nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2022‒05‒23
forty-nine papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. The Economics of Spatial Mobility: Theory and Evidence Using Smartphone Data By Yuhei Miyauchi; Kentaro Nakajima; Stephen J. Redding
  2. City Minimum Wages and Spatial Equilibrium Effects By Jorge Pérez Pérez
  3. Migration and invention in the Age of Mass Migration By DIodato, Dario; Morrison, Andrea; Petralia, Sergio
  4. Interpretable Prediction of Urban Mobility Flows with Deep Neural Networks as Gaussian Processes By Aike Steentoft, Bu-Sung Lee, Markus Schläpfer
  5. A Thousand Cuts: Cumulative Lead Exposure Reduces Academic Achievement By Alex Hollingsworth; Mike Huang; Ivan Rudik; Nicholas J. Sanders
  6. "Does geographical exposure to language learning centres matter in a bilingual city?". By Antonio Di Paolo; Bernat Mallén
  7. Austerity Harmed Student Achievement By Caterina Pavese; Enrico Rubolino
  8. Nobody's gonna slow me down? The effects of a transportation cost shock on firm performance and behavior By Branco, Catarina; Dohse, Dirk; dos Santos, João Pereira; Tavares, José
  9. Does Religious Diversity Improve Trust and Performance? Evidence from Lebanon By Canaan, Serena; Deeb, Antoine; Mouganie, Pierre
  10. Does Social Capital Matter? A Study of Hit-and-Run in US Counties By Stefano Castriota; Sandro Rondinella; Mirco Tonin
  11. Innovation catalysts: how multinationals reshape the global geography of innovation By Crescenzi, Riccardo; Dyevre, Arnaud; Neffke, Frank
  12. Neighborhood Choice After COVID: The Role of Rents, Amenities, and Work-From-Home By Fernando V. Ferreira; Maisy Wong
  13. The Colonial Legacy of Education: Evidence from of Tunisia By Mhamed Ben Salah; Cédric Chambru; Maleke Fourati
  14. Group-theoretic Study of Economic Agglomerations on a Square Lattice By Kogure, Yosuke; Ikeda, Kiyohiro
  15. A Before and After Evaluation of Shared Mobility Projects in the San Joaquin Valley By Rodier, Caroline; Harold, Brian; Zhang, Yunwan
  16. Covid-19 Crisis, Economic Hardships and Schooling Outcomes By Esther Gehrke; Friederike Lenel; Claudia Schupp
  17. Ethnic Enclaves and Cultural Assimilation By Achard, Pascal
  18. Housing market dynamics in Kazakhstan: An estimated DSGE model By Akbobek Akhmediyarova
  19. Exploring the Consumer Market of Microtransit Services in the Sacramento Area, California By Xing, Yan; Pike, Susan; Pourrahmani, Elham; Handy, Susan; Wang, Yunshi
  20. Bad Weather, Social Network, and Internal Migration; Case of Japanese Sumo Wrestlers 1946-1985 By Eiji Yamamura
  21. Refugee Migration and the Labor Market: Lessons from 40 Years of Post-Arrival Policies in Denmark By Jacob Nielsen Arendt; Christian Dustmann; Hyejin Ku
  22. The Role of Clusters in the Performance of the Mexican Economy By Miriam Juárez-Torres; Jonathan Puigvert; Francisco Zazueta-Borboa
  23. Neighbourhood gentrification, displacement, and poverty dynamics in post-recession England By Fransham, Mark
  24. Impacts of Increased Chinese Imports on Japan’s Labor Market: Firm and Regional Aspects By HAYAKAWA Kazunobu; ITO Tadashi; URATA Shujiro
  25. Educational Inequality By Blanden, Jo; Doepke, Matthias; Stuhler, Jan
  26. Relationship between the Real Estate Sector and the Stock Market in Chinese Provinces By Di, Zeyu; Heshmati, Almas; Liu, Sijia
  27. "Earthquake exposure and schooling: impacts and mechanisms". By Khalifany-Ash Shidiqi; Antonio Di Paolo; Álvaro Choi
  28. Women’s Mobility and Labor Supply: Experimental Evidence from Pakistan By Field, Erica; Vyborny, Kate
  29. INCOME INEQUALITY AND INNER AREAS. A STUDY ON THE ITALIAN CASE By Graziella Bonanno; Filippo Domma; Lucia Errico
  30. Tailored interventions in a major life decision: A home relocation discrete choice experiment By Velvart, Joëlle; Dato, Prudence; Kuhlmey, Florian
  31. A Partial Identification Approach to Identifying the Determinants of Human Capital Accumulation: An Application to Teachers By Nirav Mehta
  32. A Glimpse of Microtransit at an Early Stage: The SmaRT Ride Consumer Market in the Sacramento Area By Xing, Yan
  33. What the Students for Fair Admissions Cases Reveal About Racial Preferences By Peter Arcidiacono; Josh Kinsler; Tyler Ransom
