nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2022‒08‒15
eighty-one papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Racial Discrimination and Housing Outcomes in the United States Rental Marke By Peter Christensen; Ignacio Sarmiento-Barbieri; Christopher Timmins
  2. Cities Of The Future By Aqeel Anwar; Lubna Hassan; Adnan Saqib
  3. Developing New Cities In Pakistan: River Ravi Urban Development Project By Adnan Saqib
  4. Volatility in Home Sales and Prices: Supply or Demand? By Elliot Anenberg; Daniel R. Ringo
  5. What Is Smart About Smart Cities? By Ayesha Atique
  6. Homelessness in EU cities and towns before and during the COVID-19 pandemic – Main challenges and ways forward By Sjoerdje van Heerden; Paola Proietti; Silvia Iodice
  7. Commuting and Internet Traffic Congestion By Berliant, Marcus
  8. Agglomeration Spillovers and Persistence: New Evidence from Large Plant Openings By Carlianne Patrick; Mark Partridge
  9. The Great Migration and Educational Opportunity By Cavit Baran; Eric Chyn; Bryan A. Stuart
  10. The value of scattered greenery in urban areas: A hedonic analysis in Japan By Yuta Kuroda; Takeru Sugasawa
  11. Disruptive innovation and spatial inequality By Tom Kemeny; Sergio Petralia; Michael Storper
  12. Housing prices and credit constraints in competitive search By Díaz, Antonia; Jerez, Belén; Rincón-Zapatero, Juan Pablo
  13. Spatial Interactions By Kim, Jun Sung; Patacchini, Eleonora; Picard, Pierre M.; Zenou, Yves
  14. Urban Mobility Is More Than Cars And Expensive Metros! By Abdul Khaliq; Haseeb Hassan
  15. Modeling Bike Share Station Activity: Effects of Nearby Businesses and Jobs on Trips to and from Stations By Xize Wang; Greg Lindsey; Jessica E. Schoner; Andrew Harrison
  16. Incentive Systems for New Mobility Services By Ghafelebash, Ali; Razaviyayn, Meisam; Dessouky, Maged
  17. An Evaluation of a National Program to Reduce Student Absenteeism in High School By Michael Baker; Nina Drange; Hege Marie Gjefsen
  18. European Handbook for SDG Voluntary Local Reviews - 2022 Edition By SIRAGUSA Alice; STAMOS Iraklis; BERTOZZI Cecilia; PROIETTI Paola
  19. Private schools and student achievement By Ebrahim Azimi; Jane Friesen; Simon Woodcock
  20. Industrial sources and unevenness of regional employment resilience in Japan By Nishi, Hiroshi
  21. Robotization, Internal Migration and Rural Depopulation in Austria By Karim Bekhtiar
  22. Are Effective Teachers for Students with Disabilities Effective Teachers for All? By W. Jesse Wood; Ijun Lai; Neil R. Filosa; Scott A. Imberman; Nathan D. Jones; Katharine O. Strunk
  23. The Paradox of Housing Societies in Pakistan By Syed Saddam Haider
  24. Good Peers, Good Apples? Peer Effects in Portfolio Quality By Olga Balakina; Claes Bäckman; Andreas Hackethal; Tobin Hanspal; Dominique M. Lammer
  25. Master Planning: What Is It And What It Creates By Lubna Hassan; Aqeel Anwar; Adnan Saqib
  26. The Short-term Impact of Congestion Taxes on Ridesourcing Demand and Traffic Congestion: Evidence from Chicago By Yuan Liang; Bingjie Yu; Xiaojian Zhang; Yi Lu; Linchuan Yang
  27. Benchmarking the role of the Public Sector and Location Intelligence in Smart Spaces By VALAYER Clementine; SCHADE Sven; HERNANDEZ QUIROS Lorena; TSINARAKI Chrysi; PIGNATELLI Francesco; BOGUSLAWSKI Raymond
  28. The Italian National Strategy for Inner Areas: first insights from regions’ specialization in cultural and creative industries By Andrea Porta; Josep-Maria Arauzo-Carod; Giovanna Segre
  29. Evaluating Aordable Housing Outcomes in Toronto: An Analysis of Density Bonusing Agreements By Julie Mah
  30. Extractive Industries and Regional Diversification: A Multidimensional Framework for Diversification in Mining Regions By Moritz Breul; Miguel Atienza
  31. Gendered Teacher Feedback, Students' Math Performance and Enrollment Outcomes: A Text Mining Approach By Pauline Charousset; Marion Monnet
  32. Transit Infrastructure and Couples’ Commuting Choices in General Equilibrium By Velásquez, Daniel
  33. An Exploration of Racial Residential Segregation Trends in Atlanta: 1970-2020 By Lakshmi Pandey; David L. Sjoquist
  34. Clean identification? The effects of the Clean Air Act on air pollution, exposure disparities and house prices By Sager, Lutz; Singer, Gregor
  35. Property transfer taxes, residential mobility, and welfare By Daniel Jonas Schmidt
  36. Has the Relationship between Urban and Suburban Automobile Travel Changed across Generations? Comparing Millennials and Generation Xers in the United States By Xize Wang
  37. A new beginning: The effect of the free housing program on the quality of life of beneficiary households By Adriana Camacho-González; Jorge Enrique Caputo-Leyva; Fabio Sánchez-Torres
  38. Do school reforms shape study behavior at university? Evidence from an instructional time reform By Jakob Schwerter; Nicolai Netz; Nicolas H\"ubner
  39. Learning in Canonical Networks By Choi, S.; Goyal, S.; Moisan, F.; To, Y. Y. T.
  40. Characteristics of urbanization in the cities of southern Russia - results of a quantitative investigation (Ð¥Ð°Ñ€Ð°ÐºÑ‚ÐµÑ€Ð¸Ñ Ñ‚Ð¸ÐºÐ° урбанизации в городах юга Ð Ð¾Ñ Ñ Ð¸Ð¸ – результаты ÐºÐ¾Ð»Ð¸Ñ‡ÐµÑ Ñ‚Ð²ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¸Ñ Ñ Ð»ÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ ) By Starodubrovskaya Irina; Kazenin Konstantin
  41. Hedonic, Residual, and Matching Methods for Residential Land Valuation By Steven C. Bourassa; Martin Hoesli
  42. Examining Market Segmentation to Increase Bike-Share Use: The Case of the Greater Sacramento Region By Mohiuddin, Hossain; Fitch, Dillon; Handy, Susan
  43. Analysis of Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Improve Vulnerable Road Users Safety at Signalized Intersections By Qian, Xiaodong; Jaller, Miguel; Xiao, Runhua; Chen, Shenyang
  44. A Special Issue on Housing Affordability: An Introduction By Charles Ka Yui LEUNG; Byron Kwok Ping TSANG
  45. Regional Competitiveness of Bulgarian Regions and their Place in the European Union By Marinov, Eduard
  46. STEM Summer Programs for Underrepresented Youth Increase STEM Degrees By Sarah R. Cohodes; Helen Ho; Silvia C. Robles
  47. Regional Convergence in Bangladesh using Night Lights By Syed Abul, Basher; Salim, Rashid; Mohammad Riad, Uddin
  48. A Seat at the Table: Municipalities and Intergovernmental Relations in Canada By Tomas Hachard
  49. Comparing the 2019 American Housing Survey to Contemporary Sources of Property Tax Records: Implications for Survey Efficiency and Quality By Ariel J. Binder; Emily Molfino; John Voorheis
  50. Off to a Bad Start: Youth Nonemployment and Labor Market Outcomes Later in Life By Filomena, Mattia; Giorgetti, Isabella; Picchio, Matteo
  51. Predictors of School Exclusion as a Disciplinary Measure in New Zealand: A Maori, Pacific Peoples and Pakeha Comparison By Steve Agnew; Tom Coupé; Cassia-Rose Hingston
  52. Structural reforms during the greek economic adjustment programme: the amalgamation of municipalities By Massimiliano Ferraresi; Maurizio Conti; Nikolaos Benos; Stelios Karagiannis,; Michail Papazoglou
  53. Can decentralisation help address poverty and social exclusion in Europe? By Vassilis Tselios; Andres Rodriguez-Pose
  54. Minimum Wages and Labor Markets in the Twin Cities By Loukas Karabarbounis; Jeremy Lise; Anusha Nath
  55. A nation-wide experiment: fuel tax cuts and almost free public transport for three months in Germany -- Report 2 First wave results By Fabienne Cantner; Nico Nachtigall; Lisa S. Hamm; Andrea Cadavid Isaza; Lennart Adenaw; Allister Loder; Markus B. Siewert; Sebastian Goerg; Markus Lienkamp; Klaus Bogenberger
  56. Does Giving CRA Credit for Loan Purchases Increase Mortgage Credit in Low-to-Moderate Income Communities? By Kenneth P. Brevoort
  57. Construction Permits and Housing Loans: Launch of PIDE Sludge Series By Zahra Butt
  58. Nonlinear Effects of Mobility on COVID-19 in the U.S.: Targeted Lockdowns Based on Income and Poverty By Hakan Yilmazkuday
  59. Socio-Economic Impact of Ride Hailing: Overcoming Barriers to Mobility By Irum Bhatti
  60. The Behavioral Determinants of School Achievement: A Lab in the Field Experiment in Middle School By Etienne Dagorn; David Masclet; Thierry Penard
  61. Fiscal Policies, Decentralization, and Life Satisfaction By Manuela Ortega Gil
  62. Refugees, Right-Wing Populism and Propaganda: Evidence from the Italian Dispersal Policy By Francesco Campo; Sara Giunti; Mariapia Mendola
  63. Bring a Friend: Strengthening Women's Social Networks and Reproductive Autonomy in India By Anukriti, S; Herrera-Almanza, Catalina; Karra, Mahesh
  64. Housing returns and intertemporal substitution in consumption: estimates for industrial economies By Lorenzo Pozzi
  65. Common Ownership in Labor Markets By Jose Azar; Yue Qiu; Aaron Sojourner
  66. Creditworthiness and buildings' energy efficiency in the Italian mortgage market By Billio, Monica; Costola, Michele; Pelizzon, Loriana; Riedel, Max
  67. Integrating Recreational Demand and Hedonic Price Models: Evidence from Iowa Lakes Surveys and Zillow Housing Transactions By Wan, Xibo; Ji, Yongjie; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Wendong
  68. Persecution and Migrant Self-Selection: Evidence from the Collapse of the Communist Bloc By Ran Abramitzky; Travis Baseler; Isabelle Sin
  69. Second-generation immigrants and native attitudes toward immigrants in Europe By Oscar Barrera; Isabelle Bensidoun; Anthony Edo
  70. Using household-level data to guide borrower-based macro-prudential policy By Gaston Giordana; Michael H. Ziegelmeyer
  71. Linking Local Land Use and the Regional Economy in an Integrated Assessment Model of the US Great Lakes By Cultice, Brian J.; Irwin, Elena G.; Cai, Yongyang; Jones, Mackenzie; Gong, Ziqian; Bielicki, Jeff; Doidge, Mary; Guo, Ziyu; Jackson-Smith, Douglas
  72. Public Goods and Nested Subnational Units: Diversity, Segregation, and Hierarchy By Bharathi, Naveen; Malghan, Deepak; Mishra, Sumit; Rahman, Andaleeb
  73. The Role of Communication in the Religious Education of Children in Romania By Georgeta Stoica-Marcu
  74. Does social support affect students’ academic performance: evidence from a poor province in China By Yan, Ru; Jin, Songqing; Ji, Chen; Wang, Huan; Lyu, Jiayang; Rozelle, Scott D.
