nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2022‒08‒22
77 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Investment incentives of rent controls and gentrification – Evidence from German micro data By Vera Baye; Valeriya Dinger
  2. The economic returns of decentralization: government quality and the role of space By Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés; Muštra, Vinko
  3. The Impact of High-Speed Rail on Labor Spatial Misallocation– Based on Spatial Difference-in-Differences Analysis By Linnan Yan; Menger Tu, Andre Luis Squarize Chagas, Lufeng Tai
  4. Better off households moving to more deprived areas: what is happening? Why? By Cho, Youngha; Whitehead, Christine
  5. Job Prospects and Labour Mobility in China By Huaxin Wang-Lu; Octasiano Miguel Valerio Mendoza
  6. Genetic Endowments, Educational Outcomes and the Mediating Influence of School Investments By Arold, W. Benjamin; Hufe, Paul; Stoeckli, Marc
  7. Origin of power laws and their spatial fractal structure for city-size distributions By Tomoya Mori; Takashi Akamatsu; Yuki Takayama; Minoru Osawa
  8. Real Estate Regulation And Development: A Case Of Gated Housing In Pakistan By Adnan Saqib
  9. Till debt do us part: strategic divorces and a test of moral hazard By Yeorim Kim; Mauro Mastrogiacomo; Stefan Hochguertel; Hans Bloemen
  10. Skill Downgrading among Refugees and Economic Immigrants in Germany: Evidence from the Syrian Refugee Crisis By Nikolov, Plamen; Salarpour Goodarzi, Leila; Titus, David
  11. Boosting African cities' resilience to climate change: The role of green spaces By Brilé Anderson; Jorge Eduardo Patiño Quinchía; Rafael Prieto Curiel
  12. Robotaxis or autonomous shuttles? The role of urban representations and travel habits in tomorrow's mode choice in France By SALLADARRE, Frédéric; LE BOENNEC, Rémy; BEL, Marlène
  13. Regional structural change and the effects of job loss By Arntz, Melanie; Ivanov, Boris; Pohlan, Laura
  14. The collateral effects of private school expansion in a deregulated market: Peru, 1996-2019 By José María Rentería
  15. Quota vs Quality? Long-Term Gains from an Unusual Gender Quota By Ursina Schaede; Ville Mankki
  16. Accessibility to services in Europe’s Member States – an evaluation by degree of urbanisation and remoteness By KOMPIL Mert; JACOBS Christiaan; PERPIÑA CASTILLO Carolina; LAVALLE Carlo
  17. Inland cities, maritime gateways, and international trade By César Ducruet; David Guerrero
  18. Modeling clusters from the ground up: a web data approach By Stich, Christoph; Tranos, Emmanouil; Nathan, Max
  19. Preferred field of study and academic performance By Berlingieri, Francesco; Diegmann, André; Sprietsma, Maresa
  20. Nonparametric prediction with spatial data By Gupta, Abhimanyu; Hidalgo, Javier
  21. Liquidity in the Mortgage Market: How does the COVID-19 Crisis Compare with the Global Financial Crisis? By Karen M. Pence
  22. Dynastic Home Equity By Benetton, Matteo; Kudlyak, Marianna; Mondragon, John
  23. Reinforcing and innovating teacher professionalism: Learning from other professions By Anita Mezza
  24. Estimating the Mortgage Default Probability in Cyprus: Evidence using micro data By Savvas Antoniou; Ioanna Evangelou; Theodosis Kallenos; Nektarios A. Michail
  25. Dynastic Home Equity By Matteo Benetton; Marianna Kudlyak; John Mondragon
  26. The geography of acquisitions and greenfield investments: firm heterogeneity and regional institutional conditions By Amendolagine, Vito; Crescenzi, Riccardo; Rabellotti, Roberta
  27. Potential spatial impacts of the war in Ukraine: A case study from Italy By OECD
  28. Declining Affordability and Home Purchase Borrowing by Lower Income Households By Daniel R. Ringo
  29. Spatially Uneven Pace of Deindustrialization Within a Country By Kozo Kiyota
  30. Sitting Next to a Dropout: Academic Success of Students with More Educated Peers By Goller, Daniel; Diem, Andrea; Wolter, Stefan C.
  31. How important is neighbourhood labour structure in the spread of COVID-19? Within-city evidence from England By Carlo Corradini; Jesse Matheson; Enrico Vanino
  32. The role of local embeddedness of transnational migrant start-ups in the COVID-19 crises: Examples from the Berlin start-up ecosystem By Terstriep, Judith; David, Alexandra; Ruthemeier, Alexander; Elo, Maria
  33. Proximity to Help Matters: The Effect of Access to Centers of Legal Aid on Bankruptcy Rates By Kristina Hrehova; Stefan Domonkos
  34. Stigma in Welfare Programs By Celhay, Pablo; Meyer, Bruce D.; Mittag, Nikolas
  35. Worker Mobility and Productivity Spillovers By Ohlsbom, Roope
  36. nwxtregress: Network regressions in Stata By Jan Ditzen
  37. Post-pandemic funding for SEND pupils: is it enough? By Asma Benhenda
  38. The Roads One Must Walk Down: Commute and Depression for Beijing's Residents By Xize Wang; Tao Liu
  39. How costly are cultural biases? By D'Acunto, Francesco; Ghosh, Pulak; Jain, Rajiv; Rossi, Alberto G.
  40. Work from home: bane or blessing? Implications for corporate real estate strategies By Höcker, Martin Christian; Bachtal, Yassien; Pfnür, Andreas
  41. Social Identity, Local Neighbourhood Effect and Conspicuous Consumption: Evidence From India By Deepika Kandpal; Dibyendu Maiti
  42. Human capital in Europe, 1830s – 1930s: towards a new spatial dataset By Gabriele Cappelli; Leonardo Ridolfi; Michelangelo Vasta; Johannes Westberg
  43. Plotistan – Subsidized Land Giveaways and Public Land Management in Pakistan By Irum Bhatti
  44. The puzzle of land transfer: new evidence from China's temporary migration By Wen, Le; Paudel, Krishna P.; Chen, Fengbo Sr.; He, Qinying
  45. Assessing transportation accessibility equity via open data By Amirhesam Badeanlou; Andrea Araldo; Marco Diana
  46. Technology, resources and geography in a paradigm shift: the case of critical and conflict materials in ICTs By Diemer, Andreas; Iammarino, Simona; Perkins, Richard; Gros, Axel
  47. Consumer inflation expectations and regional price changes By Tomasz Łyziak; Michael Pedersen; Ewa Stanisławska
  48. Regional Economic Impacts of Beach Closures by Environmental Threats: An Empirical Study of Mississippi Coastal Counties By Browne, Jessica; Kim, Ayoung; Yun, Seong
  49. How Parenting Courses Affect Families’ Time-Use? Evidence from an RCT Experiment in Italy By Del Boca, Daniela; Pronzato, Chiara D.; Schiavon, Lucia
  50. Second-Generation Immigrants and Native Attitudes Toward Immigrants in Europe By Barrera, Oscar; Bensidoun, Isabelle; Edo, Anthony
  51. The Impact of Transport Infrastructure on Productivity in Canada By Paskynel Jacques-Arvisais; Simon Lapointe
  52. The influence of social interactions on innovative endeavors in online communities By Resch, Christian
  53. Strategic Choices of Migrants and Smugglers in the Central Mediterranean Sea By Katherine Hoffmann Pham; Junpei Komiyama
  54. Meta-organizing Clusters as Agents of Transformative Change through 'Responsible Actorhood' By Héloïse Berkowitz; Martine Gadille
  55. "Integrated Reporting For Regional Investment and Achievement of Sustainable Development Goals " By Syaiful Hifni
  56. The performance of Italian Industrial Districts in and out of the 2008-2012 crisis By Valter Di Giacinto; Andrea Sechi; Alessandro Tosoni
  57. Household indebtedness according to the Spanish Survey of Household Finances and the Central Credit Register: a comparative analysis By Olympia Bover; Laura Crespo; Sandra García-Uribe
  58. The Digital Transition for a Sustainable Mobility Regime? A Long-Run Perspective. By Ralph Hippe; Damien Demailly; Claude Diebolt
  59. Literacy, Development, and Philanthropy: Educating One Million Children By Aimen Abbasi
  60. Elites and Health Infrastructure Improvements in Industrializing Regimes By Tommy Krieger
  61. MENTORING AS A DOSE TREATMENT: FREQUENCY MATTERS: Evidence from a French mentoring program By Gabriel Montes-Rojas; Vera Chiodi
  62. Shadow Education uptake among final year students in Irish secondary schools: Wellbeing in a high stakes context By McCoy, Selina; Byrne, Delma
  63. Born in the family: preferences for boys and the gender gap in math By Dossi, Gaia; Figlio, David; Giuliano, Paola; Sapienza, Paola
  64. At the intersection of adverse life course pathways: the effects on health by nativity By Silvia Loi; Peng Li; Mikko Myrskylä
  65. Do Pessimistic Expectations About Discrimination Make Minorities Withdraw Their Effort? Causal Evidence By Darya Korlyakova
  66. Early Childcare Duration and Students’ Later Outcomes in Europe By Daniela Del Boca; Chiara Monfardini; Sarah Grace See
  67. A Matter of Place: Spatial Heterogeneity and the Effect of Market Price on the Drought- Conflict Nexus in Somalia By Song, Chun; Scognamillo, Antonio; Ignaciuk, Adriana
  68. Do the poor pay more for increasing market concentration? A study of retail petroleum By Franco Mairuzzo; Peter Ormosi
  69. The Impact of Centre-Based Childcare on Non-cognitive Skills of Young Children By Morando, Greta; Platt, Lucinda
  70. Government-backed venture capital investments and performance of companies: The role of networks By Köppl-Turyna, Monika; Köppl, Stefan; Christopulos, Dimitris
  71. Proud to belong: The impact of ethics training on police officers By Donna Harris; Oana Borcan; Danila Serra; Henry Telli; Bruno Schettini; Stefan Dercon
  72. Neighborhood effects, urbanization, and agricultural commercialization in South India By Steinhübel, Linda; Wegmann, Johannes; Jose, Monish
  73. Pakistan Railways Or Pakistan’S Railways By Afrasiyab Gul
  74. Forecasting Domestic Tourism across Regional Destinations through MIDAS Regressions. By Nava, Consuelo R.; Osti, Linda; Zoia, Maria Grazia
  75. Does ethnic heterogeneity decrease workers' effort in the presence of income redistribution? An experimental analysis By Schütt, Christoph; Pipke, David; Detlefsen, Lena; Grimalda, Gianluca
  76. North Versus South: Income Disparities in New Brunswick, 2000-2019 By Nettie Bonsall
  77. Combining Survey and Geospatial Data Can Significantly Improve Gender-Disaggregated Estimates of Labor Market Outcomes By Merfeld, Joshua D.; Newhouse, David; Weber, Michael; Lahiri, Partha

  1. By: Vera Baye (University of Osnabrueck); Valeriya Dinger (University of Osnabrueck and Leeds University Business School)
    Abstract: We investigate how housing returns are influenced by the introduction of a rent brake as a form of rental control in Germany in 2015. We derive the housing returns by matching micro-level quotes on similar objects offered for rent and for sale. We exploit the temporal,regional and object-specific variation in the framework of a multi period difference-in-differences analysis to identify the effect of the rent brake. Our results show that the main goal of the political intervention to secure affordable living space in tense housing markets cannot be attained due to construction incentives in newbuilds and fostered gentrification.
