nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2022‒10‒10
fifty-two papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. The work-from-home revolution and the performance of cities By Steven Bond-Smith; Philip McCann
  2. Externalities from urban renewal: evidence from a French program By Sylvain Chareyron; Florence Goffette-Nagot; Lucie Letrouit
  3. Stigma Free Lunch: School Meals and Student Discipline By Vitaly Radsky; Thurston Domina; Leah R. Clark; Renuka Bhaskar
  4. Road Maintenance and Local Economic Development: Evidence from Indonesia’s Highways By Paul Gertler; Marco Gonzalez-Navarro; Tadeja Gracner; Alexander D. Rothenberg
  5. First Generation Elite: The Role of School Networks By Sarah Cattan; Kjell Salvanes; Emma Tominey
  6. Recourse and (strategic) mortgage defaults: Evidence from changes in housing market laws By Alin Marius Andries; Anca Copaciu; Radu Popa; Razvan Vlahu
  7. The Radius of Economic Opportunity: Evidence from Migration and Local Labor Markets By Ben Sprung-Keyser; Nathaniel Hendren; Sonya Porter
  8. Transforming Regional Knowledge Bases: A Network and Machine Learning Approach to Link Entrepreneurial Experimentation and Regional Absorptive Capacity By Jessica Birkholz
  9. The Importance of Tutors’ Instructional Practices: Evidence from a Norwegian Field Experiment By Hans Bonesrønning; Jon Marius Vaag Iversen
  10. Urban consolidation centers and city toll schemes–Investigating the impact of city tolls on transshipment decisions By Friedrich, C.; Elbert, R.
  11. Beyond the threshold: The implications for pupil achievement of reforming school performance metrics By Simon Burgess
  12. Persistence of Regional Entrepreneurship Patterns: Quantity and Quality of Regional Business Opportunity Perception By Jessica Birkholz
  13. House Price Expectations By Gohl, Niklas; Haan, Peter; Michelsen, Claus; Weinhardt, Felix
  14. Expected Returns to Crime and Crime Location By Braakmann, Nils; Chevalier, Arnaud; Wilson, Tanya
  15. Cultural and creative quarters, between artistic creation and city attractiveness By Basile Michel
  16. Can Schools Change Religious Attitudes? Evidence from German State Reforms of Compulsory Religious Education By Arold, Benjamin W.; Woessmann, Ludger; Zierow, Larissa
  17. The Geography of Job Tasks By Enghin Atalay; Sebastian Sotelo; Daniel I. Tannenbaum
  18. Designing an Optimized Electric Vehicle Charging Station Infrastructure for Urban Area: A Case study from Indonesia By Nissa Amilia; Zulkifli Palinrungi; Iwan Vanany; Mansur Arief
  19. The Effect of Housing Assistance Program on Labor Supply and Family Formation By Ning Zhang
  20. The Impact of Female Teachers on Female Students' Lifetime Well-Being By David Card; Ciprian Domnisoru; Seth G. Sanders; Lowell Taylor; Victoria Udalova
  21. The economic costs of financial distress By Claudia Custodio; Miguel A. Ferreira; Emilia Garcia-Appendini
  22. Place Effects and Geographic Inequality in Health at Birth By Na'ama Shenhav; Eric Chyn
  23. Political Alignment and Inter-Jurisdictional Cooperation: Evidence from Crime in Mexico By Emilio Depetris-Chauvin; Ruben Durante; Emilio Gutierrez
  24. Air Quality Alerts and Don't Drive Appeals: Cautionary Evidence from Germany By Dangel, Alexander; Goeschl, Timo
  25. Impact computations in the general spatial interaction model By Thomas-Agnan, Christine; Margaretic, Paula; Laurent, Thibault
  26. Do Climate Risks Predict US Housing Returns and Volatility? Evidence from a Quantiles-Based Approach By Elie Bouri; Rangan Gupta; Hardik A. Marfatia; Jacobus Nel
  27. Judicial Independence, Local Protectionism, and Economic Integration: Evidence from China By Ernest Liu; Yi Lu; Wenwei Peng; Shaoda Wang
  28. Fiscal Policy, public investment, and structural change:A P-SVAR analysis on Italian regions By Francesco Zezza; Dario Guarascio
  29. No pension and no house? The effect of LTV limits on the housing wealth accumulation of self-employed By Mauro Mastrogiacomo; Cindy Biesenbeek
  30. The impact of a rise in transportation costs on firm performance and behaviour By Catarina Branco; Dirk C. Dohse; João Pereira Santos; José Tavares
  31. Windfall gains and entrepreneurial activity: Evidence from the Spanish Christmas lottery By Vicente J. Bermejo; Miguel A. Ferreira; Daniel Wolfenzon; Rafael Zambrana
  32. Financial development, institutions, and economic growth nexus: A spatial econometrics analysis using geographical and institutional proximities. By Ahmad, Mahyudin; Siong Hook, Law
  33. Environmental Politics in Authoritarian Regimes: Waste Management in the Russian Regions By Olga Masyutina; Ekaterina Paustyan; Grigory Yakovlev
  34. Real estate and climate transition risk: A financial stability perspective By Francesco Caloia; David-Jan Jansen; Remco van der Molen; Lu Zhang; Helga Koo
  35. Minimum Wages and Restaurant Employment for Teens and Adults in Metropolitan and Non-metropolitan Areas By Winters, John V.
  36. The Start of Yugoslavia's Disintegration: Where Borders Cut Commuting Spheres By Hoffstadt, Martin
  37. Costly Disasters and the Role of Fiscal Policy: Evidence from US States By Fabio Canova; Evi Pappa
  38. Long-Term Effects of Hiring Subsidies for Unemployed Youths—Beware of Spillovers By Andrea Albanesea; Bart Cockx; Muriel Dejemeppe
  39. Is Secessionism Mostly About Income or Identity? A Global Analysis of 3,003 Subnational Regions By Klaus Desmet; Ignacio Ortuño-Ortín; Ömer Özak
  40. Local economic development and oil discoveries By Jonas Hveding Hamang
  41. True Regional Cost of Living and Price Parities Accounting for Differences in the Quality of Services: An Application to the North South Divide in Italy By Martina Menon; Federico Perali; Ranjan Ray; Nicola Tommasi
  42. To Grandmother’s House We Go: Childcare Time Transfers and Female Labor Mobility By Garrett Anstreicher; Joanna Venator
  43. Dual-Earner Migration Decisions, Earnings, and Unemployment Insurance By Joanna Venator
  44. International College Students' Impact on the US Skilled Labor Supply By Michel Beine; Giovanni Peri; Morgan Raux
  45. The effect of introducing a Loan-to-Value limit on home ownership By Cindy Biesenbeek; Mauro Mastrogiacomo; Rob Alessie; Jakob de Haan
  46. Perks and Pitfalls of City Directories as a Micro-Geographic Data Source By Albers, Thilo N. H.; Kappner, Kalle
  47. Global Uncertainty and International Migration to Western Europe By Hippolyte d'Albis; Ekrame Boubtane; Dramane Coulibaly
  48. Working from Home Around the World By Cevat Giray Aksoy; Jose Maria Barrero; Nicholas Bloom; Steven J. Davis; Mathias Dolls; Pablo Zarate
  49. Do municipal mergers reduce public expenditure? Evidence from the MTE approach By Goto, Tsuyoshi
  50. Creative spaces through the lens of scene. Analysis of the spatial embedding of an artistic community in the M50 district in Shanghai By Basile Michel
  51. The ifo Education Survey 2014–2021: A New Dataset on Public Preferences for Education Policy in Germany By Vera Freundl; Elisabeth Grewenig; Franziska Kugler; Philipp Lergetporer; Ruth Schüler; Katharina Wedel; Katharina Werner; Olivia Wirth; Ludger Wößmann
  52. Immigration and Support for Redistribution: Lessons from Europe By Cavaillé, Charlotte; Van Der Straeten, Karine

  1. By: Steven Bond-Smith (UHERO, University of Hawai'i at Manoa); Philip McCann (University of Manchester, Alliance Manchester Business School; The Productivity Institute, Manchester, United Kingdom)
    Abstract: In this paper we set out the relationships between the behavioural, technological and spatial changes in systems that allow for heterogeneous responses to working-from-home by different types of actors, and also identifies the channels via which such changes take place. Unlike all other papers on the subject, the analytical framework we propose centers explicitly on the role of frequency of commuting. In particular, we find that the optimal frequency of commuting is positively related to the opportunity costs of less-than-continuous face-to-face interaction and inversely related to the travel plus travel-time costs. The results also support recent empirical findings of a “donut effect†with greater growth in the suburbs and hinterlands around large cities, but also capture inter-city effects for the first time. Counterintuitively, the reduction in the frequency of commuting makes larger cities and their hinterlands more desirable places, in spite of longer commuting distances. Taken together, our results imply enhanced productivity of larger cities over smaller cities.