  75. Urban Pakistan And The Street Vendor Economy By Shahid Mehmood
  76. The Effect of Georgia's Job Tax Credit Program on Job Creation By Shiferaw Gurmu; David L. Sjoquist; Laura Wheeler
  77. Gender Gap in Education as a Portable Cultural Element: Evidence from First and Second Generation Immigrants By tavassoli, nahid; noghani, farzaneh; noghanibehambari, hamid
  78. Self-financing roads under coarse tolling and heterogeneous preferences By Vincent van den Berg
  79. Threshold spatial autoregressive model By Li, Kunpeng
  80. Evidence on Economies of Scale in Local Public Service Provision: A Meta-Analysis By Juan Luis Gómez-Reino; Santiago Lago-Peñas; Jorge Martinez-Vazquez
  81. Peer Learning in a Digital Farmer-to-Farmer Network: Effects on Technology Adoption and Self-Efficacy Beliefs By Lasdun, Violet; Harou, Aurelie P.; Magomba, Christopher; Guerena, David

  1. By: Peter Christensen (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); Ignacio Sarmiento-Barbieri (University of Los Andes); Christopher Timmins (Duke University)
    Abstract: We report evidence on discriminatory behavior from the largest correspondence study conducted to date in the rental housing market. Using more than 25,000 interactions with rental property managers across the 50 largest U.S. cities, the study reveals that African American and Hispanic/LatinX renters continue to face discriminatory constraints in the majority of U.S. cities although there are important regional differences. Stronger discriminatory constraints on renters of color (particularly African Americans) are also associated with higher levels of residential segregation and larger gaps in intergenerational income mobility. Using matched evidence on the actual rental outcomes at the properties in our experiment, we show that correspondence study measurements of discrimination do indeed predict actual outcomes.
    Date: 2022–06
  2. By: Aqeel Anwar (Lecturer, PIDE); Lubna Hassan (Senior Research Economist, PIDE); Adnan Saqib (Mphil Scholar, PIDE)
    Abstract: Pakistan currently houses some of the largest cities in the world. It has about 20 cities with populations of above a million. Karachi and Lahore are among the twenty-five mega-cities in the world. This rapid urbanization is accompanied by congestion, pollution, mobility issues, shortage of housing and other utilities, and sprawl. Pakistan also has 40 percent of its urban population living in slums. There is a clear shortage of urban public spaces, libraries, office and commercial spaces, and sustainable urban transportation. Our cities are not inclusive either. People living in slums, and street hawkers face a constant threat of eviction. Urban planning in Pakistan has not kept pace with the changes brought about by rapid urbanization. Pakistani cities lack the vigor and dynamism of modern, productive, competitive cities. Future of the countries are in the cities hence they should be better managed. In this webinar, speakers and experts gathered to discuss how cities can do it right.
    Keywords: Cities, Future,
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Adnan Saqib (MPhil Scholar, PIDE)
    Abstract: The River Ravi Urban Development Project is a multi-trillion mega project to develop a new city on the banks of river Ravi. The project, spanning over 40,000 hectares along the river Ravi, envisions a modern city with 12 sectors (residential, mixed-use, commercial, financial, innovation, medical, knowledge, sports, downtown, tourism, and urban farm), a 46-kilometer long clean water lake, and trees on 70 % of the land.1.4 million housing units housing 35 million people are expected to ease pressure on the ever-expanding city of Lahore.
    Keywords: Developing, New Cities, River Ravi Urban, Development Project,
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Elliot Anenberg; Daniel R. Ringo
    Abstract: We use a housing search model and data on individual home listings to decompose fluctuations in home sales and price growth into supply or demand factors. Simulations of the estimated model show that housing demand drives short-run fluctuations in home sales and prices, while variation in supply plays only a limited role. We consider two implications of these results. First, we show that reduction of supply was a minor factor relative to increased demand in the tightening of housing markets during COVID-19. New for-sale listings would have had to expand 30 percent to keep the rate of price growth at pre-pandemic levels given the pandemic-era surge in demand. Second, we estimate that housing demand is very sensitive to changes in mortgage rates, even more so than comparable estimates for home sales. This suggests that policies that affect housing demand through mortgage rates can influence housing market dynamics.
    Keywords: Housing search; Home prices; Home sales
    Date: 2022–06–30
  5. By: Ayesha Atique (Alumna, GCUF)
    Abstract: Smart cities are increasingly popular in the global south as 21st century solutions to the management of urban infrastructures systems, data and information about territories and populations. It has shaped entrepreneurial initiatives and increased competition across cities and nations in mediating urban interventions through technology, leading to top- down and universalized notions of seeing the city from above. This webinar will examine the social and cultural consequences of the smart city particular on gender, social class and spatial justice.
    Keywords: Smart, Cities,
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Sjoerdje van Heerden (European Commission _ JRC); Paola Proietti (European Commission _ JRC); Silvia Iodice (European Commission _ JRC)
    Abstract: This study summarises the main findings from a survey conducted among a sample of European cities and towns, composed of 133 local administrations across 16 EU Member States. A specific feature of the research is that findings are also analysed according to city size (ranging from small towns to large metropolitan areas), allowing for the detection of possible differences in terms of homelessness numbers, profiles, trends, and policies between cities, both before and during the Covid-19 pandemic. Overall, there are indications that city size matters when it comes to homelessness. For example, exclusively smaller urban areas report ‘zero homelessness’, while in smaller urban areas that do experience homelessness, more variation in profile type is observed. Furthermore, during the pandemic, it was largely the smaller urban areas that maintained stable numbers of homeless people. More research is needed to fully understand the exact cause of these differences. For example, the observation that smaller urban areas more often experience ‘zero homelessness’ may be rooted in more effective (prevention) policies, migration to larger cities, or due to different definitions or methodologies to measure homelessness. Improving policies that aim to tackle homelessness and precarious living conditions, fits with the ‘Leaving No One Behind’ principle, which is crucial in the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals framework and several EU initiatives, among those the European Pillar of Social Rights.
    Keywords: Homelessness, European cities and towns, affordable housing, social housing, emergency housing, exclusion, Covid-19 pandemic
    Date: 2022–07
  7. By: Berliant, Marcus
    Abstract: We examine the fine microstructure of commuting in a game-theoretic setting with a continuum of commuters. Commuters' home and work locations can be heterogeneous. A commuter transport network is exogenous. Traffic speed is determined by link capacity and by local congestion at a time and place along a link, where local congestion at a time and place is endogenous. The model can be reinterpreted to apply to congestion on the internet. We find sufficient conditions for existence of equilibrium, that multiple equilibria are ubiquitous, and that the welfare properties of morning and evening commute equilibria differ on a generalization of a directed tree.
    Keywords: Commuting; Internet traffic; Congestion externality; Efficient Nash equilibrium
    JEL: L86 R41
    Date: 2022–06–30
  8. By: Carlianne Patrick; Mark Partridge
    Abstract: We use confidential Census microdata to compare outcomes for plants in counties that “win” a new plant to plants in similar counties that did not to receive the new plant, providing empirical evidence on the economic theories used to justify local industrial policies. We find little evidence that the average highly incentivized large plant generates significant productivity spillovers. Our semiparametric estimates of the overall local agglomeration function indicate that residual TFP is linear for the range of “agglomeration” densities most frequently observed, suggesting local economic shocks do not push local economies to a new higher equilibrium. Examining changes twenty years after the new plant entrant, we find some evidence of persistent, positive increases in winning county-manufacturing shares that are not driven by establishment births.
    Keywords: local economic development, agglomeration externalities, persistence
    JEL: R11 H25 R38
    Date: 2022–06
  9. By: Cavit Baran (Northwestern University); Eric Chyn (NBER and Dartmouth College); Bryan A. Stuart (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia)
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of the First Great Migration on children. We use the complete-count 1940 Census to estimate selection-corrected place effects on education for children of Black migrants. On average, Black children gained 0.8 years of schooling (12 percent) by moving from the South to the North. Many counties that had the strongest positive impacts on children during the 1940s offer relatively poor opportunities for Black youth today. Opportunities for Black children were greater in places with more schooling investment, stronger labor market opportunities for Black adults, more social capital, and less crime.
    Keywords: Great Migration, human capital, education, place effect
    JEL: N32 J15 J24 H75
    Date: 2022–06
  10. By: Yuta Kuroda; Takeru Sugasawa
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of scattered greenery (street trees and yard bushes), rather than cohesive greenery (parks and forests), on housing prices. We identify urban greenspace from high-resolution satellite images and combine these data with data on both sales and rentals of condominiums to estimate hedonic pricing models. We find that scattered urban greenery within 100 meters significantly increases housing prices, while more distant scattered greenery does not. Scattered greenery is highly valued near highways but is less valued near the central business district (CBD). Additionally, the prices of inexpensive and small for-sale and of for-rent properties are less affected by scattered greenery. These results indicate that there is significant heterogeneity in urban greenery preferences by property characteristics and location. This heterogeneity in preferences for greenery could lead to environmental gentrification since the number of more expensive properties increases in areas with more green amenities.