    Keywords: rent control, housing supply, regional data, rent-price ratio, gentrification, housing affordability
    JEL: R38 R31 E65 R21 R23 R10
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés; Muštra, Vinko
    Abstract: Research on the impact of decentralization has generally overlooked the fact that the economic returns of transferring powers and resources to subnational tiers of government greatly depend on the quality of the devolved government. Scholarly literature has also neglected that these returns may be similarly affected by the autonomy of neighbouring areas and their government quality. In this paper we use panel data fixed effects analyses and spatial Durbin econometric (SDM) models to assess the extent to which the economic returns of political and fiscal decentralization in the European Union (EU) between 2000 and 2015 are mediated by local government quality and that of neighbouring regions. The results suggest that the economic benefits of regional autonomy are greater in regions with a better government quality, while regions with a low quality of government grow less, regardless of their level of decentralization. The gains of decentralization mainly accrue through indirect effects, as regions grow more if surrounded by other, more decentralized regions than through their own level of decentralization. In all cases, local government quality is a powerful driver of growth, irrespective of whether a region is considered individually or in relationship to its neighbours.
    Keywords: decentralization; quality of government; growth; spatial dependency; regions; EU
    JEL: H72 H77 R11 R58
    Date: 2022–07–20
  3. By: Linnan Yan; Menger Tu, Andre Luis Squarize Chagas, Lufeng Tai
    Abstract: Existing studies neglected to assess the resource allocation effect of high-speed railway (HSR). This paper examines the impact of HSR on labor spatial misallocation in China by applying a modifified spatial difference-in-differences approach, which identify local treatment effect, spillover effect on treated and untreated regions. The study fifinds: (1) Opening HSR alleviates not only the local labor misallocation but also the misallocation in surrounding areas to a greater extent, including cities with HSR (treatment group) and without HSR (control group), which contributes to the overall productivity increase. The spillover effect of HSR is larger than the direct effect. (2) The largest spillover effect occurs in adjacent areas near 350 km apart, while the spillover effect disappears beyond 500 km. (3) The direction and magnitude of HSR effect depend on the urban scale. For large-scale cities, the impact of opening HSR is greater versus small-scale ones.
    Keywords: high-speed railway; spatial difference-in-differences; labor spatial
    JEL: C23 R15 R40
    Date: 2022–08–04
  4. By: Cho, Youngha; Whitehead, Christine
    Abstract: Economic theories of residential location suggest that households tend to live in neighbourhoods with similar households. Yet in England we have seen increasing evidence of better off households moving to live in more deprived areas, especially since the financial crisis. Here we ask whether these household decisions are more a matter of choice or constraint. Our results suggest that household attributes are consistently important in decision making but household behaviour also relates closely both to the extent of market tension and to individual financial constraints—with households in pressured areas particularly affected by worsening affordability. Supply policy, which has tended to concentrate new building in deprived areas has helped facilitate such moves. A particularly important issue in a rapidly changing housing environment is the extent to which tenure and location appear often to be joint decisions—with many better-off households choosing to buy in more deprived areas. Those who move to or within more deprived areas as owner-occupiers are positive about both their housing and tenure choice but not about their location; private tenants on the other hand appear relatively unhappy with their dwelling, their neighbourhood and their tenure—in both cases reflecting trade-offs and constraints.
    Keywords: affordability; deprived area; higher income households; mobility; housing choice; location decisions; mortgage constraints; owner-occupation; renters; tenure change
    JEL: R14 J01 J1
    Date: 2021–06–25
  5. By: Huaxin Wang-Lu; Octasiano Miguel Valerio Mendoza
    Abstract: China's structural changes have brought new challenges to its regional employment structure, entailing spatial redistribution of workforce. However, Chinese research on migration decisions involving future outcomes and on city-level bilateral longitudinal determinants is almost non-existent. This paper sheds light on the effects of sector-based job prospects on individual migration decisions across prefecture boundaries. To this end, we created a proxy variable for job prospects, compiled a unique quasi-panel of 66,427 individuals from 283 cities during 1997--2017, expanded the random utility maximisation model of migration by introducing the reference-dependence, derived empirical specifications with theoretical micro-foundations and applied various monadic and dyadic fixed effects to address multilateral resistance to migration. Multilevel logit models and two-step system GMM estimation were adopted for the robustness check. Our primary findings are that a 10% increase in the ratio of sector-based job prospects in cities of destination to cities of origin raises the probability of migration by 1.281--2.185 percentage points, and the effects tend to be stronger when the scale of the ratio is larger. Having a family migration network causes an increase of approximately 6 percentage points in migratory probabilities. Further, labour migrants are more likely to be male, unmarried, younger, or more educated. Our results suggest that the ongoing industrial reform in China influences labour mobility between prefecture-level cities, providing important insights for regional policymakers to prevent brain drain and to attract relevant talent.
    Date: 2022–07
  6. By: Arold, W. Benjamin (LMU Munich); Hufe, Paul (University of Bristol); Stoeckli, Marc (LMU Munich)
    Abstract: Genetic endowments are fixed at conception and matter for the educational attainment of individuals. Do investments in schooling environments mitigate or magnify the outcomes of this genetic lottery? Using data from a representative sample of US adolescents, we analyze the interdependent associations of genetic endowments, teacher quality and teacher quantity with educational attainment. Our results suggest that higher-quality teachers act as substitutes for genetic endowments: a 1 SD increase in teacher quality reduces the positive association between educational attainment and a 1 SD increase in the relevant polygenic score from 0.37 to 0.30 years—a decrease of 20%. In particular, high-quality teachers increase the probability that genetically disadvantaged students complete college. This increase is underpinned by gains in health, language ability, patience, and risk aversion.
    Keywords: polygenic scores, school resources, skill formation
    JEL: I29 I21 J24
    Date: 2022–07
  7. By: Tomoya Mori; Takashi Akamatsu; Yuki Takayama; Minoru Osawa
    Abstract: City-size distributions follow an approximate power law in various countries. Our empirical and theoretical analyses show that this scaling law may accrue from the spatial fractal structure in industrial location patterns. Some goods and services are only available in larger cities, whereas essentials are available everywhere. Consequently, larger cities are spaced apart to serve as centers for surrounding smaller cities, generating a similar pattern across different spatial scales. In our theoretical model, diversity in scale economy among industries induces diversity in their location pattern, which translates into diversity in city size via spatial coordination of industries. Through extensive simulations, we show that the city-size power law is a generic feature of numerous stationary states resulting from the spatial fractal formation.
    Date: 2022–07
  8. By: Adnan Saqib (MPhil Scholar, PIDE)
    Abstract: In recent years, gated communities have grown in popularity in Pakistan, with a rise in the number of such communities. According to the Federal Board of Revenue, the real estate industry in Pakistan is worth about 700 billion dollars, and it accounts for nearly 2% of Pakistan’s total GDP.
    Keywords: Real Estate Regulation, Development, Gated Housing,
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Yeorim Kim (Vrije Univerteit Amsterdam, De Nederlandse Bank); Mauro Mastrogiacomo (Vrije Univerteit Amsterdam, De Nederlandse Bank); Stefan Hochguertel (Vrije Univerteit Amsterdam); Hans Bloemen (Vrije Univerteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: We test whether households that face prospective home equity losses during a house price downturn use divorce to shed debt. We study the Dutch context, where qualifying homeowners can buy into a mortgage guarantee scheme that insures the lender against borrower default and transfers the risk to the public. Divorce is one of the major events that obliges the guarantor to repay outstanding residual debt after (foreclosure) sale. We argue in this paper that divorce is endogenous to holding underwater mortgages, and hence constitutes a choice that can be used for strategic use of the insurance. Using administrative data, we find a significant, 44% increase in the probability to divorce for households with an underwater mortgage. This effect is causal to being insured. The identification relies on a regression discontinuity design, that exploits the fact that the insurance is only available for properties with values below a legislated qualification threshold. The house price crisis (2008-2013) provides an unexpected shock to house values, leaving about 40% of owners with an underwater mortgage. Their home equity averages to about €-50.000. Couples with similar characteristics just above the qualification threshold experienced significantly less often a divorce than couples just below the threshold. We interpret this behavioral response as moral hazard, also because the induced divorcees reunite at a higher rate than other divorcees.