  34. Investigating day-to-day variability of transit usage on a multimonth scale with smart card data. A case study in Lyon By Oscar Egu; Patrick Bonnel
  35. Social Interactions, Resilience, and Access to Economic Opportunity: A Research Agenda for the Field of Computational Social Science By Theresa Kuchler; Johannes Stroebel
  36. The Demand For Protection and the Persistently High Rates of Gun Violence Among Young Black Males By William N. Evans; Maciej H. Kotowski
  37. Urbanisation and rural development in developing countries: A review of pathways and impacts By Sakketa, Tekalign Gutu
  38. The Real Effects of Banking the Poor: Evidence from Brazil By Julia Fonseca; Adrien Matray
  39. Control and spread of contagion in networks with global effects By John Higgins; Tarun Sabarwal
  40. Regional inequality in Italy in the face of economic crises, recovery, and the health emergency By Antonio Accetturo; Giuseppe Albanese; Rosario M. Ballatore; Tiziano Ropele; Paolo Sestito
  41. Infrastructure and the politics of African state agency: shaping the Belt and Road Initiative in East Africa By Chiyemura, Frangton; Gambino, Elisa; Zajontz, Tim
  42. Using Automated Vehicle (AV) Technology to Smooth Traffic Flow and Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions By Almatrudi, Sulaiman; Parvate, Kanaad; Rothchild, Daniel; Vijay, Upadhi
  43. The banking system and the financing of southern Italian firms By Giorgio Albareto; Michele Cascarano; Stefania De Mitri; Cristina Demma; Roberto Felici; Carlotta Rossi
  44. Employer Attitudes and the Hiring of Immigrants and International Students: Evidence from a Survey of Employers in Canada By Fang, Tony; Xiao, Na; Zhu, Jane; Hartley, John
  45. Unregistered work among refugees: Evidence from a list experiment in Germany By Doerr, Annabelle; Hartmann, Carina; Sajons, Christoph
  46. Labor Scarcity, Technology Adoption and Innovation: Evidence from the Cholera Pandemics in 19th Century France By Raphaël Franck
  47. In the Grip of Whitehall? The Effects of Party Control on Local Fiscal Policy in the UK By Lockwood, Benjamin; Porcelli, Francesco; Rockey, James
  48. The level of digitalization of Italy’s local administrations: north-south differences By Walter Giuzio; Marco Corradetti
  49. Gender and workplace interactions: who is likely to lose? By Swati Sharma

  1. By: Yuhei Miyauchi (Boston University); Kentaro Nakajima (Hitotsubashi University); Stephen J. Redding (Princeton University)
    Abstract: Using smartphone geographical positioning systems (GPS) data for Japan, we show that travel within urban areas frequently occurs along trip chains, involving multiple stops as part of a single journey. Motivated by these empirical findings, we develop a tractable theoretical model of travel itineraries, in which agents choose a set and sequence of locations to visit each day. To overcome the resulting high-dimensionality of the choice set, we develop an approach based on importance sampling. We show that trip chains introduce consumption externalities across locations. We show that these consumption externalities are central to explaining the collapse in foot traffic in downtown areas following the shift to remote working during the Covid-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: Spatial Mobility, Cities, Economic Geography
    JEL: O18 R12 R40
    Date: 2022–04
  2. By: Jorge Pérez Pérez
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of minimum wage changes on spatial equilibriums in local labor markets. Using data for the U.S. and minimum wage variation across state borders, I analyze how commuting, residence, and employment locations change in response to local minimum wage changes. I find that areas where the minimum wage increases receive fewer low-wage commuters. I formulate a spatial equilibrium model and calculate counterfactuals with a higher minimum wage for U.S. cities considering an increase. For small minimum wage increases, most counties would receive higher low-wage commuting and have fewer low-wage residents. As minimum wage increases are larger, there are higher low-wage commuting reductions driven by employment relocation.