    Date: 2022–07
  11. By: Tom Kemeny; Sergio Petralia; Michael Storper
    Abstract: Although technological change is widely credited as driving the last two hundred years of economic growth, its role in shaping patterns of inequality remains under-explored. Drawing parallels across two industrial revolutions in the United States, this paper provides new evidence of a relationship between highly disruptive forms of innovation and spatial inequality. Using the universe of patents granted between 1920 and 2010 by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, we identify disruptive innovations through their rapid growth, complementarity with other innovations, and widespread use. We then assign more- and less-disruptive innovations to subnational regions in the geography of the U.S. We document three findings that are new to the literature. First, disruptive innovations exhibit distinctive spatial clustering in phases understood to be those in which industrial revolutions reshape the economy; they are increasingly dispersed in other periods. Second, we discover that the ranks of locations that capture the most disruptive innovation are relatively unstable across industrial revolutions. Third, regression estimates suggest a role for disruptive innovation in regulating overall patterns of spatial output and income inequality
    Keywords: technological change; regional development; industrial revolutions; innovation; inequality
    JEL: O30 O33 O51 J31
    Date: 2022–07
  12. By: Díaz, Antonia; Jerez, Belén; Rincón-Zapatero, Juan Pablo
    Abstract: This paper shows that, when utility is imperfectly transferable and the search process is competitive (or directed), wealthier buyers pay higher prices to speed up transactions. This result is established in a dynamic model of the housing market where households save both to smooth consumption and to build a down payment. "Block recursivity" is ensured by the existence of risk-neutral housing intermediaries. The calibrated version of our benchmark economy features greater indebtedness and higher housing prices in the long run compared to aWalrasian model, especially when the elasticity of new housing supply is low. We also show that the long-run effect of greater credit availability on housing prices depends crucially on whether or not rental and real estate housing stocks are segmented. Under full segmentation, price effects are much larger, with and without search frictions. But, even if there is no segmentation, these effects are substantial in our search model when supply elasticity is low, being larger than in the Walrasian version of the model. The last result is reversed with full segmentation, when search frictions dampen the price effect of the credit expansion.
    Keywords: Competitive Search; Wealth Effects; Housing Prices; Credit Constraints; Housing Supply Elasticity; Rental Market
    JEL: D31 D83 E21 R21 R30
    Date: 2022–07–26
  13. By: Kim, Jun Sung; Patacchini, Eleonora (Cornell University); Picard, Pierre M. (University of Luxembourg); Zenou, Yves (Monash University)
    Abstract: This paper studies how the strength of social ties are affected by the geographical location of other individuals and their social capital. We characterize the equilibrium in terms of both social interactions and social capital. We show that lower travel costs increase not only the interaction frequency but also the social capital for all agents. We also show that the equilibrium frequency of interactions is lower than the efficient one. Using a unique geo-coded dataset of friendship networks among adolescents in the United States, we structurally estimate the model and show that, indeed, agents socially interact less than that at the first best optimum. Our policy analysis suggests that, at the same cost, subsidizing social interactions yields a higher total welfare than subsidizing transportation costs.
    Keywords: social networks, location, structural estimation, policies
    JEL: D85 R1 Z13
    Date: 2022–06
  14. By: Abdul Khaliq (MPhil Scholar, PIDE); Haseeb Hassan (MPhil Scholar, PIDE)
    Abstract: What should be the ideal vision of urban transport policy? For this, first we have to study the urban transport policy progression and how it evolves globally. Nowadays, the urban transport system is accessibility based which evaluates the system on the ability of both people and business to access the desired services and activities (Litman, 2020). Accessibility is the main driver of cities growth and development.
    Keywords: Urban Mobility, Cars, Expensive Metros,
    Date: 2021
  15. By: Xize Wang (University of Southern California); Greg Lindsey (University of Minnesota); Jessica E. Schoner (University of Minnesota); Andrew Harrison (San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency)
    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to identify correlates of bike station activity for Nice Ride Minnesota, a bike share system in Minneapolis - St. Paul Metropolitan Area in Minnesota. We obtained the number of trips to and from each of the 116 bike share stations operating in 2011 from Nice Ride Minnesota. Data for independent variables included in models come from a variety of sources; including the 2010 US Census, the Metropolitan Council, a regional planning agency, and the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul. We use log-linear and negative binomial regression models to evaluate the marginal effects of these factors on average daily station trips. Our models have high goodness of fit, and each of 13 independent variables is significant at the 10% level or higher. The number of trips at Nice Ride stations is associated with neighborhood socio demographics (i.e., age and race), proximity to the central business district, proximity to water, accessibility to trails, distance to other bike share stations, and measures of economic activity. Analysts can use these results to optimize bike share operations, locate new stations, and evaluate the potential of new bike share programs.
    Date: 2022–07
  16. By: Ghafelebash, Ali; Razaviyayn, Meisam; Dessouky, Maged
    Abstract: With rapid population growth and urban development, traffic congestion has become an inescapable issue in large metropolitan regions. Research studies have proposed different strategies to control traffic, ranging from roadway expansion to transportation demand management programs. Among these strategies, congestion pricing and incentive offering schemes have been widely studied as reinforcements for traffic control in traditional traffic networks where each driver is a “player” in the network. In such a network, the “selfish” behavior of individual drivers prevents the entire network to reach a socially optimal operation point. In future mobility services, on the other hand, a large portion of drivers/vehicles may be controlled by a small number of companies/organizations. In such a system, offering incentives to organizations can potentially be much more effective in reducing traffic congestion rather than offering incentives directly to drivers. This research project studies the problem of offering incentives to organizations to change the behavior of their individual drivers (or individuals using their organization’s services). The incentives are offered to each organization based on their aggregated travel time loss across all their drivers. This step requires solving a large-scale optimization problem to minimize the system-level travel time. We propose an efficient algorithm for solving this optimization problem. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, multiple experiments are conducted by Los Angeles traffic data. Our experiments show that the proposed algorithm can decrease the system-level travel time by up to 6.9%. Moreover, our experiments demonstrate that incentivizing organizations can be up to 8 times more efficient than incentivizing individual drivers in terms of incentivization monetary cost. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences, New Mobility Services, Congestion Reduction, Incentive, Behavior Change, Travel Demand Management.
    Date: 2022–07–01
  17. By: Michael Baker; Nina Drange; Hege Marie Gjefsen
    Abstract: Starting in the 2016/17 academic year, high school students in Norway who missed more than 10 percent of the hours in a given course without a medical excuse could not receive a final grade. We examine the impacts of this policy on student absenteeism, the incidence of the no grade penalty and two measures of student achievement. The policy had the intended impact on absenteeism, reducing total absence by 20-28 percent, and chronic absence by 29-39 percent in the high school grades. This behavioral response was largely sufficient to avoid the academic penalty for absence over the 10 percent threshold under the new law. Finally, we find a mixed impact on student achievement: little impact on externally graded, end of year exams, and modest evidence of a positive impact of 6 percent of a standard deviation on teacher awarded GPA.
    JEL: I21 J24
    Date: 2022–07
  18. By: SIRAGUSA Alice (European Commission - JRC); STAMOS Iraklis (European Commission - JRC); BERTOZZI Cecilia (European Commission - JRC); PROIETTI Paola (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The European Handbook for SDG Voluntary Local Reviews – 2022 edition provides policy makers, urban practitioners and experts with a consolidated method and examples of indicators that European local and regional governments can use to monitor the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Voluntary Local Reviews (VLRs) are processes that encompass both the monitoring and the analysis of the achievements with respect to the SDGs at local level. The 2022 edition builds on the first one published in 2020 and it includes an updated analysis of the VLRs published globally and in Europe, their evolution over time and space in terms of use, main characteristics, and building blocks. The European Handbook includes detailed and updated information on 72 indicators and related data sources, which can enable cities to measure their progress toward the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The set of indicators includes examples of both official and experimental indicators, coming from international and European institutions, but also regional and local governments and research institutes. Finally, the European Handbook provides new insights into local SDG monitoring, including reference to new challenges and opportunities. The European Handbook for SDG Voluntary Local Reviews – 2022 edition represents a step forward in the support for European local and regional governments in localising the SDGs using the Voluntary Local Reviews (VLRs).
    Keywords: SDGs, monitoring, sustainable development, 2030 agenda
    Date: 2022–06
  19. By: Ebrahim Azimi; Jane Friesen (Simon Fraser University); Simon Woodcock (Simon Fraser University)
    Abstract: We investigate the effects of private schools on reading and numeracy scores using rich population data. Conditional on lagged test scores and narrowly defined neighborhood indicators, Catholic and non-Christian faith private schools on average raise test scores by 0.18 standard deviations or more relative to the average public school, while non-Catholic Christian private schools have negligible effects. The effects of secular private “prep†schools are similar to those of Catholic schools, but selection bias is a greater concern in this case. We use schoolspecific estimates of effectiveness to investigate private school choice decisions and the determinants of private school effectiveness.
    Date: 2022–05
  20. By: Nishi, Hiroshi
    Abstract: Given the increase in the importance of measuring the degree and source of resilience after great shocks, resilience has garnered researchers’ attention. However, there is no generally agreed-upon measurement for resilience; the existing approach holds few industrial assessments for resilience. This study provides a structural sensitivity index to measure the industrial sources of regional employment resilience and applies it to the Japanese economy between 1980 and 2012. It presents a novel formula that quantifies the sources of regional resilience by within-sector and structural change effects and extracts how unevenly different local industries con-tribute to regional resilience. Exploring the industrial and quantitative aspects of employment resilience chronally and geographically reveals that Japanese prefectures gradually became resilient after the 1990s, increasing the regional heterogeneity. Moreover, the structural change effect has constantly hurt the regional resilience, offsetting some favourable within-sector effects. Finally, the increasing regional heterogeneity behind improvements in resilience accompanies industrial unevenness from different time horizons, but the overall relationship between industrial unevenness and resilience is not unique from a different spatial perspective.
    Keywords: Resilience, sensitivity index, employment, industrial structural change, Japan
    JEL: B52 E24 J21 R11 R12
    Date: 2022–06–23
  21. By: Karim Bekhtiar (Institut für Höhere Studien (IHS) Wien)
    Abstract: Internal migration flows from rural to urban areas have greatly contributed to population declines in many rural areas across both Europe and the US. At the same time there is mounting evidence for a tight connection between internal migration and shifts in labor demand, with the latter being heavily affected by the rise of automation technologies. Therefore this paper analyzes the effects industrial robotization has had on manufacturing employment and internal migration in Austria during the period 2003-2016, specifically focusing on rural-to-urban migration flows. The results show that robotization has caused significant declines in manufacturing employment to which populations reacted by increased out-migration. This migratory response takes the form of rural-to-urban migration, thereby contributing to population declines in many rural areas in Austria. These rural-to-urban movements are primarily driven by young and medium/low skilled individuals, i.e. those groups that bear the strongest shock incidence.