    Keywords: Working-from-home, agglomeration economies
    JEL: R1
    Date: 2022–09
  2. By: Sylvain Chareyron (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12 - Université Gustave Eiffel, TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Florence Goffette-Nagot (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Lucie Letrouit (AME-SPLOTT - Systèmes Productifs, Logistique, Organisation des Transports et Travail - Université Gustave Eiffel)
    Abstract: We contribute to the evaluation of urban renewal policies based on a large-scale program launched in France in 2004. Using an estimator aimed at avoiding bias in the estimation of treatment effects that are heterogeneous across treatment groups or time periods, and complementing its results with a more precise double fixed effects difference-indifferences estimator, we find no significant aggregate impact of the program on housing prices. We identify four dampening factors that can explain this lack of aggregate impact: a sometimes insufficient level of funding per neighborhood, a stigma effect in the most deprived neighborhoods, the isolation of some neighborhoods located far from city centers, and the concentration of the program's funding on types of operations associated with small impacts on housing prices.
    Keywords: Place-based policies,urban renewal,housing prices,housing spillovers,differencein-differences
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Vitaly Radsky; Thurston Domina; Leah R. Clark; Renuka Bhaskar
    Abstract: We investigate the effect of the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP) of the National School Lunch Program on student suspension rates. CEP allows high-poverty schools to offer free meals to all students regardless of their family’s household income. We conceptualize CEP as a strategy to alleviate well-documented stigma associated with school meals. As such, we hypothesize that CEP implementation will reduce the incidence of suspensions, particularly for students from low-income backgrounds and minoritized racial and ethnic groups. We construct a unique panel dataset that links educational records for K-12 students enrolled in Oregon public schools between 2010 and 2017 with rich administrative data records describing their families’ household income and social safety net program participation. Difference-in-difference analyses indicate that CEP implementation has a measurable protective effect on suspension rates in participating schools. These effects are pronounced for students from low-income families and Hispanic students.
    Keywords: Community Eligibility Program; School Discipline; School Lunch.
    JEL: I21 I24 I28 I32
    Date: 2022–07
  4. By: Paul Gertler; Marco Gonzalez-Navarro; Tadeja Gracner; Alexander D. Rothenberg
    Abstract: This paper estimates the local welfare impacts of road maintenance investments. We instrument road quality exploiting Indonesia’s two-step budgeting process for allocating funding to local road authorities. Using comprehensive data on road quality from 1990-2007, we find that better roads help manufacturers create new jobs, enabling worker transitions out of informal employment, and increasing wages. In terms of cost of living, road quality reduces perishable food prices but also raises housing prices. We estimate the elasticity of household welfare with respect to road quality to be 0.16 and the benefit/cost ratio for road maintenance investments to be 2.8.
    JEL: J43 O18 R23 R42
    Date: 2022–09
  5. By: Sarah Cattan (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Kjell Salvanes (Norges Handelshøyskole); Emma Tominey (University of York)
    Abstract: Intergenerational persistence in studying for elite education is high across the world. We study the role that exposure to high school peers from elite educated families (`elite peers') plays in driving such a phenomenon in Norway. Using register data on ten cohorts of high school students and exploiting within school, between cohort variation, we identify the causal impact of elite peers on the probability of enrolling in elite education for students from different socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds. We show that exposure to elite peers in high school does drive enrolment into elite degree programmes, but the effect for low SES students is a third of the size than for high SES students. We explore mechanisms behind this pattern – finding that elite peers have a complex effect on students’ GPA which is a key part of the story. Elite peers increase the effort of both low and high SES students, but they also push the rank of other students down and trigger a change in teacher behaviour which disadvantages low SES students. To quantify the contribution of this mechanism, we perform a causal mediation analysis exploiting a lottery in the assessment system in Norway to instrument GPA. We find that the indirect effect of elite peers on enrolment through GPA explains just less than half of the total peer effect. Our concluding analysis shows that elite peers in high school raises intergenerational mobility for poor students, but increases persistence for rich students, thereby simultaneously facilitating first generation elite whilst contributing to the high intergenerational persistence at the top of the education and income distribution.
    Keywords: peers, elite university, subject choice, social mobility, teacher bias
    JEL: I24 J24 J62
  6. By: Alin Marius Andries; Anca Copaciu; Radu Popa; Razvan Vlahu
    Abstract: We study the impact of changes in recourse legislation on mortgage defaults. Romania provides us with an ideal experimental setting to identify this impact. Using a large dataset of mortgage loans granted between 2003 and 2016, we exploit an exogenous variation in Romanian recourse policy and analyze the behavior of borrowers with mortgages issued under a recourse regime after a change in policy limited lender recourse. We find robust evidence that eliminating penalties for default raises the delinquency probability of existing borrowers, particularly those traditionally considered least likely to default. Our findings highlight the ex-post effects of a switch from a creditor-friendly to a debtor-friendly recourse policy. Broadly, our results point to the importance of assessing borrowers’ default incentives before introducing recourselegislation with retroactive applicability.