    Keywords: Moral hazard, mortgage insurance, divorce
    JEL: D10 G21 J12
    Date: 2022–07–28
  10. By: Nikolov, Plamen (State University of New York); Salarpour Goodarzi, Leila (Binghamton University, New York); Titus, David (University of Victoria)
    Abstract: Upon arrival to a new country, many immigrants face job downgrading, a phenomenon describing workers being in jobs far below where they would be assigned based on their skills. Downgrading leads to immigrants receiving lower returns to the same skills than natives. The level of downgrading could depend on the type of immigrant and numerous factors. This study examines the determinants of skill downgrading among two types of immigrants – refugees and economic immigrants – in the German labor markets between 1984 and 2018. We find that refugees downgrade more than economic immigrants, and this discrepancy between the two groups persists over time. We show that language skill improvements exert a strong influence on subsequent labor market outcomes of both groups.
    Keywords: downgrading, immigrants, refugees, Germany, labor markets, wages, employment
    JEL: J11 J15 J61 F22 O15 J61
    Date: 2022–07
  11. By: Brilé Anderson; Jorge Eduardo Patiño Quinchía; Rafael Prieto Curiel
    Abstract: The next few decades will bring an era of rapid urbanisation and unprecedented climate stress in African cities. Green spaces can boost the resilience of cities to heat waves, floods, landslides, and even coastal erosion, in addition, to enhancing sustainability by improving air quality, protecting biodiversity, and absorbing carbon. All of which can enhance well-being. Yet, data on the availability of green spaces in African urban agglomerations is scarce. This analysis fills the gap by combining new and novel data sources to estimate the availability of green spaces in 5 625 urban agglomerations with 10 000 inhabitants and above. The rest of the report then uses this novel dataset to first evaluate the dynamics between urbanisation and green spaces, and second, explore the potential of green spaces to boost the resilience and sustainability of cities in the future. The results show that as urban agglomerations become larger and more compact, green spaces disappear, exacerbating their vulnerability to climate change and deteriorating liveability. However, building taller buildings (i.e., growing vertically), offers a way for cities to grow whilst minimising loss of green space. Results show that more green space can boost sustainability by significantly lowering air pollution in African cities, which could be vital for public health in the future since outdoor air pollution is rising. The potential for green spaces to enhance resilience to climate events, like heat waves, depends on the location of green spaces throughout the city and the percentage of the population that lives close to a green space (i.e., within 300 metres). Green spaces may play a limited role in coping with heat waves in a city like Khartoum where only 3% of the population lives close to a green space, but could be a nature-based solution to heat waves in a city like Abuja, where 55% of the population can benefit from its cooling effects. Moving forward, local actors have clear evidence of the power of green spaces to build a sustainable and resilient future. Still, the report reveals that local actors need support from regional and national actors to realise the potential of green spaces.
    Keywords: Africa, Cities, Ecosystem-services, Green spaces, Nature-based solutions, Resilience, Sustainability
    JEL: Q53 Q54 Q56 Q57 R14 R15 R52
    Date: 2022–07–31
  12. By: SALLADARRE, Frédéric; LE BOENNEC, Rémy; BEL, Marlène
    Abstract: Autonomous vehicles (AVs) will profoundly modify our travel habits. The collective impact of AVs will differ according to the autonomous mode choice. In this paper, we apply a simultaneous-equation model to a database from an original 2017 survey of French mobility users to analyze their acceptance of two forms of autonomous transport mode: autonomous shuttles and robotaxis (N=3,297). Our results show that the intention to use autonomous shuttles is on average greater than robotaxis. Gender and age influence autonomous mode choice, as well as the current transport mode. In addition, location and urban representations play a central role.
    Keywords: Robotaxi; Autonomous shuttle; Autonomous vehicle; Urban representation; Travel habit; Intention to use; Acceptance; Transport mode; Autonomous mode choice; Simultaneous-equation model
    JEL: C35 C38 R41
    Date: 2021
  13. By: Arntz, Melanie; Ivanov, Boris; Pohlan, Laura
    Abstract: Routine-intensive occupations have been declining in many countries, but how does this affect individual workers' careers if this decline is particularly severe in their local labor market? This paper uses administrative data from Germany and a matched difference-in-differences approach to show that the individual costs of job loss strongly depend on the task-bias of regional structural change. Workers displaced from routine manual occupations have substantially higher and more persistent employment and wage losses in regions where such occupations decline the most. Regional and occupational mobility partly serve as an adjustment mechanism, but come at high cost as these switches also involve losses in firm wage premia. Non-displaced workers, by contrast, remain largely unaffected by structural change.
    Keywords: routine-biased structural change,local labor markets,displacement,mass-layoffs,plant closures,matching,difference-in-differences,event study
    JEL: J24 J63 J64 J65 O33 R11
    Date: 2022
  14. By: José María Rentería (UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper explores the mid-term effects of the de facto privatization that has taken place in the Peruvian educational system. It exploits exogenous policy shocks as well as two sources of variation, namely the geographical location of the new private schools and the year of birth of individuals. Both variables determine the degree of exposure to the private school expansion process. The results suggest that this phenomenon has contributed neither to increasing access to formal education nor to improving wages in the labor market. This evidence raises concerns about the impact of privatization on the quality of the education system as a whole as well the regulatory role of the State
    Keywords: Private education,school choice
    Date: 2022–06
  15. By: Ursina Schaede; Ville Mankki
    Abstract: We evaluate equity-efficiency trade-offs from admissions quotas by examining effects on output once beneficiaries start producing in the relevant industry. In particular, we document the impact of abolishing a 40% quota for male primary school teachers in Finland on their pupils’ long-run outcomes. The quota had advantaged academically lower-scoring male university applicants, and its removal cut the share of men among new teachers by half. We combine this reform with the timing of union-mandated teacher retirements to isolate quasi-random variation in the local share of male quota teachers. Using comprehensive register data, we find that pupils exposed to a higher share of male quota teachers during primary school transition more smoothly to post-compulsory education, have higher educational attainment, and labor force attachment at age 25. Pupils of both genders benefit similarly from exposure to male quota teachers. Our findings are consistent with the quota improving the allocation of talent over the unconstrained selection process.
    Keywords: quota, education, affirmative action, gender, productivity
    JEL: J70 I20 M50
    Date: 2022
  16. By: KOMPIL Mert (European Commission - JRC); JACOBS Christiaan (European Commission - JRC); PERPIÑA CASTILLO Carolina (European Commission - JRC); LAVALLE Carlo (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This policy brief aims at providing information on the accessibility of selected services of general interest (SeGI) including retailers (supermarkets and convenient stores), doctors (general practitioners), pharmacies, hospitals, cinemas, banks, primary and secondary schools in Europe, with a focus on urban / rural areas and remoteness. The spatial accessibility indicator developed for this brief is based on the service location data collected in the PROFECY project1 (ESPON, 2017a; 2017b), a 1-km2 population grid developed by GEOSTAT (2011) and a road network from TELEATLAS MultiNet 2014. It provides an example of analytical contribution to the upcoming Rural Observatory.
    Keywords: services, urbanisation, remoteness
    Date: 2022–06
  17. By: César Ducruet; David Guerrero
    Abstract: This research discusses the different spatial configurations of the nexus between inland city and port gateway. A comparative analysis of 64 inland capital cities is proposed based on port, transport, trade, and urban indicators. The obtained trends suggest that there is a trade-off between remoteness and trade openness, which differentiates three clusters of inland cities: major logistics hubs, constrained metropolises, and underdeveloped corridors. We review more qualitatively intermodalism and port choice issues along six selected corridors.
    Keywords: corridor; freight flows; maritime transport; port hinterland; trade openness; urban system
    JEL: L90 R40
    Date: 2022
  18. By: Stich, Christoph; Tranos, Emmanouil; Nathan, Max
    Abstract: This paper proposes a new methodological framework to identify economic clusters over space and time. We employ a unique open source dataset of geolocated and archived business webpages and interrogate them using Natural Language Processing to build bottom-up classifications of economic activities. We validate our method on an iconic UK tech cluster – Shoreditch, East London. We benchmark our results against existing case studies and administrative data, replicating the main features of the cluster and providing fresh insights. As well as overcoming limitations in conventional industrial classification, our method addresses some of the spatial and temporal limitations of the clustering literature.
    Keywords: cities; clusters; machine learning; technology industry; onsumer Data Research Centre (CDRC) and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (ESRC
    JEL: J1 N0
    Date: 2022–06–17
  19. By: Berlingieri, Francesco; Diegmann, André; Sprietsma, Maresa
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of studying the first-choice university subject on dropout and switching field of study for a cohort of students in Germany. Using detailed survey data, and employing an instrumental variable strategy based on variation in the local field of study availability, we provide evidence that students who are not enrolled in their preferred field of study are more likely to change their field, delay graduation and drop out of university. The estimated impact on dropout is particularly strong among students of low socio-economic status and is driven by lower academic performance and motivation.
    Keywords: field of study,preferences,academic performance,university dropout
    JEL: I21 I23 J24
    Date: 2022
  20. By: Gupta, Abhimanyu; Hidalgo, Javier
    Abstract: We describe a (nonparametric) prediction algorithm for spatial data, based on a canonical factorization of the spectral density function. We provide theoretical results showing that the predictor has desirable asymptotic properties. Finite sample performance is assessed in a Monte Carlo study that also compares our algorithm to a rival nonparametric method based on the infinite AR representation of the dynamics of the data. Finally, we apply our methodology to predict house prices in Los Angeles.
    Keywords: STICERD; ES/R006032/1
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2022–05–23
  21. By: Karen M. Pence
    Abstract: The liquidity strains that contributed to the meltdown of the mortgage market in the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) re-emerged in the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) Crisis. Some of these strains were acute. For example, the dependence of mortgage real estate investment trusts (REITs) on short-term funding amplified market disruption in March 2020. However, other liquidity pressures had only minor repercussions for the overall mortgage market because of reforms since the GFC, a heavy government presence, and strong house prices. The lackluster performance of the private-label mortgage-backed securities market provides a glimpse of how the market might have performed in the absence of the heavy government presence.