    Keywords: Employment, internal migration, robots, rural depopulation
    JEL: J21 J23 J61 R23
    Date: 2022–06
  22. By: W. Jesse Wood; Ijun Lai; Neil R. Filosa; Scott A. Imberman; Nathan D. Jones; Katharine O. Strunk
    Abstract: The success of many students with disabilities (SWDs) depends on access to high-quality general education teachers. Yet, most measures of teacher value-added measures (VAM) fail to distinguish between a teacher’s effectiveness in educating students with and without disabilities. We create two VAM measures: one focusing on teachers’ effectiveness in improving outcomes for SWDs, and one for non-SWDs. We find top-performing teachers for non-SWDs often have relatively lower VAMs for SWDs, and that SWDs sort to teachers with lower scores in both VAMs. Overall, SWD-specific VAMs may be more suitable for identifying which teachers have a history of effectiveness with SWDs and could play a role in ensuring that students are being optimally assigned to these teachers.
    JEL: I21 I24
    Date: 2022–07
  23. By: Syed Saddam Haider (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: Housing Societies have gained immense importance overtime as they provide shelter to the urban dwellers. However, these Societies have to work under the ambit of Local Development Authorities, who have a stringent regime for granting approvals. Same is the case with Capital Development Authority (CDA), which manages development of Islamabad in its retrospection with the Master Plan.
    Date: 2022
  24. By: Olga Balakina (Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University); Claes Bäckman (Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University, Knut Wiksell Center for Financial Studies, Lund University); Andreas Hackethal (Goethe University Frankfurt, Leibniz Institute for Financial Research SAFE Frankfurt); Tobin Hanspal (Department of Finance, Vienna University of Economics and Business); Dominique M. Lammer
    Abstract: Peer effects can lead to better financial outcomes or help propagate financial mistakes across social networks. Using unique data on peer relationships and portfolio composition, we show considerable overlap in investment portfolios when an investor recommends their brokerage to a peer. We argue that this is strong evidence of peer effects and show that peer effects lead to better portfolio quality. Peers become more likely to invest in funds when their recommenders also invest, improving portfolio diversification compared to the average investor and various placebo counterfactuals. Our evidence suggests that social networks can provide good advice in settings where individuals are personally connected.
    Keywords: Household finance, investment decisions, investment behavior, peer effects, social networks
    JEL: D14 G11 G4
    Date: 2022–07–18
  25. By: Lubna Hassan (Senior Research Economist, PIDE); Aqeel Anwar (Lecturer, PIDE); Adnan Saqib (Mphil Scholar, PIDE)
    Abstract: All major cities in Pakistan are in the process of reviewing and updating their master plans. Master plans are developed by urban governments to manage a city’s land use, zoning and building regulations, and provision of civic amenities. These plans are prospective and require extensive data to plan. Our cities spend resources and time developing master plans to lock themselves and their cities into a predetermined path of growth and lifestyles.
    Keywords: Master Planning,
    Date: 2021
  26. By: Yuan Liang; Bingjie Yu; Xiaojian Zhang; Yi Lu; Linchuan Yang
    Abstract: Ridesourcing is popular in many cities. Despite its theoretical benefits, a large body of studies claimed that ridesourcing also brings externalities (e.g., inducing trips and aggravating traffic congestion). Therefore, many cities are planning to or have already enacted policies to regulate its use. However, their effectiveness or their impact on ridesourcing demand and traffic congestion is uncertain. To this end, this study applies difference-in-differences, i.e., a regression-based causal inference approach, to empirically evaluate the effect of the congestion tax policy on ridesourcing demand and traffic congestion in Chicago. It shows that this congestion tax policy significantly curtails overall ridesourcing demand. However, its impact on traffic congestion is marginal. The results are robust to the choice of time windows and data sets, alternative model specifications, and alternative modeling approaches (i.e., regression discontinuity design in time). Moreover, considerable heterogeneity exists. For example, the policy notably reduces ridesourcing demand with short travel distances, whereas such impact is gradually attenuated as the distance increases.
    Date: 2022–07
  27. By: VALAYER Clementine; SCHADE Sven (European Commission - JRC); HERNANDEZ QUIROS Lorena (European Commission - JRC); TSINARAKI Chrysi (European Commission - JRC); PIGNATELLI Francesco (European Commission - JRC); BOGUSLAWSKI Raymond
    Abstract: The diffusion of technologies has enabled many cities to transform into hubs of digital transformation, deploying urban platforms, digital twins of cities and other digital ecosystems that leverage geospatial information. Smart cities are part of a wider trend, which has a strong element of location - the Smart Space. While we witness the market for Smart Spaces expanding, we lack a deeper understanding of its challenges and the possible solutions that location intelligence might provide. We see a particular opportunity to identify areas where the public sector can help address these challenges. It will thus inform relevant policies, such as the interoperability policy and the EU Data Strategy. Developing a benchmarking framework to analyse Smart Spaces in this context is particularly important to identify barriers, for example, in the interoperability of (location) data and technology, anticipating emerging market demands, and the derived recommendations for improving the status quo – especially for required actions of the public sector. This report details how the Smart Space Benchmark Framework was designed, the insight gathered from the four case studies, an analysis of how to improve the use of location intelligence in Smart Spaces, and provides conclusions and recommendations. Our conclusions address the outcomes of these areas of study, setting the key takeaways from benchmarking the roles of the public sector and location intelligence in a wider context and suggesting future research.
    Keywords: Smart Spaces, Location intelligence, Location interoperability, framework, case studies, ELISE, ISA2
    Date: 2022–06
  28. By: Andrea Porta (University Rovira i Virgili); Josep-Maria Arauzo-Carod (University Rovira i Virgili); Giovanna Segre (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The paper investigates the spatial distribution of cultural and creative industries (CCIs) with the main focus on the inner peripheries of the Italian regions, as defined by the Italian National Strategy of Inner Areas (SNAI). The objective of the paper is to analyse the role of culture in fostering the development of peripheral areas in order to discuss the correspondence between the presence of CCIs evaluated in terms of establishments and employees, and the policies applied by the National Strategy. The analysis includes quantitative (specialization indexes) and cartographic methods (maps) at the national, regional, and local levels that provide a clear insight into the CCIs endowments. The results of the analysis suggest that CCIs distribute in Italian Inner peripheries in a similar way than in the whole country. The results also confirm the historically rooted difference between the northern and southern parts of Italy. The paper opens to further research concerning the adherence of the SNAI (and the actions planned at the different scales) to the actual characteristics of the economic tissue and the possible role of culture in bridging the gap between the areas, contributing to the success of the overall National Strategy.
    Keywords: Inner peripheries, SNAI, Cultural and Creative Industries, Regional development
    JEL: R58 Z11
    Date: 2022
  29. By: Julie Mah (University of Toronto)
    Abstract: Owing to limited public-sector funding, municipalities have increasingly relied on the private sector to help build affordable housing. Some cities have employed value capture tools – such as incentive zoning (which may involve density bonusing and other incentives) – to address housing affordability problems. These tools use the increase in land value that results from public actions (such as rezoning) to pay for affordable housing. In Toronto, the City has secured such affordable housing contributions largely through the development approvals process and individual negotiations with developers. This process has been facilitated through Section 37 of Ontario’s Planning Act, which permits the City to approve increases in height or density or both above the limits allowed by current zoning in exchange for community benefits. Very little research has examined how effective this density bonusing approach has been in producing affordable housing in Toronto. This paper examines Section 37 agreements from 1988 to 2018 that contain affordable housing benefits to show the housing outcomes achieved through Toronto’s approach. In November 2021, the City of Toronto adopted a new inclusionary zoning policy that requires developers to set aside a percentage of new housing units as affordable housing. So it is important to analyze Section 37 data and map where, how many, and what type of affordable units were produced under the previous affordable housing governance structure to create a baseline against which a future approach could be evaluated. The results of the analysis show that while Section 37 has managed to generate some physical affordable units, the tool has been more successful at securing funding (more than $65 million) for affordable housing. Unfortunately, these cash contributions translate into relatively few units. Moreover, the funds have been received in many small amounts over the years, further reducing the effectiveness of this approach to creating new affordable housing.
    Keywords: : affordable housing, density bonusing, City of Toronto, inclusionary zoning
    JEL: H70 R38
    Date: 2022–04
  30. By: Moritz Breul; Miguel Atienza
    Abstract: Economic diversification is seen as imperative for mining regions to achieve an economically sustainable form of development. Yet, existing knowledge is largely drawn from national scale analyses, thereby concealing interregional differences as well as mechanisms between resource extraction and diversification operating at the regional scale. This special issue on ‘Extractive Industries and Regional Diversification’ therefore shows recent work that brings the study of the relationship between extractive industries and diversification to a regional level. In this introductory article, we propose a multidimensional framework that seeks to refine our understanding of mining regions’ (in)ability to diversify their economies by bringing together insights from research on the relationship between resource extraction and development and research on regional diversification in economic geography. We argue that the effect of extractive industries on regional diversification is mediated along three dimensions, that is (1) the regional context conditions, (2) the multi-scalar organization of extractive industries, and (3) the relevance of temporality. The framework is applied to synthesize the key insights of the special issue articles and directions for future research are derived.
    Keywords: regional diversification, mining regions, subnational resource curse, Dutch disease, Evolutionary Economic Geography
    Date: 2022–07
  31. By: Pauline Charousset (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Marion Monnet (INED - Institut national d'études démographiques)
    Abstract: This paper studies how student gender influences the feedback given by teachers, and how this affects the student's performance in school. Using the written feedback provided to the universe of French high school students by their math teachers over a five-year period, we show that teachers use different words to assess the performance of equally able male and female students. Teachers highlight the positive behavior and encourage the efforts of their female students while, for similarly-performing males, they criticize the students for unruly behavior and praise them for their intellectual skills. To understand how this relates to the student's subsequent educational outcomes, we then match these data to records from French national examinations, as well as these students' higher education application behavior and ultimate institution of enrollment. Using the quasi-random allocation of teachers to classes, we estimate that being assigned to a teacher with feedback that is one standard deviation more gendered improves student math performance by 1.6 percent of a standard deviation on average, but does not affect students' enrollment in higher education in the following year.
    Keywords: teacher feedback,text mining,gender,student performance,higher education
    Date: 2022–07
  32. By: Velásquez, Daniel
    Abstract: What is the impact of improving the transit infrastructure on the gender earnings gap? How does family structure matter to un†derstand the impact of new transit infrastructure? Recent mod†els on spatial economics hinge on the assumption that house†holds are comprised of a single type of person making commut†ing and location choices. In reality, an important share of the pop†ulation lives in households with more persons, whose commut†ing choices might be interlinked through the household’s budget constraint. I set up and estimate a quantitative model of city structure featuring single and married households leveraging on the introduction of a Metro line and the Bus Rapid Transit System (BRT) in Lima, Peru. My model delivers interdependent commut†ing choices within dual†earner households. This way, reduced commute times impact one partner’s commuting patterns not only by affecting her prospects, but also those of her spouse. I show that this mechanism is quantitatively important. If I ignore this mechanism, I would overestimate gains in real income by 11% and underestimate reductions in the gender earnings gap by 103%, leading to a switch in the sign of the impact of the Metro and the BRT.