    Keywords: Mortgage market; Recourse; Mortgage default; Moral hazard; Negative equity
    JEL: G21 G28 K11 R20 R30
    Date: 2021–10
  7. By: Ben Sprung-Keyser; Nathaniel Hendren; Sonya Porter
    Abstract: We examine the geographic incidence of local labor market growth across locations of childhood residence. We ask: when wages grow in a given US labor market, do the benefits flow to individuals growing up in nearby or distant locations? We begin by constructing new statistics on migration rates across labor markets between childhood and young adulthood. This migration matrix shows 80% of young adults migrate less than 100 miles from where they grew up. 90% migrate less than 500 miles. Migration distances are shorter for Black and Hispanic individuals and for those from low income families. These migration patterns provide information on the first order geographic incidence of local wage growth. Next, we explore the responsiveness of location choices to economic shocks. Using geographic variation induced by the recovery from the Great Recession, we estimate the elasticity of migration with respect to increases in local labor market wage growth. We develop and implement a novel test for validating whether our identifying wage variation is driven by changes in labor market opportunities rather than changes in worker composition due to sorting. We find that higher wages lead to increased in-migration, decreased out-migration and a partial capitalization of wage increases into local prices. Our results imply that for a 2 rank point increase in annual wages (approximately $1600) in a given commuting zone (CZ), approximately 99% of wage gains flow to those who would have resided in the CZ in the absence of the wage change. The geographically concentrated nature of most migration and the small magnitude of these migration elasticities suggest that the incidence of labor market conditions across childhood residences is highly local. For many individuals, the “radius of economic opportunity” is quite narrow.
    Date: 2022–07
  8. By: Jessica Birkholz
    Abstract: This study explores the regional innovation system characteristics that build the basis for the regional absorptive capacity of entrepreneurial knowledge. Regionalized patent data is combined with firm level and regional information for German regions over the period 1995 until 2015. Network analysis is applied to identify regional innovation system characteristics on three different layers: 1) cooperation between incumbent firms, 2) learning regimes, and 3) the technological knowledge base. Random forest analyses on basis of conditional inference classification trees are used to identify the most important characteristics for the regional absorption of entrepreneurial knowledge in general and on different efficiency levels. It is shown that characteristics on all three layers impact the regional absorption of entrepreneurial knowledge. Further, the direction and magnitude of the effect regional innovation system characteristics have on the regional knowledge absorption vary across different levels of absorption rates. It is concluded that for a successful implementation of policies to increase the impact of entrepreneurial knowledge on regional development, the regional innovation system needs to be monitored and adapted continuously.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Regional absorptive capacity, Smart specialization
    JEL: L26 O33 D85
    Date: 2022–04
  9. By: Hans Bonesrønning (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology); Jon Marius Vaag Iversen (NTNU Social Research)
    Abstract: We use high quality black box data from a large Norwegian field experiment, where students in the early grades in turn were pulled out of their regular classes and offered mathematics instruction in small homogenous groups, to investigate how the tutors adapted their instruction to the size and the average performance level of the groups. Using within-tutor variation, we find that tutors tailored their instruction to the average pretest scores in the small groups and offered individualized instruction, especially to low achievers. We also find that the instructional practices varied substantially between the tutors, from teacher-directed to student-oriented practices. We show that the largest achievement gains were associated with a subgroup of tutors who spent much instructional time with evasive students in the low achievers’ small groups (“inclusive individualization†). Finally, we show that the treatment effects were significantly larger in schools where the tutors practiced individualized and inclusive instruction for low achievers, compared to schools where the tutors had chosen student-centered practices and paid little attention to evasive students.Creation-Date: 2022-2-11
    Keywords: tutoring, tracking, instructional practices, mathematics
    Date: 2022–09–26
  10. By: Friedrich, C.; Elbert, R.
    Date: 2022
  11. By: Simon Burgess
    Abstract: We study the effecst of a major change to the school accountability system in England. In 2015, the leading published school performance metric was switched from a threshold measure (essentially the fraction of students above a test score level) to an average score measure. Using 7 years of data on all secondary schools in England, we show that this intervention relatively reduced the test scores of students near the threshold, in favour of groups above the threshold (marginally) and below (substantially). We check the sensitivity of our results to different decisions, and present findings on heterogeneous treatments.
    Date: 2022–09–24
  12. By: Jessica Birkholz
    Abstract: The recognition of regional business opportunities is the crucial starting point of the entrepreneurial process that governs the persistence of regional entrepreneurship patterns. This persistence depends on the quantity of perceived opportunities and the quality of opportunities perceived by regional inhabitants. However, it is unclear which region-individual interactions relate to the quantity regional business opportunity perception and how long-standing regional entrepreneurship patterns are reflected in conceptions of entrepreneurship that govern the quality of perceived opportunities. A primary data collection in German regions with distinct long-standing entrepreneurship patterns assessed two main aspects. First, the regional embeddedness of respondents on four levels - actor, network, environmental, and cultural - is set in relation to the likelihood of opportunity perception. Second, an implicit measurement of mental representations of entrepreneurship is examined. The mental representations of entrepreneurship, reflecting the conceptions of entrepreneurship, are investigated to identify differences between the conceptions of entrepreneurship that come along with the long-standing regional entrepreneurship patterns and to detect differences between opportunity-perceivers and non-perceivers. The results suggest that regions reinforce long-standing entrepreneurship patterns with distinct individual-region relations that impact the quantity of perceived regional opportunities and distinct conceptualizations of entrepreneurship that shape the quality of perceived opportunities. Differences are observed for the perception of opportunities that are characterized by innovativeness versus those that are general in nature, showing that innovative opportunity perception is less dependent on the regional context than general opportunity perception.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Opportunity Perception; Regional innovation system
    JEL: D91 L26 O33 R11
    Date: 2022–04
  13. By: Gohl, Niklas (DIW Berlin and University of Potsdam); Haan, Peter (DIW Berlin, FU Berlin and Netspar); Michelsen, Claus (DIW Berlin and Leuphana University Lueneburg); Weinhardt, Felix (European University Viadrina and DIW Berlin)
    Abstract: This study examines short-, medium-, and long-run price expectations in housing markets. We derive and test six hypothesis about the incidence, formation, and relevance of price expectations. To do so, we use data from a tailored household survey, past sale and rental offerings, satellites, and from an information RCT. As novel findings, we show that price expectations exhibit mean reversion in the long-run. Moreover, we do not find evidence for biases related to individual housing tenure decisions or regret aversion. Confirming existing findings, we show that local market characteristics matter for expectations throughout, as well as aggregate price information. Lastly, we corroborate existing evidence that expectations are relevant for portfolio choice.
    Keywords: housing markets; price expectations;
    Date: 2022–01–21
  14. By: Braakmann, Nils (Newcastle University); Chevalier, Arnaud (Royal Holloway, University of London); Wilson, Tanya (University of Glasgow)
    Abstract: We provide first evidence that temporal variations in the expected returns to crime affect the location of property crime. Our identification strategy relies on the widely-held perception in the UK that households of South Asian descent store gold jewellery at home. Price movements on the international market for gold exogenously affect the expected gains from burgling these households, which become relatively more lucrative targets as the gold price increases. Using a neighbourhood-level panel on reported crime and difference-in-differences, we find that burglaries in South Asian neighbourhoods are more sensitive to variations in the gold price than other neighbourhoods in the same municipality, confirming that burglars react rationally to variations in the expected returns to their activities. We conduct a battery of tests on neighbourhood and individual data to eliminate alternative explanations.
    Keywords: crime, gold prices, returns to crime, Becker-model, optimal foraging theory, criminal behaviour, crime location
    JEL: K42 J19
    Date: 2022–08
  15. By: Basile Michel (MRTE - EA 4112 - Laboratoire Mobilités, Réseaux, Territoires, Environnements - CY - CY Cergy Paris Université, ESO - Espaces et Sociétés - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UM - Le Mans Université - UA - Université d'Angers - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - UR2 - Université de Rennes 2 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - IGARUN - Institut de Géographie et d'Aménagement Régional de l'Université de Nantes - UN - Université de Nantes)
    Abstract: Urban model arising spontaneously at the beginning of the 2000s in wasteland spaces, the cultural and creative quarter is becoming institutionalized.