    Keywords: COVID-19; REIT; Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility (TALF); Mortgage market; Mortgage servicers; Mortgage-backed securities (MBS)
    JEL: G21 G23 G28
    Date: 2022–06–23
  22. By: Benetton, Matteo (UC Berkeley); Kudlyak, Marianna (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco); Mondragon, John (University of California, Berkeley)
    Abstract: Using a nationally representative panel of consumer credit records for the US from 1999 to 2021, we document a positive correlation between child and parent homeownership. We propose a new causal mechanism behind this relationship based on parents extracting home equity to help finance their child's home purchase and quantify this mechanism in several ways. First, controlling for cohort, zip code, age, and the credit-worthiness of parents and children, we find that children whose parents extract equity are 60% more likely to become a homeowner than children whose homeowner-parents do not extract equity. Second, using an event study approach, we find that the increase in child homeownership occurs almost entirely in the year when parents extract equity. Third, using variation in equity extraction induced by households near leverage constraints, we find parental equity extraction increases the child's probability of becoming a homeowner by about five times. Our results highlight the importance of familial wealth for household wealth accumulation and housing wealth in particular. A back-of-the-envelope calculation suggests that dynastic home equity increases housing wealth inequality among young adults by 20%.
    Keywords: home equity, intergenerational wealth, inequality, mortgages, housing, household finance
    JEL: G51 D64 E24
    Date: 2022–07
  23. By: Anita Mezza (University of Helsinki)
    Abstract: Education systems are facing challenges in relation to attracting and retaining excellent teachers. Strengthening teacher professionalism by deriving insights from other sectors is a promising approach in confronting these issues. This paper maps the position of teaching in the changing landscape of professions using a cross-sectoral approach to identify areas for practitioners, researchers and policymakers to improve teaching status and practice, with repercussions on the public’s respect for the work of teachers. Existing literature, alongside OECD findings, suggest that a focus on career progression and specialisation, autonomy, and status, are promising areas for implementing cross sectoral insights. Simultaneously, teaching is well placed to explore the potential of collaboration, continuing professional learning and engagement with research, thus playing a role in renewing professionalism itself. This paper calls for increased discussion about teacher professionalism at the local level, with teachers themselves at the forefront of innovation supported by researchers and policymakers.
    Date: 2022–08–04
  24. By: Savvas Antoniou (Central Bank of Cyprus); Ioanna Evangelou (Central Bank of Cyprus); Theodosis Kallenos; Nektarios A. Michail (Central Bank of Cyprus)
    Abstract: As financial institutions are exposed to the mortgage market, the identification of the characteristics associated with high default risk is crucial for the economy’s financial stability and growth. In this paper, we examine for the determinants of mortgage default for households, using both their economic and socio-demographic characteristics. Using panel data from the Eurosystem Household Finance and Consumption Survey from 2009 to 2017, we find that the mortgage debt service to income ratio, as well as the debt to total household wealth ratio, are positively related with a higher mortgage default probability. In addition, salaried employment reduces such probability and households with more than four members are more prone to mortgage arrears.
    Keywords: Eurosystem HFCS, survey, defaults, probability, households
    JEL: G21 C83 C51
    Date: 2022–06
  25. By: Matteo Benetton; Marianna Kudlyak; John Mondragon
    Abstract: Using a nationally representative panel of consumer credit records for the US from 1999 to 2021, we document a positive correlation between child and parent homeownership. We propose a new causal mechanism behind this relationship based on parents extracting home equity to help finance their child's home purchase and quantify this mechanism in several ways. First, controlling for cohort, zip code, age, and the creditworthiness of parents and children, we find that children whose parents extract equity are 60% more likely to become a homeowner than children whose homeowner-parents do not extract equity. Second, using an event study approach, we find that the increase in child homeownership occurs almost entirely in the year when parents extract equity. Third, using variation in equity extraction induced by households near leverage constraints, we find parental equity extraction increases the child's probability of becoming a homeowner by about five times. Our results highlight the importance of familial wealth for household wealth accumulation and housing wealth in particular. A back-of-the-envelope calculation suggests that dynastic home equity increases housing wealth inequality among young adults by 20%.
    Keywords: home equity; intergenerational wealth; inequality; mortgages; housing; household finance
    Date: 2022–07–09
  26. By: Amendolagine, Vito; Crescenzi, Riccardo; Rabellotti, Roberta
    Abstract: This paper investigates how institutional conditions at national and regional levels shape the decisions of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) to invest abroad by means of either acquisitions or greenfield investments. The empirical analysis covers all Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) projects in the European Union by the largest MNEs in the world to study alternative choices by the same firm and account for firm-level characteristics in investment decisions. The empirical results show that - other things being equal - MNEs prefer acquisitions to control activities in regions with stronger investment eco-systems, while they choose greenfield investments in regions with weaker systemic conditions. Moreover, the regional quality of government makes a fundamental difference to the nature of the investment projects attracted by regions: those with high quality of government can attract greenfield investments undertaken by the most productive MNEs. By improving their quality of government, local and regional policy makers can attract higher quality FDI to their constituencies, potentially breaking the vicious circle between low productivity areas and low productivity FDI.
    Keywords: greenfield FDI; cross-border acquisitions; firm terogeneity; regions; Europe; insitutions; European Union Horizon 2020 Programme H2020/2014-2020 (Grant Agreement n 639633-MASSIVE-ERC-2014-STG).
    JEL: R12 R58 F23
    Date: 2022–07
  27. By: OECD
    Abstract: The impacts of the war in Ukraine will be felt severely within OECD economies, especially in border regions on the front-line of the humanitarian refugee crisis. The economic impacts, in particular those driven by rising energy prices, will also be spatially differentiated, affecting some regions more than others. Italy is no exception, with gas-intensive industries concentrated in northern regions, and wheat-based food and farming prevailing in southern regions and islands. While, overall, Russia accounted for a minor share of Italian exports, some regions and industries are more vulnerable than others to falls in bilateral trade, including destinations popular with high per-capita expenditure Russian tourists.
    Keywords: commodities, employment, spatial analysis, tourism, trade
    JEL: F16 F51 J43 O13 R11 R12
    Date: 2022–07–06
  28. By: Daniel R. Ringo
    Abstract: Recent increases in interest rates, combined with the rapid rise in house prices over the past two years, have eroded the affordability of homeownership. This note provides evidence that home purchase borrowing by below-average income households has fallen precipitously in 2022.
    Date: 2022–07–08
  29. By: Kozo Kiyota (Keio Economic Observatory, Keio University)
    Abstract: The declining share of manufacturing value-added, often referred to as "deindustrialization," is fast becoming a major concern for policymakers and academic researchers, especially in high-income countries. When compared with country-level analysis, however, regional-level analyses of deindustrialization within a country are limited. This paper empirically examines how and why the patterns of deindustrialization are uneven across regions within a country. The analysis builds upon the neoclassical trade model and uses regional-level data in Japan where both detailed output and input data are available at the regional and industry levels for both manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries over the last four decades. One of the major findings is that the large variation in deindustrialization within a country is attributable to differences in productivity and price changes across regions. In contrast, the effect of the slowdown in capital accumulation, partly from the expansion of foreign direct investment or offshoring, commonly appears not in specific regions but across regions. The effect of spatial interdependence is also not only statistically significant but also nonnegligible in terms of its magnitude.
    Keywords: Deindustrialization;Region;Neoclassical trade model;Productivity;spatial interdependence
    JEL: F11 F14 R12
    Date: 2022–07–22
  30. By: Goller, Daniel (University of St. Gallen); Diem, Andrea (University of St. Gallen); Wolter, Stefan C. (University of Bern)
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of the presence of university dropouts on the academic success of first-time students. Our identification strategy relies on quasi-random variation in the proportion of returning dropouts. The estimated average zero effect of dropouts on first- time students' success masks treatment heterogeneity and non-linearities. First, we find negative effects on the academic success of their new peers from dropouts re-enrolling in the same subject and, conversely, positive effects of dropouts changing subjects. Second, using causal machine learning methods, we find that the effects vary nonlinearly with different treatment intensities and prevailing treatment levels.
    Keywords: university dropouts, peer effects, better prepared students, causal machine learning
    JEL: A23 C14 I23
    Date: 2022–06
  31. By: Carlo Corradini (University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK); Jesse Matheson (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield, UK); Enrico Vanino (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield, UK)
    Abstract: In this paper we estimate the importance of local labour structure in the spread of COVID19 during the first year of the pandemic. We build a unique data set across 6,700 neighbourhoods in England that allows us to distinguish between people living (residents) and people working (workers) in a neighbourhood, and to differentiate between jobs that can be done from home (homeworkers), jobs that likely continued on-site (keyworkers), and non-essential on-site jobs. We use these data to study the relationship between the within-city variation in neighbourhood population/employment structures and the within-city variation in COVID-19 spread. Neighbourhood labour structure is important, explaining approximately 9.5% of the within-city variation over-and-above population density and other confounders. Holding residential population constant, 50 more residents working from home decreases neighbourhood cases by almost one-third relative to the mean; having 50 more residents in keywork jobs increases neighbourhood cases by almost two-thirds. We find the magnitude of these results varies by neighbourhood deprivation levels. In high-deprivation neighbourhoods, the positive effect of keyworkers on cases is larger, while the protective effect of homeworkers is lower than in more affluent areas. We speculate on how the various types of occupations within these job categories drive the differences across neighbourhoods. These findings point to important asymmetries in the social justice of the policy response to COVID-19, providing useful insights for the design of future economic policies and public health strategies during the endemic phase of the disease.
    Keywords: Urban Density, Local Labour Market, Public Health Policy
    JEL: H12 I18 R12
    Date: 2022–08
  32. By: Terstriep, Judith; David, Alexandra; Ruthemeier, Alexander; Elo, Maria
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a changing environment for transnational migrant start-ups. These changes have posed many challenges concerning altering strategic behaviour and approaches to driving business. We explored transnational migrant start-ups' embeddedness in translocal entrepreneurial ecosystems by analysing data from 14 semi-structured interviews with start-ups from Berlin's knowledgeintensive business services sector. We argue that the success of transnational migrant start-ups during crises is largely dependent on embeddedness in the local entrepreneurial ecosystem. Thus, we expect entrepreneurs to utilise local networks, infrastructures and interactions to help them cope with the challenges at hand and to pave the way for translocal business activities. Our results indicate that structural embedding in local entrepreneurial ecosystems and a sense of belonging, especially during the business formation phase, play a vital role for transnational migrant start-ups.