    Keywords: Ciudades, Desarrollo urbano, Evaluación de impacto, Género, Infraestructura, Investigación socioeconómica, Movilidad urbana, Servicios públicos, Transporte,
    Date: 2022
  33. By: Lakshmi Pandey (Center for State and Local Finance, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University); David L. Sjoquist (Center for State and Local Finance, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University)
    Abstract: In this report we explore two major demographic changes in the 10-county Atlanta Regional Commission region. First, between 1940 and 2020, the population of the ARC region changed dramatically, both in number and racial composition. Second, between 1970 and 2020 the region experienced a significant change in racial residential segregation.
    Date: 2022–04
  34. By: Sager, Lutz; Singer, Gregor
    Abstract: We analyze the effect of the U.S. Clean Air Act standards for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Using high-resolution air pollution data, we find that nonattainment designations in 2005 led to reductions in PM2.5 levels by −0.4µm−3 over five years, with larger effects in more polluted areas. Standard difference-in-differences would overstate these effects by a factor of three due to time trends that differ by baseline pollution. We propose three alternative approaches which respectively control for baseline pollution levels, match similar attainment and nonattainment areas, and exploit the discontinuous regulatory nonattainment cutoff. We show that nonattainment designations contributed to narrowing Urban-Rural and Black-White PM2.5 exposure disparities, but less than in a difference-in-differences framework. Pollution damages capitalized into house prices, however, are understated by difference-in-differences when using nonattainment as instrument and thus larger than previously thought.
    Keywords: air pollution; clean air act; environment justice; regulation; house prices
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2022–05–03
  35. By: Daniel Jonas Schmidt (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: In this paper, I develop an overlapping generations model to analyze the effects of property transfer taxes on homeownership, residential mobility, and welfare in the Netherlands. A revenue-neutral abolition of the 2% transfer tax increases the likelihood that homeowners sell their old house and buy a new one by about 40%. It also leads to a rise of the homeownership rate by 1-5 percentage points (depending on how revenue neutrality is achieved). Newborns prefer to live in an economy without property transfer taxes if the forgone tax revenues are replaced with higher annual property taxes, but not if revenue neutrality is achieved with higher income taxes. I also consider a partial reform that only exempts young first-time homebuyers from the transfer tax and is financed with higher annual property taxes. The resulting welfare gains are approximately one half of the welfare gains from the complete reform.
    Keywords: Property transfer tax, transaction tax, stamp duty, first-time buyers, residential mobility, OLG model
    JEL: R28 E60 R21
  36. By: Xize Wang (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: Using U.S. nationwide travel surveys for 1995, 2001, 2009 and 2017, this study compares Millennials with their previous generation (Gen Xers) in terms of their automobile travel across different neighborhood patterns. At the age of 16 to 28 years old, Millennials have lower daily personal vehicle miles traveled and car trips than Gen Xers in urban (higher-density) and suburban (lower-density) neighborhoods. Such differences remain unchanged after adjusting for the socio-economic, vehicle ownership, life cycle, year-specific and regional-specific factors. In addition, the associations between residential density and automobile travel for the 16- to 28-year-old Millennials are flatter than that for Gen Xers, controlling for the aforementioned covariates. These generational differences remain for the 24- to 36-year-old Millennials, during the period when the U.S. economy was recovering from the recession. These findings show that, in both urban and suburban neighborhoods, Millennials in the U.S. are less auto-centric than the previous generation during early life stages, regardless of economic conditions. Whether such difference persists over later life stages remains an open question and is worth continuous attention.
    Date: 2022–06
  37. By: Adriana Camacho-González; Jorge Enrique Caputo-Leyva; Fabio Sánchez-Torres
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of the Free Housing Program (PVG) on the well-being of beneficiary households. This program is an initiative of the Colombian Government to provide free houses to the most vulnerable households in the country. To estimate causal impacts of the program, we exploit that 38% of the beneficiaries were selected through housing lotteries. We show that most of recipients still reside in the houses provided in the program (5-6 years after the housing lotteries), which have adequate conditions of structure, space, and access to public services. Also, we show that program improves the labor conditions of beneficiary households, either through greater labor participation (in women), or by changing the type of work or economic sector (in men) and even earning more income (both). As a result of the previous impacts, the beneficiary households were able to restructure their expenses, acquire more durable goods, save more money, and escape extreme poverty. The main mechanism that explains these results is that the beneficiaries were relocated to places with a greater provision of public goods, closer proximity to complementary services and more economic activity.
    Keywords: free public housing, poverty, employment, income
    JEL: I38 J22 O18 R28 R31
    Date: 2022–07–19
  38. By: Jakob Schwerter; Nicolai Netz; Nicolas H\"ubner
    Abstract: Early-life environments can have long-lasting developmental effects. Interestingly, research on how school reforms affect later-life study behavior has hardly adopted this perspective. Therefore, we investigated a staggered school reform that reduced the number of school years and increased weekly instructional time for secondary school students in most German federal states. We analyzed this quasi-experiment in a difference-in-differences framework using representative large-scale survey data on 71,426 students who attended university between 1998 and 2016. We found negative effects of reform exposure on hours spent attending classes and on self-study, and a larger time gap between school completion and higher education entry. Our results support the view that research should examine unintended long-term effects of school reforms on individual life courses.
    Date: 2022–07
  39. By: Choi, S.; Goyal, S.; Moisan, F.; To, Y. Y. T.
    Abstract: Subjects observe a private signal and then make an initial guess; they observe their neighbors’ guesses and guess again, and so forth. We study learning dynamics in three networks: Erdös-Rényi, Stochastic Block (reflecting homophily) and Royal Family (that accommodates both highly connected celebrities and local intearctions). We find that the Royal Family network is more likely to sustain incorrect consensus and that the Stochastic Block network is more likely to persist with diverse beliefs. These aggregate patterns are consistent with individuals following DeGroot updating rule.
    Keywords: consensus, experimental social science, social learning, social networks
    JEL: C91 C92 D83 D85
    Date: 2022–06–01
  40. By: Starodubrovskaya Irina (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Kazenin Konstantin (RANEPA)
    Abstract: This paper provides findings of a quantitative study conducted among natives of Dagestan and their descendants living in the city of Astrakhan. The pall was taken by personal interviewing; the total number of respondents between 15 and 70 years of age was 491. The pall revealed both the socio-demographic characteristics of the Daghestani migrant community in Astrakhan and the specifics of the integration of its members into the urban environment.
    Keywords: Urbanization, southern Russia, quantitative investigation
    JEL: O18 P25 R23
    Date: 2021
  41. By: Steven C. Bourassa (Florida Atlantic University); Martin Hoesli (University of Geneva - Geneva School of Economics and Management (GSEM); Swiss Finance Institute; University of Aberdeen - Business School)
    Abstract: Accurate estimates of land values on a property-by-property basis are an important requirement for the effective implementation of land-based property taxes. We compare hedonic, residual, and matching techniques for mass appraisal of residential land values, using data from Maricopa County, Arizona. The first method involves a hedonic valuation model estimated for transactions of vacant lots. The second approach subtracts the depreciated cost of improvements from the value of improved properties to obtain land value as a residual. The third approach matches the sales of vacant lots with subsequent sales of the same properties once they have been developed. For each pair, we use a land price index to inflate the land price to the time of the improved property transaction and then calculate land leverage (the ratio of land to total property value). A hedonic model is estimated and used to predict land leverage for all improved properties. We conclude that the matching approach is the most promising of the methods considered.
    Keywords: Land valuation, Hedonic method, Residual approach, Land leverage, Matching approach
    JEL: R31
    Date: 2022–06
  42. By: Mohiuddin, Hossain; Fitch, Dillon; Handy, Susan
    Abstract: Bike-share systems are proliferating across the US and could expand opportunities for those most underserved by the transportation system. A deeper understanding of current bike-share users could enable the expansion of these services and their benefits to a larger population. With the aim of deepening this understanding, this study uses data from household and bike-share user surveys in the Sacramento region to perform behavioral modeling and market segmentation. The results show that although individuals with low incomes and students are less likely than other demographic groups to use bike-share, they use it more frequently if they do use it. Individuals who regularly use multiple modes of travel also use the service frequently. The initial adoption of the service by transport-disadvantaged groups can play a vital role in the continued and frequent use of the service. The market segmentation analysis shows that low-income individuals, students, and zero-car individuals use the service frequently for commuting and a variety of non-commuting purposes. The occasional users of the bike-share service are mainly those with higher incomes and individuals who have access to a personal car. Another market segment consists of non- and infrequent-personal bike users; however, that segment is using the bike-share service at a greater rate for different purposes compared to regular bicyclists. This suggests that bike-share may fill an important travel gap and act as a lever for increasing bike travel for some users. Overall, the results provide detailed bike-share market information that can be used to tailor urban transport policies. The results also suggest that if the user base for bike-share programs were expanded to reach even more low-income individuals, students, and multi-modal travelers, greater environmental sustainability benefits would be achieved. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Bicycles, vehicle sharing, bicycle travel, scooters
    Date: 2022–07–01
  43. By: Qian, Xiaodong; Jaller, Miguel; Xiao, Runhua; Chen, Shenyang
    Abstract: This project aims to know how the Intelligent Vehicle Technologies (IVT) can improve Vulnerable Road Users’ (VRU) safety in different environments and conditions (e.g., sight distance and traffic flow) at signalized intersections. For the statistical analysis on historical aggregate crash data, the project studied risk factors on crash injury severity for VRU-related crashes at signalized intersections in California cities. The researchers summarize seven critical crash types for the micro-level traffic safety simulation. For the traffic safety simulation part, it is found that Intersection Safety (INS) is empowered to be the most efficient technology to significantly reduce average collision counts for passenger cars under all seven collision types of interest. Blind Spot Detection (BSD) has the most minimal effects on those types. The safety improvement of VRU Beacon Systems (VBS) and Bicycle/Pedestrian to Vehicle Communication (BPTV) are between INS and BSD. Results show that under a certain threshold of sight distance, IVT can significantly reduce the collision probability and IVT can still improve safety under good sight condition if collisions happen in front of vehicles. In the end, the project conducted sensitive analyses of sight distance and traffic volume. For some collision types, INS and BPTV can only reduce ~50% of collision at extremely high traffic volume conditions. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Intelligent Vehicle Technologies, Vulnerable Road User, Traffic Safety, Micro Simulation
    Date: 2022–07–01
  44. By: Charles Ka Yui LEUNG; Byron Kwok Ping TSANG
    Abstract: This short note introduces a forthcoming special issue on housing affordability. It tries to relate to the recent literature as well.