    JEL: J31 J38 R23
    Date: 2022–03
  3. By: DIodato, Dario; Morrison, Andrea; Petralia, Sergio
    Abstract: More than 30 million people migrated to the USA between late-ninetieth and early-twentieth century, and thousands became inventors. Drawing on a novel dataset of immigrant inventors in the USA, we assess the city-level impact of immigrants' patenting and their contribution to the technological specialization of the receiving US regions between 1870 and 1940. Our results show that native inventors benefited from the inventive activity of immigrants. In addition, we show that the knowledge transferred by immigrants gave rise to new and previously not exiting technological fields in the US regions where immigrants moved to.
    Keywords: Age of Mass Migration; immigration; innovation; knowledge spill-over; patent; USA
    JEL: F22 O31 R30 J61
    Date: 2022–03–16
  4. By: Aike Steentoft, Bu-Sung Lee, Markus Schläpfer
    Abstract: The ability to understand and predict the flows of people in cities is crucial for the planning of transportation systems and other urban infrastructures. Deep-learning approaches are powerful since they can capture non-linear relations between geographic features and the resulting mobility flow from a given origin location to a destination location. However, existing methods cannot quantify the uncertainty of the predictions, limiting their interpretability and thus their use for practical applications in urban infrastructure planning. To that end, we propose a Bayesian deep-learning approach that formulates deep neural networks as Gaussian processes and integrates automatic variable selection. Our method provides uncertainty estimates for the predicted origin-destination flows while also allowing to identify the most critical geographic features that drive the mobility patterns. The developed machine learning approach is applied to large-scale taxi trip data from New York City.
    Keywords: mobility, Bayesian deep learning, smart cities, transportation system planning
    JEL: C45 R41
    Date: 2022–05
  5. By: Alex Hollingsworth; Mike Huang; Ivan Rudik; Nicholas J. Sanders
    Abstract: We study how ambient lead exposure impacts learning in elementary school by leveraging a natural experiment where a large national automotive racing organization switched from leaded to unleaded fuel. We find increased levels and duration of exposure to lead negatively affect academic performance, shift the entire academic performance distribution, and negatively impact both younger and older children. The average treated student in our setting has an expected income reduction of $5,200 in present value terms. Avoiding said treatment has an effect size similar to improving teacher value added by one-fourth of a standard deviation, reducing class size by 5 students, or increasing school spending per pupil by $750. The marginal impacts of lead are larger in impoverished, non-white counties, and among students with greater duration of exposure, even after controlling for the total quantity of exposure.