    Keywords: migrant entrepreneurship,migrant start-ups transnationalism,translocal embeddedness,COVID-19,crisis,entrepreneurial ecosystem
    JEL: F63 O12 L26
    Date: 2022
  33. By: Kristina Hrehova; Stefan Domonkos
    Abstract: Personal bankruptcy aims to provide a fresh start to debtors. While bankruptcy is often the only solution to financial distress, large spatial distance to affordable legal services may result in its underuse by eligible debtors. Using a large administrative dataset of personal bankruptcies, we study the impact of spatial distance from public Centers for Legal Aid (CLAs) on the regional incidence of personal bankruptcy in Slovakia. We avoid endogeneity by focusing on the increased availability of legal aid controlling for the expected distance from the nearest CLA, which serves as the first contact point in the process of filing for personal bankruptcy in the Slovak Republic. Distance from these legal aid centers has a significant impact on personal bankruptcy rates: the closer the nearest CLA is, the larger the prevalence of personal bankruptcy is in a given municipality. We quantify the impact of service access on personal bankruptcy rates, showing that improved access to free legal aid has both a statistically and substantively significant impact on the use of personal bankruptcy by the public. At the end of the almost 3-year-long period analyzed, municipalities with good access to CLAs had 3.3 bankruptcies more per 1,000 inhabitants than municipalities with weak access to CLAs. This effect is significant, as the average national bankruptcy rate until December 2019 reached 6.3 bankruptcies per 1,000 persons.
    Keywords: personal bankruptcy; insolvency; policy analysis; regional inequalities; spatial access, public services
    JEL: G51 O18 R53 K35 D63
    Date: 2022–06
  34. By: Celhay, Pablo (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile); Meyer, Bruce D. (University of Chicago); Mittag, Nikolas (CERGE-EI)
    Abstract: Stigma of welfare participation is important for policy and survey design, because it deters program take-up and increases misreporting. Stigma is also relevant to the literature on social image concerns, yet empirical evidence is scant because stigma is difficult to empirically identify. We use a novel approach to studying stigma by examining the relationship between program participation in a recipient's local network and underreporting program participation in surveys. We find a robust negative relationship and rule out explanations other than stigma. Stigma decreases when more peers engage in the stigmatized behavior and when such actions are less observable.
    Keywords: welfare stigma, program participation, social networks, social image, peer effects
    JEL: D19 D85 D91 I38 Z13
    Date: 2022–07
  35. By: Ohlsbom, Roope
    Abstract: Abstract Using linked employer-employee data from Finland, we examine the mobility of workers between establishments as a source of productivity-affecting knowledge spillovers. We find evidence that hiring workers from more productive establishments leads to higher productivity in the following year. For an average establishment, this productivity increase amounts to 0.45 percent in our most conservative estimate. The observed productivity gains hold for a variety of specifications, and changes in the receiving establishments’ human capital stock are ruled out as an explanation.
    Keywords: Worker mobility, Spillovers, Productivity, Human capital
    JEL: D22 D62 J21 J24 J62 L25
    Date: 2022–08–05
  36. By: Jan Ditzen (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano)
    Abstract: In this presentation, I introduce nwxtregress, a new community-contributed routine to estimate network regressions. It uses MCMC estimation methods (LeSage and Pace 2009) to produce estimates of endogenous peer effects, as well as own-node (direct) and cross-node (indirect) partial effects, where nodes correspond to cross-sectional units of observation. nwxtregress is designed to handle unbalanced panels of economic and social networks as in Grieser et al. (2021). Networks can be directed or undirected with weighted or unweighted edges, and they can be imported in a list format that does not require a shape
    Date: 2022–07–03
  37. By: Asma Benhenda (UCL Centre for Education Policy and Equalising Opportunities, University College London)
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has had a profoundly disruptive impact on education. Pupils with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND), whose inclusion was already a challenge before the pandemic, are at risk from being disproportionately affected. The Chancellor announced as part of the 2021 spending review that he was "more than tripling the amount" invested in special education needs. The Autumn Budget and Spending Review 2021 details "£2.6 billion of new funding across the next three years for new school places for children with special educational needs and disabilities". This amounts to a yearly increase in high-need funding by around £867m per year for the next three years.
    Keywords: mathematics;
    Date: 2022–08
  38. By: Xize Wang (National University of Singapore); Tao Liu (Peking University)
    Abstract: As a vital aspect of individual's quality of life, mental health has been included as an important component of the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals. This study focuses on a specific aspect of mental health: depression, and examines its relationship with commute patterns. Using survey data from 1,528 residents in Beijing, China, we find that every 10 additional minutes of commute time is associated with 1.1% higher likelihood of depression. We test for the mechanisms of the commute-depression link and find that commute is associated with depression as a direct stressor rather than triggering higher work stress. When decomposing commute time into mode-specific time, we found that time on mopeds/motorcycles has the strongest association with depression. Moreover, the commute-depression associations are stronger for older workers and blue-collar workers. Hence, policies that could reduce commute time, encourage work from home, improve job-housing balance or increase motorcyclists' safety would help promote mental health.
    Date: 2022–07
  39. By: D'Acunto, Francesco; Ghosh, Pulak; Jain, Rajiv; Rossi, Alberto G.
    Abstract: We estimate the cost of cultural biases in high-stake economic decisions by comparing agents' peer-to-peer lending choices with those the same agents make under the assistance of an automated robo-advisor. We first confirm substantial in-group vs. out-group and stereotypical discrimination, which are stronger for lenders who reside where historical cultural biases are higher. We then exploit our unique setting to document that cultural biases are costly: agents face 8% higher default rates on favored-group borrowers when unassisted. The returns they earn on favored groups increase by 7.3 percentage points when assisted. The high riskiness of the marginal borrowers from favorite groups largely explains the bad performance of culturally-biased choices. Because varying economic incentives do not reduce agents' biases, inaccurate statistical discrimination-unconscious biased beliefs about borrowers' quality-can explain our results better than taste-based discrimination.
    Keywords: Trust,Social Capital,Discrimination,Cultural Norms,Robo-Advising,Biased Beliefs,Inter-ethnic Conflict,Social Conditioning,Religion,Caste
    Date: 2022
  40. By: Höcker, Martin Christian; Bachtal, Yassien; Pfnür, Andreas
    Date: 2022–07–04
  41. By: Deepika Kandpal (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics); Dibyendu Maiti (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics)
    Abstract: The quest for social status is the driving force behind many human decisions including the expenditure on conspicuous goods. Recent evidence shows that conspicuous consumption patterns vary across social groups. Further, rank-based status signalling models suggest that the income distribution of peers affects conspicuous consumption behaviour. Using recent nationally representative microdata from India, this paper investigates the caste-based inequality in conspicuous consumption patterns and the role of income distribution of reference groups in explaining these differences. We find that social identity and economic inequality are essential determinants of conspicuous expenditure. Dalits and Adivasis spend around 7% more on conspicuous items than upper caste households. Consistent with the status signalling models, we find that this gap is significantly influenced by the disparities in the average income of the reference group, within-group income inequality and the share of peers with similar income, denoted by local density. Specifically, local density is found to have a strong influence on household conspicuous consumption decisions. Key Words: Conspicuous consumption, Income distribution, Signalling, Social groups, Social Status JEL Codes: D12, D31, J15
    Date: 2022–07
  42. By: Gabriele Cappelli; Leonardo Ridolfi; Michelangelo Vasta; Johannes Westberg
    Abstract: The literature on the causes of economic growth has emphasized the major role played by human capital accumulation. This survey shows that education and human capital are at the centre stage of the historical literature on industrialization and long-term economic development. Our contribution is threefold: first, we review the literature on the determinants of educational levels focusing on Europe in the period 1830 – 1930. We find that the lack of fine-grain spatial and (at the same time) harmonized data is preventing research on some important aspects of rising education. Secondly, we provide a preliminary taxonomy of European school acts and reforms in the 19th and early-20th century. Finally, we present the first version of a dataset under construction, which aims at providing spatial data covering gross enrolment rates and literacy across European regions from c. 1830 to 1930. Our preliminary results show that, in c. 1850, educational clusters appear to have often crossed national borders. By contrast, the effect of national institutions and regulations seems to have become an important determinant of schooling (and literacy) rates on the eve of the 20th century.
    Keywords: Education, literacy, Europe, regional, comparative.
    JEL: N30 O43 O52
    Date: 2022–03
  43. By: Irum Bhatti (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: Public land is an important component of aggregate wealth of country. Whereby, a local government has a say on sale of public land and developed in order to ensure its long-term viability and efficient utilization. Public land especially urban land has an immense opportunity to consider it as portfolio of assets for investment and industrial purposes.
    Date: 2022
  44. By: Wen, Le; Paudel, Krishna P.; Chen, Fengbo Sr.; He, Qinying
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Resource/Energy Economics and Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2022–08
  45. By: Amirhesam Badeanlou; Andrea Araldo; Marco Diana
    Abstract: We propose a methodology to assess transportation accessibility inequity in metropolitan areas. The methodology is based on the classic analysis tools of Lorenz curves and Gini indices, but the novelty resides in the fact that it can be easily applied in an automated way to several cities around the World, with no need for customized data treatment. Indeed, our equity metrics can be computed solely relying on open data, publicly available in standardized form. We showcase our method and study transp
    Date: 2022–06
  46. By: Diemer, Andreas; Iammarino, Simona; Perkins, Richard; Gros, Axel
    Abstract: Critical and conflict materials (CCMs) are providing an important material infrastructure for recent technological shifts. Relying on text analysis of US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) data, this exploratory study examines the technological and geographical linkages between technological paradigms and selected CCMs. Our descriptive analysis finds evidence of a clear association between information and communication technologies (ICTs) and CCM intensity over time, and of a striking resource–technology divide between value-creating and -extracting activities across the Global North and the Global South and their regions. The paper emphasizes the need for a more critical, spatially sensitive approach to studying resource-based technological change to expose its uneven development consequences.