    Abstract: Modèle urbain né spontanément au début des années 2000 dans des espaces en friche, le quartier culturel et créatif tend à s'institutionnaliser.
    Keywords: culture,art,cities,artists,creativity,cultural quarters,creative quarters,wastelands,third places,urbanism,urban model,villes,artistes,créativité,quartiers culturels,quartiers créatifs,friches,tiers lieux,urbanisme,modèle urbain
    Date: 2021–10–04
  16. By: Arold, Benjamin W. (ifo Institute and LMU Munich); Woessmann, Ludger (ifo Institute and LMU Munich); Zierow, Larissa (ifo Institute and LMU Munich)
    Abstract: We study whether compulsory religious education in schools affects students’ religiosity as adults. We exploit the staggered termination of compulsory religious education across German states in models with state and cohort fixed effects. Using three different datasets, we find that abolishing compulsory religious education significantly reduced religiosity of affected students in adulthood. It also reduced the religious actions of personal prayer, church-going, and church membership. Beyond religious attitudes, the reform led to more equalized gender roles, fewer marriages and children, and higher labor-market participation and earnings. The reform did not affect ethical and political values or non-religious school outcomes.
    Keywords: religious education; religiosity; school reforms;
    JEL: Z12 I28 H75
    Date: 2022–01–03
  17. By: Enghin Atalay; Sebastian Sotelo; Daniel I. Tannenbaum
    Abstract: We introduce new measurement tools to understand the sources of earnings differences across space. Based on the natural language employers use in job vacancy text, we develop granular measures of job tasks and of worker specialization. We find that jobs in larger commuting zones involve greater interpersonal interactions and have higher computer software requirements. Between 10 and 50 percent of task and technology variation between large and small commuting zones exists within occupations. Further, workers in larger markets are more specialized within occupations. Tasks, technologies, and worker specialization account for a substantial portion of the market size premium even within occupations.
    JEL: J20 J24 R12 R23
    Date: 2022–09
  18. By: Nissa Amilia; Zulkifli Palinrungi; Iwan Vanany; Mansur Arief
    Abstract: The rapid development of electric vehicle (EV) technologies promises cleaner air and more efficient transportation systems, especially for polluted and congested urban areas. To capitalize on this potential, the Indonesian government has appointed PLN, its largest state-owned electricity provider, to accelerate the preparation of Indonesia's EV infrastructure. With a mission of providing reliable, accessible, and cost-effective EV charging station infrastructure throughout the country, the company is prototyping a location-optimized model to simulate how well its infrastructure design reaches customers, fulfills demands, and generates revenue. In this work, we study how PLN could maximize profit by optimally placing EV charging stations in urban areas by adopting a maximal covering location model. In our experiments, we use data from Surabaya, Indonesia, and consider the two main transportation modes for the locals to charge: electric motorcycles and electric cars. Numerical experiments show that only four charging stations are needed to cover the whole city, given the charging technology that PLN has acquired. However, consumers' time-to-travel is exceptionally high (about 35 minutes), which could lead to poor consumer service and hindrance toward EV technologies. Sensitivity analysis reveals that building more charging stations could reduce the time but comes with higher costs due to extra facility installations. Adding layers of redundancy to buffer against outages or other disruptions also incurs higher costs but could be an appealing option to design a more reliable and thriving EV infrastructure. The model can provide insights to decision-makers to devise the most reliable and cost-effective infrastructure designs to support the deployment of electric vehicles and much more advanced intelligent transportation systems in the near future.
    Date: 2022–09
  19. By: Ning Zhang
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of U.S. Housing Choice Voucher Program Section 8 on low-income people’ labor supply and family formation. I analyse this effect using data from the 2014 Panel and 2018 Panel of the restricted-use Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). My economic approach is to explore the policy which assigns housing vouchers based on an income cutoff as an instrument to study the effect of housing vouchers on low-income people’s employment and family formation. The assignment policy states that households with income lower than 50% of the median income for the MSA area are eligible for housing vouchers. With household eligibility status, I compare the households whose income is slightly below the income cutoff (eligible households) with the households whose income is slightly above the income cutoff (ineligible household) to identify the effect of housing vouchers on employment and family formation. I find that housing vouchers have a negative impact on individual labor supply through both extensive and intensive margins. In addition, housing vouchers also negatively impact family formation by decreasing marriage and increasing divorce rates. This project will contribute to understanding the effect of Section 8 Housing Vouchers on low-income households’ labor supply and family formation.
    Keywords: housing vouchers, labor supply, marriage, divorce
    Date: 2022–08
  20. By: David Card; Ciprian Domnisoru; Seth G. Sanders; Lowell Taylor; Victoria Udalova
    Abstract: It is widely believed that female students benefit from being taught by female teachers, particularly when those teachers serve as counter-stereotypical role models. We study education in rural areas of the US circa 1940--a setting in which there were few professional female exemplars other than teachers--and find that female students were more successful when their primary-school teachers were disproportionately female. Impacts are lifelong: female students taught by female teachers were more likely to move up the educational ladder by completing high school and attending college, and had higher lifetime family income and increased longevity.
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2022–09
  21. By: Claudia Custodio; Miguel A. Ferreira; Emilia Garcia-Appendini
    Abstract: We estimate the economic costs of financial distress due to lost sales, by exploiting cross-supplier variation in real estate assets and leverage and the timing of real estate shocks. We show that for the same client buying from different suppliers, its purchases from distressed suppliers decline by an additional 10% following a drop in real estate prices. The effect is more pronounced in more competitive industries, manufacturing, durable goods, less-specific goods, and when the costs of switching suppliers are low. Our results suggest that clients reduce their exposure to suppliers in financial distress.
    Keywords: Financial distress, Economic distress, Real estate prices, Supply chain
    JEL: G31 G32 G33 L11 L14
    Date: 2022
  22. By: Na'ama Shenhav; Eric Chyn
    Abstract: This paper uses birth records from California and mothers who move to quantify the absolute and relative importance of birth location in early-life health. Using a model that includes mother and location fixed effects, we find that moving from a below- to an above-median birth weight location leads to a 19-gram increase in average birth weight. These causal place effects explain 16 percent of geographic variation in birth weight, with family-specific factors accounting for the remaining 84 percent. Place effects are more influential for children of non-college-educated mothers, and are most strongly correlated with local levels of pollution. The improvement in birth weight from moving to a higher-quality area compares favorably to policies that target maternal health, and could have a small, lasting effect on long-run outcomes.
    JEL: H51 I1 I15 J13 Q53 R23
    Date: 2022–09
  23. By: Emilio Depetris-Chauvin (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile); Ruben Durante (ICREA, Universitat Pompeu Fabra); Emilio Gutierrez (TAM, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between inter-jurisdictional cooperation and law enforcement in Mexico. Exploiting a Regression Discontinuity Design in close municipal elections, we study how improved opportunities for cooperation incrime prevention among neighboring municipalities, due to increased political alignment between mayors, may result in lower rates of violent crime. We find that municipalities in which the party in power in the neighboring jurisdictionsbarely wins tend to cooperate more with their neighbors and to experience lower homicide rates in the following years than those in which it barely lost. This effect is sizeable and robust, is increasing in the share of neighboring municipalities governed by the same party, is independent of which party governs the neighboring municipalities, and does not appear to be driven by improved cooperation with either federal or state authorities. Our findings suggest that, in the presence of geographical spillovers, favoring horizontal cooperation may be an effective way of improving the provision of local public goods.