    Keywords: education, air pollution, lead, test scores, children
    JEL: I14 I21 Q51 Q53
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Antonio Di Paolo (AQR-IREA, Department of Econometrics, Statistics and Applied Economics Faculty of Economics & Business, University of Barcelona, Campus Diagonal, Torre 4, Avinguda Diagonal 690, 08034 Barcelona (Spain).); Bernat Mallén (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona.)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the effects of geographical exposure to local language training centres in a bilingual urban labour market, the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona, exploiting the implementation of a language policy that provided publicly subsidized language courses for adults. Our variable of interest consists in a measure of spatial availability of language schools that captures potential exposure and its expansion over time. First, we focus on the formation of local language skills, adopting a reduced-form approach. Our results indicate that exposure to language learning opportunities matters for language skills, since individuals residing in neighbourhoods with a higher supply of language centres are more likely to be able to speak and write in Catalan, the local language. The effect is quantitatively modest but very robust to falsification exercises and several sensitivity checks and is strongly heterogeneous in favour of younger individuals born in Catalonia with a low level of education. Second, we analyse whether accessibility to language centres also affects employment, working hours, employment sector, and occupation. The evidence regarding labour market outcomes is inconclusive, possibly due to the fact that the impact of geographical exposure on language skills is too small in size to improve performance in the local labour market.
    Keywords: Local language training, Language skills, Bilingualism, Labour market outcomes. JEL classification: I38, J24, R23, Z13.
    Date: 2022–05
  7. By: Caterina Pavese; Enrico Rubolino
    Abstract: This paper shows that austerity-induced spending cuts harmed student performance in standardized national tests. To identify this relationship, we use cross-municipality variation in the timing of eligibility for the Italian Domestic Stability Pact as an exogenous shifter of local public spending. We then compare test scores for students that were from the same municipality but were exposed to different levels of austerity spending cuts, based on their birth year. Combining administrative data on public spending and test scores with an instrumental variable model, we show that the implied test score impact of austerity is between 2.1-2.4 (1.7- 1.9) percent of a standard deviation per 1,000 euros per-pupil reduction in current (capital) spending. The effects are more pronounced for children with limited resources at home. By contrast, effects are substantially dampened in municipalities with high-skill politicians and school principals, which are more likely to allocate the marginal spending cut toward less productive spending categories.
    Keywords: public spending, test scores
    JEL: I22 I24 H52 H75
    Date: 2022–05
  8. By: Branco, Catarina; Dohse, Dirk; dos Santos, João Pereira; Tavares, José
    Abstract: This paper takes a deep and comprehensive look into the firm-level behavioral reactions to a massive transportation cost shock. Exploiting rich data encompassing the universe of Portuguese private firms and a natural experiment we find that the introduction of tolls on previously toll-free highways caused a substantial decrease of turnover and firm profits. In response to the tolls, firms reduced expenses, cutting employment-related expenses and purchases of other inputs in a similar magnitude. Labor costs were reduced by employment cuts rather than by wage cuts. We find evidence for increased firm exit in treated municipalities, but not for increased re-location.
    Keywords: road tolls,infrastructure,firm performance,firm behavior,location,Portugal
    JEL: R48 L25 R12
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Canaan, Serena (Simon Fraser University); Deeb, Antoine (University of California, Santa Barbara); Mouganie, Pierre (Simon Fraser University)
    Abstract: Religious divisions have long played a primary role in major conflicts throughout much of the world. Intergroup contact may increase trust between members of different religions. However, evidence on how inter-religious contact affects individuals' behavior towards one another is scarce. We examine this question in the setting of a four-year university in Lebanon, a country with a long history of deep divisions and armed conflicts between religious groups. To identify causal effects, we exploit the university's random assignment of first-year students to peer groups. We proxy students' religious backgrounds by whether they attended secular, Christian or Islamic high schools—the last of which have the most religiously homogeneous student body. Results indicate that for students from Islamic high schools, exposure to peers from different religious backgrounds decreases their enrollment in courses taught by instructors with distinctively Muslim names, suggesting that contact improves trust towards members of other religions. Moreover, we show that students from Islamic schools experience improvements in GPA when interacting with those from other groups, while exposure to Islamic students reduces secular students' academic performance.