    Keywords: critical and conflict materials; paradigm shift; technological demand; geography of technology; geography of resource supply; STICERD; LSE; 2019-2020; Undergraduate Research Fellowship from the Department of Geography & Environment; LSE; FORTE; 2016-07099; T&F deal
    JEL: O30 Q34 Q55 R11
    Date: 2022–04–15
  47. By: Tomasz Łyziak (National Bank of Poland); Michael Pedersen (Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez Business School); Ewa Stanisławska (National Bank of Poland)
    Abstract: Employing micro and aggregate observations on inflation expectations, we analyze the extent to which US consumers are affected by regional price swings when reporting their predictions of inflation. We begin with the aggregate data analysis based on a generalized sticky information model. The results indicate that regional differences in inflation rates do exert a statistically significant impact on disagreement in inflation expectations among consumers. However, the quantitative importance of this effect is small. The second part of the analysis employs micro survey observations to assess the importance of regional prices in the formation of inflation expectations. This is done, firstly, by considering a framework in which information is sticky and, secondly, in a context where consumer’s experience of inflation matters when forming expectations. We find that regional rather than national inflation rates affect consumers’ views on inflation in short- and medium-term horizon.
    Keywords: Inflation, consumer expectations, experience, sticky information, local prices.
    JEL: C23 E31 E58
    Date: 2022
  48. By: Browne, Jessica; Kim, Ayoung; Yun, Seong
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Environmental Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2022–08
  49. By: Del Boca, Daniela (University of Turin); Pronzato, Chiara D. (University of Turin); Schiavon, Lucia (University of Torino)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of parenting courses on families' time use with their children in urban areas in Italy. Courses aimed at raising parental awareness of the importance of educational activities were offered in four cities (Naples, Reggio Emilia, Teramo and Palermo) within the framework of the social program "FA.C.E. Farsi Comunità Educanti". In order to conduct the impact evaluation, we designed a randomized controlled trial involving random assignment of the families (mostly mothers). At the end of the intervention, we administered an assessment questionnaire both to the treatment group, which took the course, and to the control group, which did not. Comparing the outcomes, we find that attending the course increased families' awareness of the importance of educational activities for children, reading often to the children and spending more time with them.
    Keywords: parenting, use of time, educational activities, randomized controlled trial
    JEL: J13 D1 I26
    Date: 2022–06
  50. By: Barrera, Oscar (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne); Bensidoun, Isabelle (CEPII, Paris); Edo, Anthony (CEPII, Paris)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role played by immigrants and their children in shaping native attitudes toward immigrants in the European Union. By exploiting the 2017 Special Eurobarometer on immigrant integration, we show that countries with a relatively high share of immigrants are more likely to believe that immigrants are a burden on the welfare system and worsen crime. In contrast, native opinions on the impact of immigration on culture and the labor market are unrelated to the presence of immigrants. We also find that the effects of second-generation immigrants on pro-immigrant attitudes toward security and fiscal concerns are positive (as opposed to first-generation immigrants). Finally, we find no impact of the immigrant share on the attitudes of natives supporting far-left or left political parties, while it is the most negative among respondents affiliated with far-right parties.
    Keywords: immigration, second-generation immigrants, attitudes toward immigrants, public opinion
    JEL: F22 J15 P16
    Date: 2022–06
  51. By: Paskynel Jacques-Arvisais; Simon Lapointe
    Abstract: This study examines the relationship between transportation infrastructure and output and productivity in Canada. We estimate different specifications of a static Cobb-Douglas production function (in levels and in differences). The impact of highway infrastructure is mixed. For the 1997-2018 period a higher stock of highways does not translate into higher productivity for the business sector, But from 2009 to 2018, the impact of highways is positive and statistically significant, when we account for province-specific characteristics. The long run elasticity of output with respect to railway lines is statistically significant and quite large (0.27). For this type of infrastructure, then, our results are more conclusive and point to a positive impact of railways on output and productivity.
    Keywords: transportation infrastructure, output, productivity, Canada
    Date: 2022–02
  52. By: Resch, Christian
    Abstract: Online communities offer great potential for sourcing future innovations. While organizations search for inspiration and innovations outside their organizational boundaries to stay competitive, individuals innovate to solve their own needs and subsequently freely reveal these innovations. Online communities constitute a virtual space for individuals to share ideas, socially interact, collaborate, and build on others’ ideas. In this dissertation, I investigate how these social interactions influence the generation of ideas and the ongoing idea development in online communities. The three studies of this dissertation use two unique large datasets that allowed the investigation of social interactions and their contents. In doing so, topic modeling and social network analysis techniques build the methodical foundation to measure latent content representations of the information that is exchanged in online communities. Regarding the generation of new ideas, this dissertation includes two empirical studies that focus on the content that individuals access through their social peers. The first study reveals that the combination of redundant and non-redundant information favors idea newness. In particular, brokers accessing diverse social information benefit from redundant content for generating new ideas. In contrast, non-redundant contents have detrimental effects on brokers’ social non- redundancy regarding brokers’ idea newness. The second study takes a time-dependent view on social interactions and finds that a temporal separation between inspiration and focus on specific contents leads to more innovative outcomes of individuals engaging and innovating in online communities. By focusing on the ongoing collaborative idea development process in online communities, the third study investigates how social influences shape the trajectory ideas take after they got initially shared. The findings of the third study show that social impact theory helps explain how social influences affect the development directions of ideas in online communities. By taking different perspectives on innovative endeavors in online communities, this dissertation contributes to the literature on online communities, social networks, and user innovation. Specifically, this dissertation emphasizes the importance of social interactions for innovations and this relationships’ dependence on the actual content, timing, and social impact of social interactions.
    Date: 2022
  53. By: Katherine Hoffmann Pham; Junpei Komiyama
    Abstract: The sea crossing from Libya to Italy is one of the world's most dangerous and politically contentious migration routes, and yet over half a million people have attempted the crossing since 2014. Leveraging data on aggregate migration flows and individual migration incidents, we estimate how migrants and smugglers have reacted to changes in border enforcement, namely the rise in interceptions by the Libyan Coast Guard starting in 2017 and the corresponding decrease in the probability of rescue at sea. We find support for a deterrence effect in which attempted crossings along the Central Mediterranean route declined, and a diversion effect in which some migrants substituted to the Western Mediterranean route. At the same time, smugglers adapted their tactics. Using a strategic model of the smuggler's choice of boat size, we estimate how smugglers trade off between the short-run payoffs to launching overcrowded boats and the long-run costs of making less successful crossing attempts under different levels of enforcement. Taken together, these analyses shed light on how the integration of incident- and flow-level datasets can inform ongoing migration policy debates and identify potential consequences of changing enforcement regimes.
    Date: 2022–07
  54. By: Héloïse Berkowitz (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Martine Gadille (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, AMU - Aix Marseille Université)
    Abstract: How to organize clusters as local agents of transformative change, i.e. players that actively contribute to systemic sustainability transitions anchored in territories? We take a meta-organizational approach to the design of clusters for sustainability. We argue that achieving meta-organizational 'responsible actorhood' is a crucial condition for clusters to act as local agents of transformative change. Responsible actorhood allows to address the issues of lack of answerability, path dependency towards growth and labor resistance. Responsible actorhood involves 1) developing mechanisms to ensure 'metaorganizational accountability', 2) nurturing 'transformative mediated reflexivity' about technological ruptures and ecological performance in a public-centric approach and 3) enabling 'negotiated professional restructuring' to establish new knowledge processes at work. We contribute to the literature on clusters and STI policy, and to the metaorganization literature. Our work also has policy and practical implications for the design and steering of eco-industrial clusters.
    Keywords: meta-organization,sustainable innovation,actorhood,accountability,reflexivity,professionality,eco-industrial clusters
    Date: 2022–12–07
  55. By: Syaiful Hifni (Faculty of Economic and Business, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Akhmad Sayud Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economic and Business, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Rano Wijaya Author-3-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economic and Business, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Indonesia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: "Objective - The purpose of this research article is to assess how the integrated reporting is implemented into a regional investment information system (RIIS). Within build insight into regional investment management in line with sustainable development goals (SDGs). Methodology – This research was conducted on local governments in Indonesia that have implemented RIIS. Using data from 115 respondents, consisting of elements of local government, academics, business entities, NGOs, social organizations, and care for the environment. The measurement uses a nominal scale with a chi-square test for goodness of fit. Findings – The measurement results showed the frequency of observation (OF) has a value of 52.5504 with the chi-square table showing a value of 37.65. Based on this result showed OF > EF, it is evidence for being of corresponding between integrated thinking that fits with . The level of relationship towards SDGs information communication has a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.2894, as a low relationship. Novelty – This research article contributes practical implications where regional government entities to be effective implementers of practices for communication for regional investment management. As an insight in the viewing the growing debate on the merits of as a voluntary reporting initiative including for the local government sector, which has been adopted by other organizations as a mandatory initiative. The results of this research provide a fundamental way for a regional investment strategy that facilitates communication of the achievement of the SDGs in a global context. Type of Paper - Empirical"
    Keywords: Integrated Thinking, Integrated Reporting, Regional Investment Information System, Sustainable Development Goals
    JEL: M40
    Date: 2022–07–30
  56. By: Valter Di Giacinto (Bank of Italy); Andrea Sechi (Bank of Italy); Alessandro Tosoni (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: By exploiting firm level balance sheet data from the Cerved database and employment data from the INPS database, we provide a detailed description of the productivity performance of Italian industrial districts firms over the 2003-2017 period. The main structural features of industrial districts are first compared with those of the other types of local labour market areas. The performance of district firms is subsequently analysed both overall and separately for the firms belonging to the core district industry and the remaining companies. We find evidence of a positive and sizeable district productivity premium, increasing over the period of analysis. However, in order to consolidate their performance, industrial districts had to undergo significant structural changes. Medium-sized and large firms have grown in importance, also through a process of capital deepening that involved both tangible and intangible fixed assets. At the same time, structural adaptation involved the acquisition of a more significant role by firms not operating in the main district industry.