    Date: 2022–09
  24. By: Dangel, Alexander; Goeschl, Timo
    Abstract: We study an air quality alert program that informs the public of high ambient air pollution levels and broadcasts a Don't Drive Appeal (DDA) to encourage motorists not to drive on poor air quality days. We use fixed effects panel models and a rigorous sub-sampling method to analyze 28 months of traffic data from Stuttgart, Germany and evaluate whether DDAs reduce driving. We find DDAs inadvertently increase driving by up to 2% in Greater Stuttgart. This overall effect is driven by heightened weekend and periphery traffic during DDAs. Notably, DDAs successfully reduce city center traffic on some weekdays and for the first five days of DDA events. However, estimated traffic reductions never exceed 5% of daily traffic flows, suggesting that high switching costs and dynamic norm factors may deter most motorists from choosing the DDA's desired response. These results provide cautionary evidence about implementing DDAs to reduce driving.
    Keywords: information-based regulation; voluntary policies; air quality alerts; prosocial behavior; transportation choice
    Date: 2022–09–16
  25. By: Thomas-Agnan, Christine; Margaretic, Paula; Laurent, Thibault
    Abstract: We extend the impact decomposition proposed by LeSage and Thomas-Agnan (2015) in the spatialinteraction model to a more general framework, where the sets of origins and destinations can bedifferent, and where the relevant attributes characterizing the origins do not coincide with those of thedestinations. These extensions result in three flow data configurations which we study extensively: thesquare, the rectangular, and the non-cartesian cases. We propose numerical simplifications to computethe impacts, avoiding the inversion of a large filter matrix. These simplifications considerably reducecomputation time; they can also be useful for prediction. Furthermore, we define local measuresfor the intra, origin, destination and network effects. Interestingly, these local measures can beaggregated at different levels of analysis. Finally, we illustrate our methodology in a case study usingremittance flows all over the world.
    Keywords: Impact decomposition ; local effects; spatial interaction autoregressive models; non-cartesian flow data
    JEL: C13 C31 C46 C51 C65
    Date: 2022–09–13
  26. By: Elie Bouri (School of Business, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon); Rangan Gupta (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, South Africa); Hardik A. Marfatia (Department of Economics, Northeastern Illinois University, BBH 344G, 5500 N. St. Louis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60625, USA); Jacobus Nel (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, South Africa)
    Abstract: We analyse the ability of textual-analysis-based daily proxies of physical (natural disasters and global warming) and transition (US climate policy and international summits) climate risks to predict daily movements in the US housing market over the period 2nd August, 2007 to 29th November, 2019. To this end, we apply a nonparametric causality-in-quantiles test not only to uncover potential predictability in the entire conditional distribution of housing returns and volatility but also to account for nonlinearity and structural breaks which exist between housing returns and climate risk factors. We find that climate risk factors (and the associated uncertainty) do predict housing returns and volatility across the conditional distribution. These results are robust to alternative daily data of aggregate housing prices for the US and ten major metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Insights from our findings can benefit academics, investors, and policymakers in their decision-making.
    Keywords: Physical and transitional climate risks, US housing returns and volatility, higher-order nonparametric causality-in-quantiles test, natural disasters and global warming, US climate policy and international summits
    JEL: C22 C32 Q54 R30
    Date: 2022–09
  27. By: Ernest Liu; Yi Lu; Wenwei Peng; Shaoda Wang
    Abstract: We show that judicial independence can reduce local protectionism and foster cross-regional economic integration. We exploit a judicial independence reform in China with staggered roll-out since 2014. The reform removed local governments’ control over local courts’ financial and personnel decisions, thereby substantially improving local courts’ independence. Combining novel data on the universes of civil lawsuits and business registration records, we show that local defendants’ rate of winning court cases against non-local plaintiffs declined by 7.0% after the reform. The effect is mainly driven by improvements in the quality of judicial decisions and is more salient for politically connected local defendants. Over time, the reduction in local protectionism encouraged smaller non-local firms to file lawsuits against larger local firms. Using the shareholding network extracted from business registration records, we find that the decline in local protectionism could attract 8.4% more inward investment flows into reformed localities. This has the potential to increase China’s GDP by 2.3% when the judicial independence reform is implemented nationwide.
    JEL: K0 P48 R11
    Date: 2022–09
  28. By: Francesco Zezza; Dario Guarascio
    Abstract: This work analyses the regional impact of public investments focusing on three domains that are key for the Italian National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP): green, digital and education/knowledge. Relying on a unique database ('Conti Pubblici Territoriali'), we perform a P-SVAR model showing that fiscal policy shocks have positive and long-lasting effects on GDP and private investments. A relevant heterogeneity is detected, though. In particular, shocks to digital spending only timidly crowd-in private investment while a stronger effect is found concerning the green sector. Second, public investments have a significant impact on regions' ‘structural upgrading’, i.e., export competitiveness and share of high-tech manufacturing. Third, confirming previous findings, shocks to public spending are found to have larger effects in centre-north regions, in terms of both GDP and private investments. Nevertheless, public spending turns out to have a stronger structural effect in the south than in the centre-north, highlighting the relevant role that the NRRP may play in reducing the Italian north-south divide
    Keywords: Fiscal multipliers; Panel SVAR; Italian regions; North-South divide
    JEL: C33 E62 H70 R58
    Date: 2022–09
  29. By: Mauro Mastrogiacomo; Cindy Biesenbeek
    Abstract: Investing in housing could be an attractive alternative to privately saving for a pension, definitely so for those who are not obliged to save for an occupational pension, the self-employed for instance. But access to the housing market requires a down payment. Macroprudential measures, such as loan to value (LTV) norms could hamper access to the housing market for young buyers and require additional saving for this purpose. We study the effect of the introduction and sharpening of the LTV limit in The Netherlands on the probability of self-employed and wage employed to become homeowners. We construct a treatment and control group using parental wealth as a proxy for being liquidity constrained. We show that during the period in which the LTV limit was introduced, self-employed were 47% less likely to purchase their first home, relative to wage employed and relative to periods without LTV being limited. However we show that this was not caused by lowering the LTV limit, but by contemporaneous cofounding factors. Sharpening the LTV limit has not reduced the probability to become home owners for self-employed. We also show some evidence suggesting that their status put self-employed workers at a disadvantage when the policy was enacted, possibly inducing dynamic selection out of self-employment.
    Keywords: LTV limit; self-employed pension savings
    JEL: G51 R21
    Date: 2022–05
  30. By: Catarina Branco; Dirk C. Dohse; João Pereira Santos; José Tavares
    Abstract: This paper uses micro-level data encompassing the universe of Portuguese private firms for the period 2006-2016 to analyse the effect of the introduction of tolls on previously toll-free highways. To establish causality, we rely on a natural experiment which resulted from Portuguese authorities being forced to in- crease these transportation costs in some highways during the sovereign debt crisis. Difference-in-differences results show a 10.7% decrease of turnover in firms located in affected municipalities vis-Ã -vis firms in the remaining areas, on average. Firm profits were also severely hit and reduced by more than 15%. Both sales and purchases to/from the internal market and abroad (especially to/from EU countries) were affected. Furthermore, employment reduced 2% in treated areas. Importantly, our findings do not uncover induced inter-regional firm migration, suggesting that the tolls have induced a substantial net loss to the Portuguese economy.