    Date: 2022–07
  45. By: Marinov, Eduard
    Abstract: Changes in the global economic environment in recent years have highlighted the fact that in many countries the sources of growth are not well utilized, thus highlighting the need for better measurement of economic performance, including critical elements to sustainable economic development. The EU Regional Competitiveness Index is the first multi-component indicator to provide a systematic picture of the territorial competitiveness of each region in the 28 (up to 2020) Member States of the Union. The paper briefly presents the methodological framework of the index and then it will be applied to the Bulgarian NUTS 2 regions. The results show the place of the country and its regions in the EU and allow us to draw conclusions about their strengths and weaknesses in their regional development in general, as well as in relation to the eleven main areas that the index measures.
    Keywords: regional development, NUTS 2, Bulgarian regions, regional competitiveness, RCI
    JEL: O18 R1 R11 R58
    Date: 2022–06
  46. By: Sarah R. Cohodes; Helen Ho; Silvia C. Robles
    Abstract: The federal government and many individual organizations have invested in programs to support diversity in the STEM pipeline, including STEM summer programs for high school students, but there is little rigorous evidence of their efficacy.
    Keywords: STEM, Youth, Education
  47. By: Syed Abul, Basher; Salim, Rashid; Mohammad Riad, Uddin
    Abstract: We analyze economic convergence across 64 districts of Bangladesh using newly harmonized satellite night light data over 1992-2018. The growth in night lights—taken as a proxy for regional economic activity—reveals overwhelming evidence of absolute convergence. Regional differences in night light (or income) growth have been shrinking at an annual convergence rate of 4.57%, corresponding to a half-life of 15 years. Net migration plays a relatively prominent role in the regional convergence process.
    Keywords: Night lights, convergence, Bangladesh
    JEL: O47 R11
    Date: 2022–06–14
  48. By: Tomas Hachard (University of Toronto)
    Abstract: Municipalities are involved in an increasing number of policy areas, but they remain largely absent from Canada’s system of intergovernmental relations. Municipal representatives do not attend First Ministers’ meetings. They are largely excluded from intergovernmental councils or committees focused on specific policy areas. And they do not participate in the negotiation of most intergovernmental agreements. This paper explores how Canada’s intergovernmental infrastructure could be reformed to include municipalities. It does so through an analysis of how other countries have made space for municipalities in their intergovernmental processes. The paper looks at models for integrating municipalities, including committees in the executive branch, intergovernmental councils, constitutional provisions, and more. After drawing five lessons from international experience, the paper lays out goals for intergovernmental relations reform in Canada: municipal inclusion in federal and provincial-territorial policymaking; collaboration on shared priorities; and improved urban, rural, and regional policy. It concludes with four approaches to achieving these goals: 1. Ensure municipalities have the capacity, voice, and structures to participate effectively in intergovernmental relations. This can be achieved through investment in staff at the municipal level; investment in municipal associations; increased regional coordination and, ideally, new regional governance structures; and further horizontal coordination across the province among municipalities and municipal associations. 2. Increase municipal involvement in provincial policymaking. Potential models include a formal, institutionalized council for provincial-municipal relations, perhaps modelled on South Africa’s extended cabinet; a set of intergovernmental councils focused on priority policy issues, supported by dedicated secretariats, and co-governed by the province and municipalities; or enforceable provincial requirements to consult municipalities on matters that affect them. 3. Eliminate unfunded mandates through, for example, provincial legislation or provincial-municipal intergovernmental agreements that require consultation on the fiscal impacts of draft legislation or regulation and that allow any disagreements to be taken to court. 4. Strengthen trilateral relations. Potential models include new location-specific or policy-specific agreements modelled on previous Urban Development Agreements; sector-specific trilateral intergovernmental councils that avoid top-down governance, meet regularly, and are supported by secretariats; or a general trilateral council, through reform of the structure of First Ministers’ Meetings.
    Keywords: intergovernmental relations, municipalities, federalism, Canada
    JEL: H10 H77
    Date: 2022–05
  49. By: Ariel J. Binder; Emily Molfino; John Voorheis
    Abstract: Given rising nonresponse rates and concerns about respondent burden, government statistical agencies have been exploring ways to supplement household survey data collection with administrative records and other sources of third-party data. This paper evaluates the potential of property tax assessment records to improve housing surveys by comparing these records to responses from the 2019 American Housing Survey. Leveraging the U.S. Census Bureau’s linkage infrastructure, we compute the fraction of AHS housing units that could be matched to a unique property parcel (coverage rate), as well as the extent to which survey and property tax data contain the same information (agreement rate). We analyze heterogeneity in coverage and agreement across states, housing characteristics, and 11 AHS items of interest to housing researchers. Our results suggest that partial replacement of AHS data with property data, targeted toward certain survey items or single-family detached homes, could reduce respondent burden without altering data quality. Further research into partial-replacement designs is needed and should proceed on an item-by-item basis. Our work can guide this research as well as those who wish to conduct independent research with property tax records that is representative of the U.S. housing stock.
    Keywords: administrative records, third-party data, housing survey, item replacement and supplementation, respondent burden
    Date: 2022–06
  50. By: Filomena, Mattia (Marche Polytechnic University); Giorgetti, Isabella (Marche Polytechnic University); Picchio, Matteo (Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona)
    Abstract: We estimate the effect of nonemployment experienced by Italian youth after leaving secondary school on subsequent labor market outcomes. We focus on the impact on earnings and labor market participation both in the short- and in the long-term, up to 25 years since school completion. By estimating a factor analytic model which controls for time-varying unobserved heterogeneity, we find that the negative effect of nonemployment on earnings is especially persistent, being sizeable and statistically significant up to 25 years after school completion, for both men and women. Penalties in terms of participation last instead shorter; they disappear by the 10th year after school completion. Hence, early nonemployment operates by persistently locking the youth who get off to a bad start into low-wage jobs.
    Keywords: youth nonemployment, scarring effects, earnings, labor market participation, factor analytic model
    JEL: J01 J08 J31 J64
    Date: 2022–06
  51. By: Steve Agnew (University of Canterbury); Tom Coupé (University of Canterbury); Cassia-Rose Hingston
    Abstract: This study analysed a cohort of over 43,000 students from their first day of school in 2008 to the end of their compulsory schooling in New Zealand in 2018. Data was collected from a range of linked national datasets collated by Stats NZ, New Zealand's official data agency. Variables were categorised into demographic, socioeconomic status (SES), learning support, family climate and parental education. These categories and the variables within them were identified in a review of the school exclusion literature. Regression analysis was applied to establish which variables correlated with school exclusion. A subset of over 34,000 students was also stratified by ethnicity and analysed to ascertain if predictors of school exclusion varied by ethnicity. The ethnic groupings compared were Pakeha (the largest ethnic grouping), Maori and Pacific Peoples (two ethnic groups over-represented in school exclusion statistics). Pakeha and Maori had very similar profiles in terms of which variables identified by the literature significantly correlated with school exclusion. However, when these explanatory variables are set to zero, Maori have higher rates of exclusion than Pakeha. There are also different drivers of school exclusion between Pacific Peoples who receive English as a second language (ESOL) support and Pacific Peoples who don’t. The significant predictors of exclusion are different for these two groups of Pacific Peoples, as is the proportion of exclusions explained by the model. This research contributes to the literature by identifying predictors of school exclusion in a multicultural, international setting. It also examines how well a model based on existing literature predicts exclusion across populations with differing ethnic, SES, language and cultural characteristics.
    Keywords: School Exclusion; Ethnicity, Maori, Pacific
    Date: 2022–07–01
  52. By: Massimiliano Ferraresi (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy); Maurizio Conti (University of Genoa and IZA.); Nikolaos Benos (University of Ioannina, Greece); Stelios Karagiannis, (European Training Foundation, ETF, Italy.); Michail Papazoglou (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy)
    Abstract: Amalgamation reforms have been extensively implemented in several countries as policy instruments to improve local government service provision and reduce costs based on scale economies. However, their effectiveness has proved ambiguous in practice. We investigate the impact of a substantial large-scale amalgamation that took place in Greek municipalities in 2010, and its effect on per-capita current costs and investments. Using data for the 2005-2018 period, we find very weak evidence of the reform on current costs, while the amalgamation of municipalities is associated with a significant decrease in per capita investment around 31%. This effect is robust, persistent, and associated with a substantial decline in GDP per capita of about 13% over the sample period.
    JEL: H72 H77 R51 R53
    Date: 2022–07
  53. By: Vassilis Tselios; Andres Rodriguez-Pose
    Abstract: Poverty reduction and the tackling of social exclusion are overarching goals of development and welfare policies. This paper explores the extent to which decentralisation contributes to poverty and social exclusion alleviation in European countries and regions. We find evidence that increases in central government transfers of political, administrative, and fiscal authority to subnational tiers of government reduce poverty and address social exclusion at an aggregate level. This, however, mainly happens in countries with a high degree of governance quality and, fundamentally, in urban areas. The link between decentralisation and poverty and social exclusion alleviation is more uniform at the regional level, as greater regional autonomy is connected to lower poverty and social exclusion, regardless of the quality of regional government. Hence, when regional governments have the capacity to design their own independent policies, a reduction of poverty and social exclusion and improvements in well-being generally ensue.
    Keywords: decentralisation; poverty; social exclusion; quality of governance; urban areas; Europe
    JEL: H11 H53 I32 R11
    Date: 2022–07
  54. By: Loukas Karabarbounis; Jeremy Lise; Anusha Nath
    Abstract: Using merged administrative datasets from Minnesota, we bring new evidence on the labor market effects of large minimum wage increases by examining the policy changes implemented by Minneapolis and Saint Paul. We begin by using synthetic difference-in-differences methods to estimate counterfactual outcomes at the zip code level from Minnesota and at the city level from the rest of the country. The minimum wage did not affect employment in most industries but exerted a negative impact on restaurants' employment, with an elasticity of -0.8. Next, using variation in exposure to the minimum wage across establishments and workers within the Twin Cities, we find employment effects that are half as large as those from the time series. The cross-sectional estimates difference out employment effects from the pandemic or civil unrest that could confound the time series comparisons, but they do not include potential effects of the minimum wage operating through equilibrium adjustments such as entry. We quantify a model of establishment dynamics to reconcile the different estimates and argue that they plausibly reflect lower and upper bounds of employment losses. We use the model to show that our estimates are consistent with an establishment elasticity of labor demand of -1 and illustrate how they can inform deeper parameters characterizing product and labor market competition, factor substitution, and establishment dynamics.
