individuals weigh the risk of infection against economic opportunities when moving across regions. The model predicts that the mobility rate of susceptible individuals declines with a higher infection rate at the destination. With cross-region mobility, a decrease in the transmission rate or an increase in the removal rate of the virus in any region reduces the global basic reproduction number (R0). Global R0 falls between the minimum and maximum of local R0s. A new method of Normalized Hat Algebra is developed to solve the model dynamics. Simulations indicate that a decrease in global R0 does not always imply a lower cumulative infection rate. Local and central governments may prefer different mobility control policies.
    Keywords: SIRD model; spatial economy; endogenous mobility; basic reproduction number; normalized hat algebra
    JEL: C61 C68 I18 J61 R13
    Date: 2022–07–13
  67. By: Kim, C.K. (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade); Choi, Eun Hee (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: The transition to the service economy, which shows the expanding influence of the service industry on the economy in terms of employment and of value-added, highlights the importance of the service industry in the national economy. In addition, increased income levels (due to economic growth), the development of information and communication technology (ICT) and the changes in the population structure — such as lower birth rates and an increase in the number of elderly people — have created and expanded demand for new and existing services. The service industry is expected to account for a larger portion of the national economy in the coming years. Accordingly, there have been many calls for boosting the overall vitality of the economy and domestic demand by securing new economic growth engines through discovery and development of high value-added services. Recognizing the important role of service industries, the Korean government has promulgated various policies aimed at the service industry, including Measures to Advance the Service Industry (2008-2009), Measures to Stimulate Investment in Promising Service Industries (2014), Development Strategies for the Service Economy (2016), and Service R&D Implementation Strategies (2018), among others. Like the central government, local governments have also recognized the importance of fostering service industries in each region. However, there are several problems in that the local and central governments’ service industry development strategies are not systematic and are being carried out individually. The central government’s policy to develop the service industry is industry-oriented, with a slight lack of consideration for regional characteristics.
    Keywords: service industry; value-added; value-added services
    JEL: L80
    Date: 2023–01–08
  68. By: Teodorovicz, Thomaz; Kun, Andrew L.; Sadun, Raffaella; Shaer, Orit
    Abstract: Commuting has enormous impact on individuals, families, organizations, and society. Advances in vehicle automation may help workers employ the time spent commuting in productive work-tasks or wellbeing activities. To achieve this goal, however, we need to develop a deeper understanding of which work and personal activities are of value for commuting workers. In this paper we present results from an online time-use study of 400 knowledge workers who commute-by-driving. The data allow us to study multitasking-while-driving behavior of com-muting knowledge workers, identify which non-driving tasks knowledge workers currently engage in while driving, and the non-driving tasks individuals would like to engage in when using a safe highly automated vehicle in the future. We discuss the implications of our findings for the design of technology that supports work and wellbeing activities in automated cars.
    Keywords: in-vehicular user interfaces; time-use study; automated vehicles; knowledge workers; commuting
    JEL: R14 J01 J1
    Date: 2022–04–05
  69. By: Efthyvoulou, Georgios (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield); Pickard, Harry (Newcastle University Business School); Bove, Vincenzo (Department of Politics and International Studies, University of Warwick)
    Abstract: We explore the effect of terrorism on individuals’ perceptions about national identity in the context of Great Britain, where national and supranational identities compete and overlap. We find that exposure to terrorist attacks strengthens identification with Britain, but has no effect on identification with its constituent nations. The estimated effects last for about 45 days, but subside over time as the threat fades away. We also find that ‘high-media’ attacks result in a Britishness-strengthening effect that is about twice as large as that for ‘low-media’ attacks. Finally, we show that exposure to terrorism leads to stronger allegiance to EU identity, which provides further support for the emerge of supranational-unity effects. Overall, our results differ from numerous previous studies on how violence reinforces ‘hardline beliefs’, exacerbating nativism and ‘narrow’ forms of in-group solidarity.
    Keywords: terrorist attacks ; proximity ; national identities ; Great Britain
    Date: 2023
  70. By: Teodorovicz, Thomaz; Sadun, Raffaella; Kun, Andrew L.; Shaer, Orit
    Abstract: We assess how the sudden and widespread shift to working from home during the pandemic impacted how managers allocate time throughout their working day. We analyze the results from an online time-use survey with data on 1, 192 knowledge workers (out of which 973 are managers) in two waves, a pre-pandemic wave collected in August/2019 (615 participants, out of which 506 are managers) and a post-pandemic wave collected in August/2020 (577 participants, out of which 464 are managers). Our findings indicate that the forced transition to WFH created by the COVID pandemic was associated with a drastic reduction in commuting time for managers, but also an increase in time spent in work rather than on personal activities. This included reallocating time gained from commuting into more time spent in meetings, possibly to recoup some of the extemporaneous interactions that typically happen in the office. This change is particularly pronounced for managers employed in larger organizations. We use the results from the time-use studies to discuss implications for the development of new technologies.
    Keywords: time-use; working from home; Covid; managers; knowledge workers; Covid-19; coronavirus
    JEL: J50
    Date: 2022–04–06

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