    Keywords: Road tolls, Turnover, Expenses, Value Added, Exports, Imports, Competitiveness, Portugal
    JEL: R48 L25 R12
    Date: 2022–09
  31. By: Vicente J. Bermejo; Miguel A. Ferreira; Daniel Wolfenzon; Rafael Zambrana
    Abstract: We estimate the effect of cash windfalls arising from the Spanish Christmas Lottery on entrepreneurship. This lottery provides a unique setting as prizes are geographically concentrated and distributed among thousands of households. We find that lottery prizes lead to higher firm creation, startup job creation, and self-employment. The entrepreneurial response is more pronounced in regions with poorer access to finance. Firms created in winning provinces are larger, more profitable, and more likely to survive longer. Incumbent firms in winning provinces do not benefit but increase wages, suggesting a local labor market tightening. Our results suggests that regional cash windfalls can have long-lasting effects on business activity.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Firm creation, Job creation, Cash windfall, Economic conditions, Disposable income, Aggregate effects, Financial constraints
    JEL: D14 G30 L26
    Date: 2022
  32. By: Ahmad, Mahyudin; Siong Hook, Law
    Abstract: This paper investigates the nexus between financial development (FD), institutions, and economic growth by employing a spatial autoregressive model on a panel dataset covering 82 countries from 1990 to 2019. The spatial dependence between countries is measured via geographical and institutional proximities, the latter hitherto has rarely been explored in the finance-growth literature. Institutional proximity concept postulates that institutionally similar countries are expected to have similar level of economic growth and greater size of spillover once the spatial effects of FD and institutional quality are controlled for. Overall, the findings give empirical support to the above proposition, as FD and political institutions are shown to have significant positive effects on growth. In the case of FD, its growth-effect is beneficial up to a certain threshold beyond which it becomes negative. The results also find significant positive spatial lag growth term in the model indicating the presence of indirect spillover effects of FD and institutions onto the growth of neighbouring countries, both in geographical institutional spheres. Furthermore, the spatial growth model with institutional proximity matrix is shown to have higher rate of convergence and greater size of spillover than the model with geographical proximity. These findings are robust to various model specifications, and the paper concludes with some policy recommendations.
    Keywords: Economic growth, financial development, institutional proximity, spatial fixed effects, spatial lag model.
    JEL: C31 O16 O43
    Date: 2022–09–07
  33. By: Olga Masyutina; Ekaterina Paustyan; Grigory Yakovlev
    Abstract: Russian regions display a significant variation in terms of waste management efforts. This is puzzling considering the importance of waste management for all regional governments and the urgency of the problem for the Russian public as reflected in opinion polls. We study whether more authoritarian regional governments in Russia are better able to solve the problem of waste management. Using a regional panel data set for the period of 2012-2019, we find that our measure of the degree of authoritarianism - the share of votes for the United Russia party in parliamentary elections - has a strong positive effect on the share of recycled waste in the Russian regions. This result indicates that more authoritarian regions tend to recycle more household waste than less authoritarian regions. This finding is consistent with the theory of environmental authoritarianism that suggests that authoritarian governments are better able to tackle environmental challenges.
    Keywords: Environmental authoritarianism, waste recycling, Russia, subnational politics
    JEL: Q53 Q58 R58
    Date: 2022–05
  34. By: Francesco Caloia; David-Jan Jansen; Remco van der Molen; Lu Zhang; Helga Koo
    Abstract: Real estate plays an important role in debates on the transition to a carbon-neutral economy. Based on detailed real-estate data and climate scenario analysis, this study analyzes climate transition risks in real estate and their impact on Dutch financial institutions. First, for a substantial part of the real estate exposure, transition risk may already materialize before 2030. Second, a significant share of homeowners may face financing constraints, which would increase credit risks. Third, stricter standards may impair asset values, which would mean significant financial losses for investors. Such climate financial risks underline the importance of an orderly and, therefore, timely transition to carbon neutrality.
    Date: 2022–02
  35. By: Winters, John V. (Iowa State University)
    Abstract: This study estimates effects of minimum wages on individual restaurant employment using the 2005-2019 Current Population Survey (CPS) and a two-way fixed effects regression model. I examine effects for teens and adults with less than an associate's degree for the entire U.S. and by metropolitan area status. The results indicate that minimum wages on average decrease restaurant employment for teens and increase restaurant employment for these adults, suggesting that minimum wages induce labor-labor substitution. However, this pattern is driven by metropolitan areas residents. The estimated coefficient for minimum wages on teen restaurant employment in non-metropolitan areas is not statistically significant.
    Keywords: minimum wages, restaurants, employment, teens
    JEL: J20 J30 R10
    Date: 2022–08
  36. By: Hoffstadt, Martin
    Abstract: Borders are often associated with low economic activity. A popular explanation for this phenomenon argues that borders cut market access. But as a growing amount of literature demonstrates that border effects persist after the removal of formal barriers, the forces behind low economic activity near borders remain unclear. This paper develops a new methodology to measure the market access of 16,596 settlements in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1965, right before the hardening of Yugoslavia’s federal borders. Based on elevation, rivers, roads and the Dijkstra algorithm, this methodology identifies 4,682 settlements whose commuting spheres crossed Yugoslavia’s federal borders. Using panel data for the 1948-1991 period, a difference-in-differences estimation identifies that the settlements that lost access to their nearest town due to hardened federal borders experienced strong decline in population growth following the reforms. Robustness checks demonstrate that depopulation occurred when settlements lost access to towns of significant size. This effect appears regardless of ethnicity and history. Instead, depopulation occurred in the absence of a nearby alternative town in the same federal unit.
    Keywords: federal borders; market access; population growth; Yugoslavia
    JEL: H77 N44
    Date: 2022–09
  37. By: Fabio Canova; Evi Pappa
    Abstract: We examine the dynamic effects of natural disasters in US states and relate them to state and federal fiscal policy. Disasters have significant negative output but less severe unemployment consequences. Real effects vary spatially: coastal and poor states recover more slowly. States with less stringent budgetary requirements and/or rainy day funds have insignificant real costs and negligible debt consequences. Countercyclical fiscal policy reduces the severity of the real downfall. Both federal and state governments respond to the disaster shock and aid by the former helps to lower the short run costs on state debt. The ability of states to run deficits and temporarily increase debt is a key factor in the recovery.
    JEL: C32 E27 E32 H30
    Date: 2021–11
  38. By: Andrea Albanesea; Bart Cockx; Muriel Dejemeppe (-)
    Abstract: We use (donut) regression discontinuity design and difference-in-differences estimators to estimate the impact of a one-shot hiring subsidy targeted at low-educated unemployed youths during the Great Recession recovery in Belgium. The subsidy increases job-finding in the private sector by 10 percentage points within one year of unemployment. Six years later, high school graduates accumulated 2.8 quarters more private employment. However, because they substitute private for public and self-employment, overall employment does not increase but is still better paid. For high school dropouts, no persistent gains emerge. Moreover, the neighboring attraction pole of Luxembourg induces a complete deadweight near the border.