    JEL: J08 J23 J38
    Date: 2022–07
  55. By: Fabienne Cantner; Nico Nachtigall; Lisa S. Hamm; Andrea Cadavid Isaza; Lennart Adenaw; Allister Loder; Markus B. Siewert; Sebastian Goerg; Markus Lienkamp; Klaus Bogenberger
    Abstract: In spring 2022, the German federal government agreed on a set of measures that aim at reducing households' financial burden resulting from a recent price increase, especially in energy and mobility. These measures include among others, a nation-wide public transport ticket for 9 EUR per month and a fuel tax cut that reduces fuel prices by more than 15%. In transportation research this is an almost unprecedented behavioral experiment. It allows to study not only behavioral responses in mode choice and induced demand but also to assess the effectiveness of transport policy instruments. We observe this natural experiment with a three-wave survey and an app-based travel diary on a sample of hundreds of participants as well as an analysis of traffic counts. In this second report, we update the information on study participation, provide first insights on the smartphone app usage as well as insights on the first wave results, particularly on the 9 EUR-ticket purchase intention.
    Date: 2022–06
  56. By: Kenneth P. Brevoort
    Abstract: Under the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) banks can fulfill their affirmative obligation to meet local credit needs by lending in low-to-moderate-income (LMI) communities or by purchasing loans made by others. This paper evaluates whether giving CRA credit for purchases has had its intended effect of increasing LMI credit availability by making LMI loans more liquid. Analyses using a regression discontinuity design show that CRA increases loan purchases without affecting LMI originations. Instead, banks purchase loans that are temporarily diverted from the Government Sponsored Enterprises, which provides little benefit to the communities the CRA is meant to help.
    Keywords: Community Reinvestment Act (CRA); Mortgage lending; Redlining; Low- and moderate income (LMI)
    JEL: G21 G28 R38
    Date: 2022–07–19
  57. By: Zahra Butt (PhD Scholar, PIDE)
    Abstract: The webinar highlights the difficulty of doing business in Pakistan specifically in the construction and housing sector. It further highlights the concept of sludge and the cost associated with it. Sludge is the hindrances or obstacles in doing business and they impose a high cost on the economy as it mainly delays the investment and lowers productivity.
    Keywords: Construction, Permits, Housing Loans, Sludge Series,
    Date: 2021
  58. By: Hakan Yilmazkuday (Department of Economics, Florida International University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates nonlinearities in the relationship between mobility and COVID-19 cases or deaths. The formal analysis is achieved by using county-level daily data from the U.S., where a difference-in-difference design is employed. Nonlinearities in the relationship between mobility and COVID-19 cases or deaths are investigated by regressing weekly percentage changes in COVID-19 cases or deaths on mobility measures, where county fixed effects and daily fixed effects are controlled for. The main innovation is achieved by distinguishing between the coefficients in front of mobility measures across U.S. counties based on their demographic or socioeconomic characteristics. The results suggest that the positive effects of mobility on COVID-19 cases or deaths increase with population, per capita income, or commuting time as well as with having certain occupations, working in certain industries, attending certain schools, or having certain educational attainments. Important policy implications follow regarding where mobility restrictions would work better to fight against COVID-19 through targeted lockdowns.
    Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, Mobility, Demographics, Lockdowns
    JEL: I10 I18
    Date: 2022–03
  59. By: Irum Bhatti (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: Ride Hailing has the comfort and freedom that people enjoy while traveling point-to-point on a pre-scheduled basis as needed. Make a “call” by asking a local driver to pick you up at a specific location via the app, considered as the modernization of traditional chauffer driven taxi services. Ride hailing apps introduced the corporate culture for its captain’s dignity. Customers may freely drive to places with limited parking, stay out longer, stay safe, trustworthy ride will be ready in minutes, which is excellent for the economy and works as a time saver for the people.
    Date: 2022
  60. By: Etienne Dagorn (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, IEDES; CNRS, CREM—UMR 6211, F-35000 Rennes); David Masclet (Univ Rennes, France CNRS, CREM—UMR 6211, F-35000 Rennes and Cirano, Canada); Thierry Penard (Univ Rennes, France CNRS, CREM—UMR 6211, F-35000 Rennes)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate how soft skills are related to educational achievement. We run a lab in the field experiment with pupils in Middle Schools to ask whether altruism, cooperation, willingness to compete and intrinsic motivation influence educational attainment. We find that willingness to compete is a strong predictor of individual educational achievement, while altruism is on the contrary negatively correlated with pupils’ success. Family background is a strong predictor of educational attainment. After controlling for individual and social preferences, we find that girls outperform boys.
    Keywords: lab-in-the-field experiment; education; soft skills; preferences; cooperation; competition; teenagers
    JEL: C70 A13 C92
    Date: 2022–03
  61. By: Manuela Ortega Gil (Department of General Economy, University Institute of Research in Social Sustainable Development (INDESS), University of Cadiz, Spain)
    Abstract: This paper studies the relationship between wellbeing and governments’ fiscal policies across the world, including government decentralization, over the period between 1999 and 2018. In contrast to the previous literature on wellbeing, the current paper investigates four forms of life satisfaction (SL) as the dependent variable and tries to answer whether different types of public spending program, different types of taxes and the level of fiscal decentralization influence wellbeing as measured by life satisfaction. The analysis uses survey data from two sources of life satisfaction variables: The World Values Survey and the European Values Survey, both of which use a ten-level SL scale. I treat these satisfaction values in four ways, resulting in four robust models (two logit models, one Ordinary Least Squares model and one stereotype logistic model). The same control variables and fixed effects are used in all models. The results indicate that personal individual taxes, labor taxation (income and payroll taxes), indirect taxes on goods and expenditures on environmental protection and education have a significant and positive effect on life satisfaction in all four models. Likewise in all four models, taxes on property and expenditures on health and culture are significant and negative. Furthermore, while increased decentralization (in the form of greater vertical fiscal imbalance and expenditure decentralization) improves the likelihood of having a life satisfaction greater than six (of ten), the effect of transfers to subnational governments’ own revenue is significant and negative in all models.
    Date: 2021–10–04
  62. By: Francesco Campo; Sara Giunti; Mariapia Mendola
    Abstract: This paper examines how the 2014-2017 ‘Refugee Crisis’ in Italy affected voting behavior and the rise of right–wing populism in national Parliamentary elections. We collect novel administrative data across all Italian municipalities and leverage exogenous variation in refugee resettlement induced by the Dispersal Policy. We find a positive and significant effect of the share of asylum seekers on support for radical-right anti-immigration parties. The effect is heterogeneous across municipality characteristics, yet robust to dispersal policy features. We provide causal evidence that the anti–immigration backlash is not rooted in adverse economic effects, while it is triggered by radical–right propaganda.
    Keywords: Immigration, Refugee Crisis, Voting Behavior, Dispersal Policy, Propaganda.
    JEL: D72 F22 O15 P16
    Date: 2022–04
  63. By: Anukriti, S (World Bank); Herrera-Almanza, Catalina (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); Karra, Mahesh (Boston University)
    Abstract: We experimentally test if enabling individuals to incentivize others to socialize with them can strengthen social networks and improve well-being. We examine family planning access for women in India, who tend to be socially isolated and for whom peer support may overcome intrahousehold constraints. Enabling women to jointly visit a clinic with other women not only increased social ties and strengthened peer engagement, but also increased clinic visits and contraceptive use. Moreover, this intervention was more effective in improving reproductive autonomy of women who faced greater intrahousehold opposition than an intervention that only improved women's own access to the clinic.
    Keywords: women’s social networks, peers, vouchers, India, family planning, contraception, female autonomy, mother-in-law
    JEL: J13 J16 O15 O33 I15 Z13
    Date: 2022–06
  64. By: Lorenzo Pozzi
    Abstract: This paper uses housing returns to estimate the elasticity of intertemporal substitution (EIS) in consumption for fifteen advanced economies over the postwar period 1950-2015. As housing is the main asset for the majority of households, returns on housing are better suited to estimate the EIS than the asset returns typically considered in the literature, i.e., equity and bill returns. An estimable regression equation for aggregate consumption growth and returns is obtained from the aggregation of the consumption Euler equations of heterogeneous agents. As the regression equation includes unobserved omitted variables, we use instrumental variables estimation. We exploit both the temporal and spatial dimensions of the panel by instrumenting the domestic return using its own lag and a cross-country average of foreign returns. Both instruments are strong and allow to test the overidentifying restriction. The restriction holds once we control for common international growth and financial factors in the regression equation. We report a baseline elasticity estimate of about 0.21. This is substantially larger than the elasticities estimated from equity and bill returns which, in line with the extant literature, are found not to be significantly different from zero.
    Keywords: consumption, intertemporal substitution, housing returns, panel data, instrumental variables
    JEL: C23 E21
  65. By: Jose Azar (University of Navarra, IESE & CEPR); Yue Qiu (Temple University); Aaron Sojourner (W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the effects of common ownership, the extent to which firms are linked via common owners, on employee earnings in U.S. local labor markets. Between 1999 and 2017, common ownership in local labor markets has more than doubled. Panel regressions show that employee earnings in a local labor market are negatively associated with common ownership. To identify causal effects, we use a firm’s addition to the S&P 500 index as a shock to common ownership of its competitors in a local labor market. Using a matched difference-in-differences analysis, we find that, after a firm enters the S&P 500 index, the average annual earnings per employee of its local competitors decreases relative to the counterfactual. The effect of index inclusion shocks on employee earnings is stronger in local labor markets where the shares of S&P 500 incumbents are higher before a shock.
    Keywords: Monopsony, oligopsony, labor markets, competition policy, common ownership
    JEL: J42 J31 L40 D40 G34
    Date: 2022–07
  66. By: Billio, Monica; Costola, Michele; Pelizzon, Loriana; Riedel, Max
    Abstract: Energy efficiency represents one of the key planned actions aiming at reducing greenhouse emissions and the consumption of fossil fuel to mitigate the impact of climate change. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between energy efficiency and the borrower's solvency risk in the Italian market. Specifically, we analyze a residential mortgage portfolio of four financial institutions which includes about 70,000 loans matched with the energy performance certificate of the associated buildings. Our findings show that there is a negative relationship between a building's energy efficiency and the owner's probability of default. Findings survive after we account for dwelling, household, mortgage, market control variables, and regional and year fixed effect. Additionally, a ROC analysis shows that there is an improvement in the estimation of the mortgage default probability when the energy efficiency characteristic is included as a risk predictor in the model.