    Keywords: industrial districts, agglomeration economies, structural adaptation
    JEL: L25 L60 R11
    Date: 2022–06
  57. By: Olympia Bover (Banco de España); Laura Crespo (Banco de España); Sandra García-Uribe (Banco de España)
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to analyse the quality of the information on indebtedness gathered by the Spanish Survey of Household Finances (“EFF” by its Spanish initials). To this end, we match EFF data with the administrative data from the Central Credit Register (“CIR” by its Spanish initials), which every month details all outstanding loans in excess of €6,000 arranged by individuals with financial institutions in Spain. Given the differences between the two sources in terms of the information they gather, we construct and compare various measurements of household indebtedness. In order to minimise the differences associated with the discrepancies in household composition according to the municipal population register and the EFF, we analyse both the total linked sample and a subset of comparable households. Our findings show that, after controlling for the limitations of the link, indebtedness calculated with the EFF and the CIR is similar. 25.8% of households have mortgage debt according to the EFF, versus 29.9% according to the CIR. Within indebted households, the median mortgage debt recorded in the EFF is only 0.5% lower than the figure according to the CIR. Non-mortgage debt differences are bigger, but not substantial. 18% of households have non-mortgage debt according to the EFF, versus 23% according to the CIR, and the median debt is 10% lower in the EFF. Moreover, the detailed information provided by the survey on the characteristics of households and their respective debts makes it possible to identify the age of the reference person and the existence of debts shared with individuals who are not members of the household as being the characteristics that have the most bearing on the discrepancies between the EFF and the CIR. The findings of this analysis will help improve the gathering of information and the protocols for interviewing households for the EFF.
    Keywords: indebtedness, households, comparative analysis, survey data, administrative data
    JEL: C81 C83 G51
    Date: 2022–03
  58. By: Ralph Hippe; Damien Demailly; Claude Diebolt
    Abstract: New Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been praised to massively transform our economies, and to be the foundation of a new and more sustainable mobility regime. But will they? And if so, how could ICTs help building it? While the newest ICTs such as the internet are in some ways unique, in other respects they have historical predecessors (such as the telegraph and the telephone) that are worth considering. This paper reviews the literature and shows that ‘older’ ICTs have transformed our mobility regime in significant and unpredictable ways. In particular, they have supported and made more efficient new transport modes, contributed to the geographical concentration and dispersion trends of economic activities and changed how and how much we connect to our families and friends. ICTs can help building more sustainable mobility e.g., by making transport more efficient or reducing mobility demand in some cases, but overall the interactions between mobility and ICTs turn out to be important, diverse and complex.
    Keywords: Green deal, ICT, Digital transition, Mobility, Technological transformation, Innovation.
    JEL: N10 N90 O14 O18 O33 R41 R42
    Date: 2022
  59. By: Aimen Abbasi (MPhil Scholar, PIDE)
    Abstract: In June of 2021, Alight completed a seminal development project on the education of out-of-school children in Pakistan – successfully managing to enroll over a million kids over 3.5 years with the generosity of the Education Above All Foundation in Qatar and the assistance of its various local partners.
    Keywords: Literacy, Philanthropy,
    Date: 2021
  60. By: Tommy Krieger
    Abstract: We collect information about more than 5,000 Prussian politicians, digitize administrative data on the provision of health-promoting public goods, and gather local-level information on workers’ movements to study why elites in industrializing countries implement policies that improve the health of the poor. Exploiting county-level variation in elite structure, we present OLS and IV estimates, suggesting that elites improve access to health services due to pressure exerted by workers’ movements and that they voluntarily implement policies that prevent disease outbreaks. An analysis of two rollcall votes substantiates the findings of the county-level analysis.
    Keywords: distribution of power, elite structure, industrializing countries, political economy of health-promoting policies, Prussian history, redistribution, workers’ movements
    JEL: H11 H42 H75 I15 N33 O43 P16
    Date: 2022
  61. By: Gabriel Montes-Rojas (Instituto Interdisciplinario de Economía Política de Buenos Aires - UBA - CONICET); Vera Chiodi (Universit e de la Sorbonne)
    Abstract: We evaluate how the impact of a mentoring program in French disadvantaged high schools varies with the intensity of the program. Given that, in general, the only significant effect was observed by full attendance to all meetings, we argue that the treatment dose matters. Thus, while the original evaluation program was designed as a randomized experiment to balance control and treated individuals (those who were offered the mentoring scheme, with diferent degree of program participation), we motivate the use of continuous and multi-valued treatment effects models to estimate the dose response function. The program shows that information about prospective labor market opportunities feeds back positively into academic performance. However, it has a negative effect on job self-esteem, suggesting that acquiring information on job market prospects updates students’ priors on their skills and possibilities and that the students might be updating rationally.
    Keywords: Mentoring, Treatment effects, Dropout
    JEL: C31 I22 I24 I26 I28
    Date: 2021–07
  62. By: McCoy, Selina; Byrne, Delma
    Date: 2022
  63. By: Dossi, Gaia; Figlio, David; Giuliano, Paola; Sapienza, Paola
    Abstract: We study the effect of preferences for boys on the performance in mathematics of girls, using evidence from two different data sources. In our first set of results, we identify families with a preference for boys by using fertility stopping rules in a large population of households whose children attend public schools in Florida. Girls growing up in a boy-biased family score on average 3 percentage points lower on math tests when compared to girls raised in other types of families. In our second set of results, we find similar effects when we study the correlations between girls’ performance in mathematics and maternal gender role attitudes, using evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We conclude that socialization at home can explain a non-trivial part of the observed gender disparities in mathematics performance and document that maternal gender attitudes correlate with those of their children, supporting the hypothesis that preferences transmitted through the family impact children behavior.
    Keywords: cultural transmission; gender differences; math performance
    JEL: A13 I20 J16
    Date: 2021–03–01
  64. By: Silvia Loi (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Peng Li (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Mikko Myrskylä (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: Adverse life events are major causes of declining health and well-being, but the effects are not the same across subpopulations. We analyze how the intersection of nativity and two main adverse life events, job loss and divorce, affect individual health and well-being trajectories. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (1984-2017), we apply descriptive techniques and individual fixed-effects regressions to analyze how job loss and divorce influence health. Our results support the hypothesis of the intersectional effects of disadvantage and adversities on health and well-being, with immigrants suffering more from adverse life events than natives in both the short and the long run. Compared to natives, immigrants have a health advantage at younger ages, which turns into a disadvantage at older ages. The observed health declines are particularly steep among immigrants who experienced adverse life events. These results help to explain the vanishing health advantage of immigrants by showing that they are exposed to a double disadvantage over the life course: i.e., immigrants are more likely than natives to suffer from adverse life events, and such events typically have a larger impact on the health of immigrants than of natives. Our findings are the first to provide evidence on the effects of different adverse life events intersecting with each other and with nativity. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of intersectional analyses in research on immigrant health.
    Keywords: Germany, health, inequality, migrants
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2022
  65. By: Darya Korlyakova
    Abstract: There is a long-standing concern that expected discrimination discourages minorities from exercising effort to succeed. Effort withdrawal could contribute to confirming negative stereotypes about minorities’ productivity and enduring disparities. This paper extends the findings of correlational research by exogenously manipulating individuals’ beliefs about discrimination against their group and exploring a causal link between perceived discrimination and individuals’ labor market behavior. For this purpose, we conduct an online experiment in the US with a diverse sample of 2,000 African Americans. We randomly assign individuals to two groups and inform one group about the frequency of discrimination against African Americans in a previous survey. To study the information effects on effort, we subsequently measure participants’ results on a math task. We document that most individuals initially overestimate discrimination against African Americans. The overestimation decreases strongly and significantly as a result of information provision. At the same time, treated individuals, males in particular, attempt and solve correctly fewer math problems compared to untreated individuals. Hence, our findings do not support the common concern that minorities’ inflated expectations about discrimination induce them to underperform.
    Keywords: perceived discrimination; racial minorities; effort;
    JEL: C99 D83 J15
    Date: 2022–07
  66. By: Daniela Del Boca (University of Turin and Collegio Carlo Alberto); Chiara Monfardini; Sarah Grace See
    Abstract: The importance of investment in early childhood education (ECE) has been widely documented in the literature. Among the benefits, particularly for children from disadvantaged backgrounds, is its potential to mitigate educational inequality. However, some evidence also suggests that the positive effects of ECE on later outcomes tend to dissipate over time, leaving children who attended such programmes no better off academically than those who did not. This paper studies the relationship between students’ years spent in ECE and the results of their educational assessment outcomes at age 15. Using PISA survey data for fourteen European countries from 2015 and 2018, we conduct a cross- country comparison of student performance in reading, mathematics, and science, correlating the results to early childcare and pre-primary school attendance. Our findings show that participation in early childcare is associated with better assessments at age 15, but that the benefit is nonlinear and peaks at 3-4 years of childcare attendance. Examination of gender heterogeneity patterns reveals differences in girls’ and boys’ performance on the assessments; however, there are no gender differences in the relationship between childcare participation and test outcomes. We also explore differences related to the type of educational system attended and find distinct results for the unitary and separate settings.