    Keywords: Hiring subsidies, youth unemployment, cross-border employment, regression, discontinuity design, difference-in-differences, spillover effects, displacement
    JEL: C21 J08 J23 J24 J64 J68 J61
    Date: 2022–09
  39. By: Klaus Desmet; Ignacio Ortuño-Ortín; Ömer Özak
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether the propensity to secede by subnational regions responds mostly to differences in income per capita or to distinct identities. We explore this question in a quantitative political economy model where people's willingness to finance a public good depends on their income and identity. Using high-resolution economic and linguistic data for the entire globe, we predict the propensity to secede of 3,003 subnational regions in 173 countries. We validate the model-based predictions with data on secessionist movements, state fragility, regional autonomy, and conflict, as well as with an application to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Counterfactual analysis strongly suggests that identity trumps income in determining a region's propensity to secede. Removing identity differences reduces the average support for secession from 7.5% to 0.6% of the population.
    JEL: D70 F02 F52 H77 P00
    Date: 2022–09
  40. By: Jonas Hveding Hamang
    Abstract: In this paper I use data on the location of all historic petroleum discoveries onshore to establish a new stylized fact: Economically developed areas are significantly more likely (about five percentage points) to contain an oil discovery, compared to undeveloped areas. This result is robust to accounting for reverse causality, confounding geology and observed or unobserved country characteristics. By implication, there are large underexplored oil and gas deposits in currently undeveloped areas. I calculate these deposits to be approximately 600 billion barrels of oil — amounting to about 50% of the globe’s currently known onshore endowment — and to be mainly located outside of Europe and North America. Exploring alternative mechanisms, I find that infrastructure access may explain the documented discovery differential.
    Date: 2022–09
  41. By: Martina Menon; Federico Perali; Ranjan Ray; Nicola Tommasi
  42. By: Garrett Anstreicher (University of Wisconsin-Madison); Joanna Venator (Boston College)
    Abstract: Women in the United States frequently rely on childcare from extended family but can only do so if they live in the same location as them. This paper studies how child care costs, the location of extended family, and fertility events influence both the labor force attachment and labor mobility of women in the United States. We begin by empirically documenting strong patterns of women returning to their home locations in anticipation of fertility events, indicating that the desire for intergenerational time transfers is an important motivator of home migration. Moreover, women who reside in their parent’s location experience a substantial long-run reduction in their child earnings penalty. Next, we build a dynamic model of labor force participation and migration to assess the incidence of counterfactual scenarios and childcare policies. We find that childcare subsidies increase lifetime earnings and labor mobility for women, with particularly strong effects for women who are ever single mothers and Blacks. Ignoring migration can understate the welfare benefits of these policies by a meaningful extent.
    Keywords: Migration, childcare, female labor supply, human capital
    JEL: J13 J22 J61
    Date: 2022–09–16
  43. By: Joanna Venator (Boston College)
    Abstract: Dual-earner couples’ decisions of where to live and work often result in one spouse – the trailing spouse – experiencing earnings losses at the time of a move. This paper examines how married couples’ migration decisions differentially impact men’s and women’s earnings and the role that policy can play in improving post-move outcomes for trailing spouses. I use panel data from the NLSY97 and a generalized difference- in-differences design to show that access to unemployment insurance (UI) for trailing spouses increases long-distance migration rates by 1.9–2.3 percentage points (38–46%) for married couples. I find that women are the primary beneficiaries of this policy, with higher UI uptake following a move and higher annual earnings of $4,500–$12,000 three years post-move. I then build and estimate a structural model of dual-earner couples’ migration decisions to evaluate the effects of a series of counterfactual policies. I show that increasing the likelihood of joint distant offers substantively increases migration rates, increases women’s post-move employment rates, and improves both men and women’s earnings growth at the time of a move. However, unconditional subsidies for migration that are not linked to having an offer in hand at the time of the move reduce post-move earnings for both men and women, with stronger effects for women.
    Keywords: unemployment insurance, migration, economic geography, household behavior and family economics
    JEL: D1 J1 J16 J61 J65 R5
    Date: 2022–09–14
  44. By: Michel Beine; Giovanni Peri; Morgan Raux
    Abstract: US universities have attracted hundreds of thousands of international students each year for the last decade. Some of these remain in the US after graduating and contribute to the high skilled labor supply in US labor markets. In this paper, we identify and estimate by how much one more international master’s (or bachelor’s) student increases the skilled labor supply of the US in the short-run. To estimate this "transition rate" we implement an instrumental variable estimation using quasi-random variation in the tuition charged to international students by public US universities in the year that they likely started their studies. We find that attracting an additional international student to a US university increases the local labor supply by about 0.23 employees for master’s students and about 0.11 for bachelor’s students. These averages conceal an important difference. While non-STEM bachelor’s and master’s students had negligible transition rates into US employment, STEM Master students have had significant transition rates around 0.2, especially after the 2008 reform of Optional Practical Training for STEM graduates.
    JEL: H7 I2 J6
    Date: 2022–09
  45. By: Cindy Biesenbeek; Mauro Mastrogiacomo; Rob Alessie; Jakob de Haan
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of the introduction of a Loan-to-Value (LTV) limit in The Netherlands on the probability for first time buyers to become homeowner using a duration model. Our research design is underpinned by a theoretical model that shows that a lower LTV limit results in suspending or renouncing home ownership, but only for liquidity constrained individuals. We use this finding to construct a treatment and control group with parents' financial wealth as a proxy for being liquidity constrained. We disentangle the effects of the LTV limit on the timing of the transition to first time home ownership from other market developments. We show that the effect of the LTV limit on this transition is approximately 6%.
    Keywords: home ownership, down payment, liquidity constraints, inter-generational transfers, survival model
    JEL: G51 R21
    Date: 2022–03
  46. By: Albers, Thilo N. H. (HU Berlin); Kappner, Kalle (HU Berlin)
    Abstract: Historical city directories are rich sources of micro-geographic data. They provide information on the location of households and firms and their occupations and industries, respectively. We develop a generic algorithmic work flow that converts scans of them into geo- and status-referenced household- level data sets. Applying the work flow to our case study, the Berlin 1880 directory, adds idiosyncratic challenges that should make automation less attractive. Yet, employing an administrative benchmark data set on household counts, incomes, and income distributions across more than 200 census tracts, we show that semi-automatic referencing yields results very similar to those from labour-intensive manual referencing. Finally, we discuss potential applications in economic history and beyond.
    Keywords: city directories; data extraction; granular spatial data;
    Date: 2022–01–29
  47. By: Hippolyte d'Albis (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Ekrame Boubtane (CERDI - Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche en Droit de l'Immatériel - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - Université Paris-Saclay, PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Dramane Coulibaly (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This article quantifies the effects of increasing global geopolitical uncertainty on the size of migration flows to Western Europe. Uncertainty is measured by the number of victims of terrorist attacks worldwide. The effect on migration flows is quantified through the estimation of vector autoregressive models on a panel of 15 European countries and on France, thanks to an original migration dataset. The estimations suggest that the flows of permanent migrants are generally reduced by global terrorism. In particular, the increase in uncertainty that followed the attacks of September 11, 2001, caused an 8% drop in flows to Europe and a 19% drop in flows to France. The effect of global uncertainty on the flow of asylum seekers depends on the country: on average in Europe, asylum applications increase with terrorism, but for France, they decrease with terrorism. This difference can be explained by the geographical position and border control policies of France.