    Keywords: diversity, religious schools, intergroup contact
    JEL: I23 J15
    Date: 2022–04
  10. By: Stefano Castriota; Sandro Rondinella; Mirco Tonin
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between social capital and the decision to flee after a fatal road accident. This event is unplanned, and the decision is taken under great emotional distress and time pressure, thus providing a test of whether social capital matters for behaviour in extreme conditions. We merge data from the universe of fatality accidents involving pedestrians in the US over the period 2000–2018 with a unique dataset on social capital measures at the county level. Using within-state-year variation, our results show that one standard deviation increase in social capital is associated with a reduction in the probability of hit-and-run of around 10.5%. The causal interpretation of this evidence is supported by a number of falsification tests based on differences in social capital endowment between the county where the accident occurs and the county where the driver resides, as well as by the IV approach proposed by Lewbel (2012). Our findings show the importance of social capital in a new context, suggesting a broad impact on pro-social behaviour and adding to the positive returns of promoting civic norms.
    Keywords: social capital, crime, hit-and-run, road accidents
    JEL: Z13 D91 K42 R41
    Date: 2022
  11. By: Crescenzi, Riccardo; Dyevre, Arnaud; Neffke, Frank
    Abstract: We study whether and when Research and Development (R&D) activities by foreign multinationals facilitate the formation and growth of new innovation clusters. Combining information on nearly four decades’ worth of patents with socio‐economic data for regions that cover virtually the entire globe, we use matched difference‐in‐differences estimation to show that R&D activities by foreign multinationals have a positive causal effect on local innovation rates. This effect is sizeable: over a five‐year period, foreign research activities help a region climb 14 centiles in the global innovation ranks. This effect materializes through a combination of knowledge spillovers to domestic firms and the attraction of new foreign firms to the region. However, not all multinationals generate equal benefits. In spite of their advanced technological capabilities, technology leaders generate fewer spillovers than technologically less advanced multinationals. A closer inspection reveals that technology leaders also engage in fewer technological alliances and exchange fewer workers with local firms abroad than less advanced firms. Moreover, technology leaders tend to set up their foreign R&D activities in regions with lower levels of economic development than less advanced firms, yet with comparable public sector research capacity. These findings suggest that multinationals with high levels of technological sophistication face comparatively unfavorable tradeoffs between the costs and benefits of local spillovers, underscoring the importance of understanding corporate strategy when analyzing innovation clusters.
    Keywords: innovation; regions; foreign direct investment; patenting; cluster emergence; European Union Horizon 2020 Program H2020/2014‐2020) (Grant Agreement n 639633‐MASSIVE‐ERC‐ 2014‐STG; T&F deal
    JEL: O32 O33 R11 R12
    Date: 2022–04–21
  12. By: Fernando V. Ferreira; Maisy Wong
    Abstract: We investigate how neighborhood preferences and choices changed one year after the beginning of the COVID pandemic. We study a Neighborhood Choice Program that helped graduating students choose where to live by providing new information about rents and amenities. Using panel data on neighborhood rankings before and after information, we find that changes in rankings favor neighborhoods where social and professional network shares are higher by 2.2 percentage points, rents are lower by $432, and are 2.4 kilometers farther from the city center. Interestingly, we did not detect this movement away from downtowns when the program was offered prior to the pandemic. We then estimate a neighborhood choice model to recover MWTP for amenities both before and after the pandemic. Our estimates reveal that MWTP for network shares post COVID is markedly lower than prior to COVID. Finally, we perform counterfactuals to quantitatively assess how changes in preferences affect where people live, and find that weaker network preferences are most impactful, while heterogeneity by commute and work-from-home are less relevant.