    Date: 2022
  67. By: Wan, Xibo; Ji, Yongjie; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Wendong
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Research Methods/Statistical Methods, Resource/Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–08
  68. By: Ran Abramitzky; Travis Baseler; Isabelle Sin
    Abstract: How does persecution affect who migrates? We analyze migrants’ self-selection out of the USSR and its satellite states before and after the collapse of Communism using census microdata from the three largest destination countries: Germany, Israel, and the United States. We find that migrants arriving before and around the time of the collapse (who were more likely to have moved because of persecution) were more educated and had better labor market outcomes in the destination than those arriving later. This change is not fully explained by the removal of emigration restrictions in the Communist Bloc. Instead, we show that this pattern is consistent with more positive self-selection of migrants who are motivated by persecution. When the highly educated disproportionately forgo migrating to enjoy the amenities of their home country, persecution can induce them to leave.
    JEL: F22 J6 N30 N32 N34
    Date: 2022–07
  69. By: Oscar Barrera; Isabelle Bensidoun; Anthony Edo
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role played by immigrants and their children in shaping native attitudes toward immigrants in the European Union. By exploiting the 2017 Special Eurobarometer on immigrant integration, we show that countries with a relatively high share of immigrants are more likely to believe that immigrants are a burden on the welfare system and worsen crime. In contrast, native opinions on the impact of immigration on culture and the labor market are unrelated to the presence of immigrants. We also find that the effects of second-generation immigrants on pro-immigrant attitudes toward security and fiscal concerns are positive (as opposed to first-generation immigrants). Finally, we find no impact of the immigrant share on the attitudes of natives supporting far-left or left political parties, while it is the most negative among respondents affiliated with far-right parties.
    Keywords: Immigration;Second-generation Immigrants;Attitudes toward Immigrants;Public Opinion
    JEL: J15 F22 P16
    Date: 2022–06
  70. By: Gaston Giordana; Michael H. Ziegelmeyer
    Abstract: In 2019, Luxembourg introduced borrower-based instruments in the macro-prudential toolkit to constrain credit to households who exceed a certain limit on their loan-to-value ratio, on their (mortgage) debt-to-income ratio or on their debt service-to-income ratio. This paper analyses the impact of setting these limits at different levels, using household-level data from Luxembourg. We calculate these debt burden ratios for individual households who recently purchased their main residence using data from the Household Finance and Consumption Survey conducted in 2010, 2014 and 2018. On January 1, 2021 authorities imposed a legally binding limit on the loan-to-value (LTV) ratio for new mortgages. This may be 80%, 90% or 100% depending on the category of borrower. Had the least restrictive LTV limit envisaged by the law (100%) been applied in 2018, credit would have been rationed to 24% of households with recent mortgages on their main residence. This limit would have required a 7% reduction in the overall debt of this group of households. Had the most restrictive LTV limit envisaged by the law (75%) been applied in 2018, credit would have been rationed to 64% of households with recent mortgages on their main residence, requiring an 18% reduction in overall debt in this group. More generally, we evaluate how well borrower-based instruments can target those households that are financially vulnerable (according to conventional measures from the literature). By simulating an adverse scenario, we find that combining several ratios one could better target households that were not financially vulnerable in the benign conditions of 2018 but would become vulnerable after a shock to income. However, any borrower-based instrument inevitably generates some classification errors (either granting credit to households that are financially vulnerable or constraining credit to households that are not financially vulnerable). Using different assumptions on policymaker preferences, we apply the signals approach to derive limits that are “optimal” in the sense of minimising classification errors.
    Keywords: Household debt, Financial vulnerability, Macro-prudential policy, Markets, Housing Wealth; Affordability
    JEL: D10 D14 G21 G28
    Date: 2022–07
  71. By: Cultice, Brian J.; Irwin, Elena G.; Cai, Yongyang; Jones, Mackenzie; Gong, Ziqian; Bielicki, Jeff; Doidge, Mary; Guo, Ziyu; Jackson-Smith, Douglas
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Agricultural and Food Policy, Resource/Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–08
  72. By: Bharathi, Naveen; Malghan, Deepak; Mishra, Sumit; Rahman, Andaleeb
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, International Development, Resource/Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–08
  73. By: Georgeta Stoica-Marcu (Universitatea Ovidius, Constanța, Romania)
    Abstract: In Romania, religious education plays an important role. From ancient times to the present, parents and educators have been concerned with how to transmit and educate children in a healthy spirit and the faith of the nation to be carried forward. At home, it has a decisive role to play in education in school and in society. Another form of education is their formation as the people of hope and honor of a society that has undergone essential changes over time. Most of the time, the parents are the ones who make the decisions and their influence on the children's lives is decisive.
    Keywords: communication, religious communication, role of communication, education
    Date: 2022–03
  74. By: Yan, Ru; Jin, Songqing; Ji, Chen; Wang, Huan; Lyu, Jiayang; Rozelle, Scott D.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Teaching, Communication, and Extension
    Date: 2022–08
  75. By: Shahid Mehmood (Research Fellow, PIDE)
    Abstract: Over time, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE) has pioneered the agenda of discussing the many aspects of Pakistan’s cities. Recently, two webinars were held to discuss the plight of street vendors and their rights. The second webinar was held in November 2020, titled ‘Settlement of street vendors in public spaces of Pakistan’. Mr. Arif Hassan, renowned architect and specialist on urban matters, presented his findings and answered questions of participants.
    Keywords: Urban, Street Vendor, Economy,
    Date: 2021
  76. By: Shiferaw Gurmu (Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University); David L. Sjoquist (Center for State and Local Finance, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University); Laura Wheeler (Ernst & Young)
    Abstract: This report presents estimates of the causal effect of Georgia’s job tax credit program on county employment. The information herein is drawn from a previously published article (Gurmu, Sjoquist, & Wheeler 2021) and summarizes our empirical results but ignores methodological details, which can be found in the article. The causal effects of job creation tax credits on employment are estimated using the exogenous spatial and time variations in the value of the credits across Georgia's 159 counties over a 15-year period. We obtain mixed results, but in general they provide little evidence for the proposition that job creation tax credits create additional employment.
    Keywords: Job creation tax credits; State employment growth; State economic development
    Date: 2022–07–01
  77. By: tavassoli, nahid; noghani, farzaneh; noghanibehambari, hamid
    Abstract: This paper illustrates the intergenerational transmission of the gender gap in education among first and second-generation immigrants. Using the Current Population Survey (1994-2018), we find that the difference in female-male education persists from the home country to the new environment. A one standard deviation increase of the ancestral country’s female-male difference in schooling is associated with 17.2% and 2.5% of a standard deviation increase in the gender gap among first and second generations, respectively. Since gender perspective in education uncovers a new channel for cultural transmission among families, we interpret the findings as evidence of cultural persistence among first generations and partial cultural assimilation of second generations. Moreover, Disaggregation into country-groups reveals different paths for this transmission: descendants of immigrants of lower-income countries show fewer attachments to the gender opinions of their home country. Average local education of natives can facilitate the acculturation process. Immigrants residing in states with higher education reveal a lower tendency to follow their home country attitudes regarding the gender gap.
    Keywords: Gender Gap, Immigration, Human Capital, Education, Assimilation
    JEL: I2 J15 J16
    Date: 2022–06–21
  78. By: Vincent van den Berg (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: We consider if a road is self-financing under flat or step tolling and optimized capacity while incorporating preference heterogeneity, bottleneck congestion and linear capacity cost. Previous work has shown that a sufficient condition for the toll revenue to equal the capacity cost is that the toll to equals the marginal external costs (MECs) of all types of user at all moments when their users travel. However, under ‘ratio heterogeneity’ between values of time (VOT) and schedule delay, an anonymous second-best coarse toll must differ from the heterogeneous MECs. This paper derives that this toll will be a weighted average of the MECs with the weights depending on the derivatives of the demand and travel cost functions. The capacity rule also has a second-best correction: the capacity is set higher than following the first-best rule to reduce the distortion from overpricing High-VOT users. This was ignored in previous work and makes self-financing less likely than previously thought, but it can still occur if Low-VOT users are much more price sensitive than High-VOT users, as this raises the toll. In our numerical model, the Low-VOT type must be almost twice as price sensitive than the High-VOT type for there not to be loss; and, typically, there is a 5% to 15% loss. Imposing self-financing only causes a small welfare loss of 0% to 1.5%.
    Keywords: Self-financing, road pricing, flat toll, step toll, coarse toll, heterogeneity, second best
    JEL: R48 D62 H23 R41
  79. By: Li, Kunpeng
    Abstract: This paper considers the estimation and inferential issues of threshold spatial autoregressive model, which is a hybrid of threshold model and spatial autoregressive model. We consider using the quasi maximum likelihood (QML) method to estimate the model. We prove the tightness and the H\'{a}jek-R\'{e}nyi type inequality for a quadratic form, and establish a full inferential theory of the QML estimator under the setup that threshold effect shrinks to zero along with an increasing sample size. We consider the hypothesis testing on the presence of threshold effect. Three super-type statistics are proposed to perform this testing. Their asymptotic behaviors are studied under the Pitman local alternatives. A bootstrap procedure is proposed to obtain the asymptotically correct critical value. We also consider the hypothesis testing on the threshold value equal to some prespecified one. We run Monte carlo simulations to investigate the finite sample performance of the QML estimators and find that the QML estimators have good performance.
    Keywords: Spatial autoregressive models, Spillover effects, Threshold effect, Maximum likelihood estimation, Inferential theory.
    JEL: C12 C31
    Date: 2022–06–27
  80. By: Juan Luis Gómez-Reino (Inter-American Development Bank); Santiago Lago-Peñas (Governance and Economics research Network (GEN). University of Vigo (Spain)); Jorge Martinez-Vazquez (International Center for Public Policy, Georgia State University, USA)
    Abstract: The standard theory of optimal jurisdictional size hinges on the existence of economies of scale in the provision of local public goods and services. However, despite its relevance for forced local amalgamation programs and related policies, the empirical evidence on the existence of such economies of scale remains elusive. The main goal of this paper is to produce an updated and comprehensive quantitative review of the existence of economies of scale in the provision of local public goods using a meta-analysis approach to systematize the wide range of empirical approaches and modeling frameworks found in the previous literature. Our analysis confirms the presence of moderately increasing to constant returns to scale in the provision of local services across traditional local service sectors such as education, water and sanitation, and garbage collection. We identify best practices for future empirical research in this area, which should rely on physical output as the metric of activity, production cost data as the measure of input expense, and a translog specification function for the modeling of cost functions. Finally, we find evidence that the determinants of output cost elasticity include bidirectional publication bias and population density but do not include the presence or absence of modern “lean” production technologies or the (perceived) capital intensity of the sector, contrary to conventional wisdom. These findings have significant policy implications for countries considering jurisdictional consolidation programs.
    Date: 2021–12–07
  81. By: Lasdun, Violet; Harou, Aurelie P.; Magomba, Christopher; Guerena, David
    Keywords: International Development, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2022–08

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