    Keywords: Uncertainty,Terrorism,Migration,September 11,2001
    Date: 2022–09
  48. By: Cevat Giray Aksoy; Jose Maria Barrero; Nicholas Bloom; Steven J. Davis; Mathias Dolls; Pablo Zarate
    Abstract: The pandemic triggered a large, lasting shift to work from home (WFH). To study this shift, we survey full-time workers who finished primary school in 27 countries as of mid 2021 and early 2022. Our cross-country comparisons control for age, gender, education, and industry and treat the U.S. mean as the baseline. We find, first, that WFH averages 1.5 days per week in our sample, ranging widely across countries. Second, employers plan an average of 0.7 WFH days per week after the pandemic, but workers want 1.7 days. Third, employees value the option to WFH 2-3 days per week at 5 percent of pay, on average, with higher valuations for women, people with children and those with longer commutes. Fourth, most employees were favorably surprised by their WFH productivity during the pandemic. Fifth, looking across individuals, employer plans for WFH levels after the pandemic rise strongly with WFH productivity surprises during the pandemic. Sixth, looking across countries, planned WFH levels rise with the cumulative stringency of government-mandated lockdowns during the pandemic. We draw on these results to explain the big shift to WFH and to consider some implications for workers, organization, cities, and the pace of innovation.
    JEL: D22 E24 J20 L23
    Date: 2022–09
  49. By: Goto, Tsuyoshi
    Abstract: This study examines whether municipal mergers reduce public expenditure by examining the marginal treatment effect (MTE) of municipal mergers. Extant papers in the literature have paid little attention to bias from self-selection among municipal mergers or to heterogeneity in the treatment effects of the mergers. Corresponding to these issues, we use the instrumental variables used in Miyazaki (2018) [Applied Economics, 50(10), pp. 1108-1121] and estimate the MTEs of the mergers. From the estimated MTEs, we construct several estimands, and we show that the municipal mergers resulted in an increase in public expenditure on average. Moreover, we confirm that the local average treatment effect (LATE) was quite large from FY2006 to FY2015, although it decreased suddenly in FY2016, when some incentives that promoted the mergers ended. This implies that the incentives offered by the national government negated the cost reductions resulting from the municipal mergers.
    Keywords: Marginal treatment effect; Municipal merger; Cost reduction
    JEL: H72 H73 H77
    Date: 2022
  50. By: Basile Michel (MRTE - EA 4112 - Laboratoire Mobilités, Réseaux, Territoires, Environnements - CY - CY Cergy Paris Université, ESO - Espaces et Sociétés - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UM - Le Mans Université - UA - Université d'Angers - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - UR2 - Université de Rennes 2 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - IGARUN - Institut de Géographie et d'Aménagement Régional de l'Université de Nantes - UN - Université de Nantes, Institut conjoint des Universités de Ningbo et d’Angers)
    Abstract: The article proposes to use the concept of scene to analyze artistic, cultural and creative spaces. For this purpose, four angles of observation of cultural scenes will be defined, and as many ideals-types – lived scene, experienced scene, built scene, publicized scene – allowing to characterize the spaces in which is embedded a network of artistic and cultural players that spills over the city and shapes its atmosphere and image, namely a scene. To illustrate this use of the concept of scene, the case of the M50 artistic district in Shanghai is analyzed through field investigations carried out using various methodological tools (semi-structured interviews, in situ observation, study of official documents and web discourse analysis). Through the lens of scene, the M50 reveals several issues at stake in the spatial embedding of artistic communities: a spatial agglomeration in specific geographical configurations, the development of network dynamics inside the art worlds, the production of specific urban atmospheres that benefit the different users of the city, the build of an institutional narrative and image of an "artistic space", and finally the mediatization of this artistic space that increases its exposure and notoriety in the art and tourism worlds. In this way, the concept of scene provides a transversal analysis of creative spaces, opening perspectives for future research.
    Abstract: L'article propose de mobiliser le concept de scène pour analyser les territoires artistiques, culturels et créatifs. Pour cela, quatre angles d'observation des scènes culturelles vont être définis, et dans leur lignée autant d'idéaux-types – scène vécue, scène éprouvée, scène construite, scène médiatique – permettant de caractériser les territoires dans lesquels est encastré un réseau d'acteurs artistiques et culturels qui déborde sur la ville et façonne son ambiance et son image, c'est-à-dire une scène. Pour illustrer ce recours au concept de scène, le cas du quartier artistique M50 à Shanghai est analysé en mobilisant les enquêtes de terrain réalisées à partir d'outils méthodologiques variés (entretiens semi-directifs, observation in situ, étude de documents officiels et analyse de discours sur le web). Au prisme de la scène, le M50 révèle un certain nombre d'enjeux de l'encastrement territorial des communautés artistiques : un ancrage spatial dans des configurations géographiques singulières, le déploiement de dynamiques de réseau internes aux mondes de l'art, la génération d'ambiances urbaines spécifiques qui bénéficient aux différents usagers du territoire, la construction institutionnelle d'un récit et d'une image de « territoire artistique », et enfin la médiatisation de ce territoire artistique qui accroît sa visibilité et sa notoriété dans les mondes de l'art et du tourisme. Ce faisant, le concept de scène permet une analyse transversale des territoires créatifs, ouvrant des perspectives pour de futures recherches.
    Keywords: scene,art district,art,atmosphere,image,network,Shanghai,scène,quartier artistique,ambiance,réseau
    Date: 2021–08–24
  51. By: Vera Freundl; Elisabeth Grewenig; Franziska Kugler; Philipp Lergetporer; Ruth Schüler; Katharina Wedel; Katharina Werner; Olivia Wirth; Ludger Wößmann
    Abstract: The ifo Education Survey is a representative opinion survey of the German voting-age population on education topics that has been conducted annually since 2014. It covers public preferences on a wide range of education policy issues ranging from early childhood education, schools, and apprenticeships to university education and life-long learning. The dataset comprises several survey experiments which facilitate investigating the causal effects of information provision, framing, and question design on answering behavior. This paper gives an overview of the survey content and methodology, describes the data, and explains how researchers can access the dataset of over 4,000 participants per wave.
    Keywords: Education, policy, survey, experiment, public opinion, political economy, Germany
    JEL: I28 D72 H52
    Date: 2022
  52. By: Cavaillé, Charlotte; Van Der Straeten, Karine
    Abstract: Research shows that opposition to policies that redistribute across racial divides has affected the development of the American welfare state. Are similar dynamics at play in Western Europe? For many scholars, the answer is yes. In contrast, we argue that researchers’ understanding of the political economy of redistribution in diversifying European countries is too incomplete to reach a conclusion on this issue. First, existing evidence is inconsistent with the assumption —ubiquitous in this line of research— of a universal distaste for sharing resources with people who are culturally, ethnically and racially different. Second, important historical and institutional differences between the U.S. and Europe preclude any straightforward transposition of the American experience to the European case. We discuss what we see as the most promising lines of inquiry going forward.
    Keywords: Immigration; parochial altruism; redistribution; welfare state; Europe; United State
    Date: 2022–09–14

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