    Keywords: early childhood education, pre-primary, early investments, human capital, assessments, gender, institution, unitary, separate, PISA
    JEL: J13 J16
  67. By: Song, Chun; Scognamillo, Antonio; Ignaciuk, Adriana
    Keywords: International Development, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2022–08
  68. By: Franco Mairuzzo (Centre for Competition Policy and School of Economics, University of East Anglia); Peter Ormosi (Centre for Competition Policy and Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia)
    Abstract: One of the central tenets of industrial organisation is that increasing/decreasing market concentration is likely to lead to increased/reduced markups. But does this affect every consumer to the same extent? Previous literature agrees that there can be significant price dispersion even in the case of homogeneous goods, which is at least partially due to the heterogeneity in how much consumers engage with the market. We link this heterogeneity to the impact of changing market concentration on markups. For this purpose, we employ a combination of 18 years of station-level motor fuel price data from Western Australia and a rich set of information on local market concentration. We summon a non-parametric causal forest approach to explore the heterogeneity in the effect of market exit/entry. The paper offers evidence of the distributional effect of changing market concentration. Areas with lower income experience a larger increase in petrol stations’ price margin as a result of market exit. On the other hand, entry does not benefit the same low-income areas with a larger reduction in the margin than in high-income areas. We argue that these findings are due to differences in how much consumers in different demographic groups engage with the market. Our findings give support to the argument that antitrust could help address inequality while staying true to its mission of promoting competition, provided that priorities are given to not only fixing supply-side problems but also to exploring demand-side remedies.
    Keywords: inequality, market concentration, income, consumer search, causal forests, petrol
    Date: 2022–07–08
  69. By: Morando, Greta (University College London); Platt, Lucinda (LSE)
    Abstract: The early development of non-cognitive skills has longlasting benefits for children's sub- sequent educational attainment and wages. Drawing on a rich, nationally representative longitudinal sample of young children in Ireland, we present new evidence on whether the use of centre-based childcare (CBC) in infancy and early years promotes non-cognitive skills by school entry. We focus on the type of non-parental childcare used by mothers who are working when their child is nine months, comparing CBC with other form of non-parental care. We consider the impact of childcare type on three domains of socio-emotional skills: externalising, internalising and pro-social behaviours. We find negative effects of CBC on both externalising and pro-social behaviours across most specifications. With a cumulative value added model we estimate that centre-based childcare at age three worsens externalising behaviour at age five by 0.11 standard deviations compared to other forms of non-parental care. This is equivalent to 44% of the difference in externalising behaviour between children with a mother with/out tertiary education. The effect of CBC on the externalising dimension of socio-emotional skills of children entering school is consistent across several specifications and robustness checks. Given planned expansion of CBC for those needing subsidised provision, we conclude that such measures could exacerbate socio-emotional inequalities.
    Keywords: centre-based childcare, child socio-emotional development, non-cognitive skills, growing up in Ireland
    JEL: J13 J24 I21 I24
    Date: 2022–07
  70. By: Köppl-Turyna, Monika; Köppl, Stefan; Christopulos, Dimitris
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze how different types of venture capital investments - private, public and indirect public - affect performance of portfolio companies. We use data on more than 20,000 VC deals in Europe between 2000 and 2018 and we hand collected a unique dataset on the institutional setting (public/indirect/private) of almost 5000 investors. We find that public VC investors perform consistently worse than purely private ones, while indirect public investments (such as the "Juncker Plan" or InvestEU investments) perform consistently better. We link these findings to the fact that public funds do not enter the best performing cliques of investments. On the other hand, indirect funds invest in the VC funds with the best network characteristics, which raises a question of whether indirect VC investments are associated with a high level of windfall gain, and not necessarily improve the value added by the VC funds. We confirm the main conclusions using instrumental variables' specifications.
    Keywords: venture capital,network analysis,governmental venture capital,European Investment Fund,syndication,public policy
    JEL: G24 G28 H81 L26 D73
    Date: 2022
  71. By: Donna Harris; Oana Borcan; Danila Serra; Henry Telli; Bruno Schettini; Stefan Dercon
    Abstract: We investigate whether ethics and integrity training can improve values, attitudes and behavior of police officers. We conducted a field experiment in Ghana, where we randomly selected traffic police officers to participate in a training program informed by theoretical work on the role of identity and motivation in organizations. The training was designed to re-activate intrinsic motivations to serve the public, and to create a new shared identity of “Agent of Change,” aimed at inducing a collective shift in attitudes and behaviors. Data generated by a survey and an incentivized cheating game conducted 20 months later, show that the program positively affected officers’ values and beliefs regarding on-the-job unethical behavior and improved their attitudes toward citizens. Moreover, the program significantly lowered officers’ propensity to behave unethically, as measured by their willingness to cheat in the incentivized game.
    Keywords: Ethics training, police, experiment
    JEL: H76 K42 M53 D73
    Date: 2022–05–30
  72. By: Steinhübel, Linda; Wegmann, Johannes; Jose, Monish
    Keywords: International Development, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Research Methods/Statistical Methods
    Date: 2022–08
  73. By: Afrasiyab Gul (MPhil Scholar, PIDE)
    Abstract: From the last few decades Pakistan has invested a lot in building roads which lead to high demand of cars in public. The National logistic cell (NLC) took away all the freights because of road pathways. So roads took away passengers and freights from Pakistan Railways (PR).
    Keywords: Pakistan, Railways,
    Date: 2021
  74. By: Nava, Consuelo R.; Osti, Linda; Zoia, Maria Grazia (University of Turin)
    Abstract: Over the years, benefits of domestic tourism have been shadowed by the exponential growth of international tourism, despite the former representing a crucial resource, especially at times of geopolitical instability and pandemics. Therefore, forecasting domestic tourism across different regions and sub-regions becomes fundamental to determine its viability as a substitution of international tourism during the COVID-19 pandemic and to evaluate the effectiveness of governmental incentive policies introduced for its promotion. To this aim, and given the availability of data sampled at different frequencies, mixed data-sampling (MIDAS) models have been employed to estimate and predict domestic tourism expenditures, arrivals, and overnight stays. To this aim, we consider the specific case of Italy for illustrative purposes.
    Date: 2022–07
  75. By: Schütt, Christoph; Pipke, David; Detlefsen, Lena; Grimalda, Gianluca
    Abstract: Ethnic discrimination is ubiquitous, and it has been shown to exert adverse effects on income redistribution. The reason is that a country's ethnic majority, if richer than the average, may be unwilling to transfer resources to the country's ethnic minorities if poorer than the average. A yet untested mechanism is that a country's ethnic majority may reduce their work effort knowing that their income will finance redistribution to ethnic minorities. We test for this mechanism experimentally in triadic interactions. A German citizen acting as a worker is randomly matched with a recipient who can be another German, an economic migrant, or an asylum seeker in Germany. Workers know that another German citizen may transfer part of their earnings to the recipient. The recipient does not exert any work effort. Even if the recipient's identity does not affect effort in the aggregate, social identity strongly moderates this relationship. Participants with a strong German identity, i.e., who report feeling close to other Germans, exert significantly less effort than other participants if the recipient is an asylum seeker. They also exert more effort when matched with a German recipient than an asylum seeker, while participants with a less strong German identity do the opposite. Moreover, participants with a strong German identity exert slightly more effort when matched with economic migrants than with asylum seekers, while others tend to do the opposite, albeit statistically insignificantly. Workers' beliefs over the third party's redistribution rate do not mediate such results and are generally inaccurate.
    Keywords: Redistribution,Discrimination,Taxes,Beliefs,Real effort,Experiment
    JEL: C91 H23 I31 J15 J30
    Date: 2022
  76. By: Nettie Bonsall
    Abstract: This report provides a detailed analysis of income trends and levels in New Brunswick by the province’s three census metropolitan areas (CMAs) and four census agglomerations (CAs) compared to trends and levels in areas outside the CMAs and CAs between 2000 and 2019. The three CMAs are in the southern half of New Brunswick, while the four CAs are in the northern half of the province. The average total and after-tax incomes of census family units are analyzed between 2008 and 2019, while the median total and after-tax incomes of census family units are examined between 2000 and 2019 (the respective longest periods over which the income measures were available for all CMAs and CAs). These income measures reveal significant income disparities between the northern CAs and the southern CMAs. According to all income measures discussed in the report, the Fredericton, Moncton and Saint John CMAs had considerably higher average and median incomes than did the CAs and the areas outside the CMAs and CAs. However, taxes helped lessen these sub-provincial income disparities. Moreover, the gaps between income levels in the three CMAs and in the province as a whole narrowed slightly over the measurement periods. In particular, areas outside the CMAs and CAs outperformed the CMAs and CAs in terms of average and median total and after-tax income growth between 2008 and 2019.
    Keywords: New Brunswick, income
    Date: 2021–10
  77. By: Merfeld, Joshua D. (KDI School of Public Policy and Management); Newhouse, David (World Bank); Weber, Michael (University of Chicago); Lahiri, Partha (University of Maryland)
    Abstract: Better understanding the geography of women's labor market outcomes within countries is important to inform targeted efforts to increase women's economic empowerment. This paper assesses the extent to which a method that combines simulated survey data from urban areas in Mexico with broadly available geospatial indicators from Google Earth Engine and OpenStreetMap can significantly improve estimates of labor force participation and unemployment rates. Incorporating geospatial information substantially increases the accuracy of male and female labor force participation and unemployment rates at the state level, reducing mean absolute deviation by 50 to 62 percent for labor force participation and 25 to 52 percent for unemployment. Small area estimation using a nested error conditional random effect model also greatly improves municipal estimates of labor force participation, as the mean absolute error falls by approximately half, while the mean squared error falls by almost 75 percent when holding coverage rates constant. In contrast, the results for municipal unemployment rate estimates are not reliable because values of unemployment rates are low and therefore poorly suited for linear models. The municipal results hold in repeated simulations of alternative samples. Models utilizing Basic Geo-Statistical Area (AGEB)–level auxiliary information generate more accurate predictions than area-level models specified using the same auxiliary data. Overall, integrating survey data and publicly available geospatial indicators is feasible and can greatly improve state-level estimates of male and female labor force participation and unemployment rates, as well as municipal estimates of male and female labor force participation.
    Keywords: small area estimation, data integration, geospatial data, labor force participation, unemployment, Mexico
    JEL: J21 C13
    Date: 2022–06

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