    JEL: G0 H0 J0 R0
    Date: 2022–04
  13. By: Mhamed Ben Salah (IHEID, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva); Cédric Chambru (University of Zurich); Maleke Fourati (Mediterranean School of Business, South Mediterranean University)
    Abstract: We study the effect of exposure to colonial public primary education on contemporary education outcomes in Tunisia. We assemble a new data set on the location of schools with the number of pupils by origin, along with population data during the French protectorate (1881-1956). We match those with contemporary data on education at both district and individual level. We find that the exposure of local population to colonial public primary education has a long-lasting effect on educational outcomes, even when controlling for colonial investments in education. A one per cent increase in Tunisian enrolment rate in 1931 is associated with a 1.69 percentage points increase in literacy rate in 2014. Our results are driven by older generations, namely individuals who attended primary schools before the 1989/91 education reform. We suggest that the efforts undertaken by the Tunisian government after independence to promote schooling finally paid off after 40 years and overturned the effects of history.
    Keywords: Colonial investment; Primary education; Tunisia
    JEL: D10 N37 N47
    Date: 2022–05–16
  14. By: Kogure, Yosuke; Ikeda, Kiyohiro
    Abstract: The present paper aims to elucidate the mechanism of economic agglomerations in two-dimensional economic spaces equipped with square road networks, which prosper worldwide (e.g., Chicago and Kyoto). A series of theoretical approaches provided in the present thesis makes it possible to investigate the spatial patterns of economic agglomerations on such spatial platforms systematically. The present paper focuses on square distributions on the square lattice economy, which has not somewhat been given much attention. We apply group-theoretic predictions to the investigation of bifurcation behavior of economic geography models. The present paper provides a systematic analysis procedure that is applicable to a wide range of economic geography models.
    Keywords: bifurcation, economic agglomeration, economic geography, group-theoretic bifurcation theory, invariant pattern, local-global system, replicator dynamics, square lattice.
    JEL: C02 R4
    Date: 2022–04–24
  15. By: Rodier, Caroline; Harold, Brian; Zhang, Yunwan
    Abstract: In rural areas, cost-effective transit service is challenging due to greater travel distances, lower population densities, and longer travel times than in cities. As a result, the people who rely on public transit contend with infrequent and slow service, and keeping a sufficient number of personal vehicles in reliable working order can be prohibitively expensive for low-income families. UC Davis partnered with the eight San Joaquin Valley Metropolitan Planning Organizations to identify and support development of three innovative mobility pilot concepts for the region. The first pilot is an electric vehicle (EV) carsharing service known as Míocar, located in affordable housing complexes in eight rural communities in Tulare and Kern counties. The second is a volunteer ridesharing service, known as VOGO, which supplements existing transit services in transport-disadvantaged rural areas in San Joaquin and Stanislaus counties. The third is a Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) platform that allows planning and payment for fixed and demand-responsive transit services, including VOGO, in San Joaquin and Stanislaus counties. These pilots seek to (a) provide improved access to destinations for individuals with limited transportation alternatives, (b) and achieve greenhouse gas reductions through mode shifts from traditional internal combustion vehicles to EVs, ridesharing, and fixed transit. This report presents the methods and results for “before” and “after” evaluations conducted by UC Davis researchers to assess the performance and impacts of each pilot. The evaluations incorporate service usage data including telematics and MaaS application data, and survey data collected from pilot participants, to assess the programs beginning with pilot launch (2019 and2020) until November 2021. The results provide insights into participant characteristics and barriers to transportation, travel behavior, trip planning activities, and the extent to which the pilots addressed the travel needs of their target populations region. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Business, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Electric vehicles, vehicle sharing, volunteer ridesharing, Mobilityas-a-Service (MaaS), social equity, rural transportation, pilot studies, low income groups, evaluation, counterfactual analysis, mode shift, increased mobility, transit access
    Date: 2022–05–01
  16. By: Esther Gehrke; Friederike Lenel; Claudia Schupp
    Abstract: We combine phone-survey data from 2,200 students collected in July-August of 2020 with student-level administrative data from 54 schools in four Northwestern provinces of Cambodia to investigate the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for grade 9 students. These students were particularly vulnerable to dropping out of school prematurely due to the crisis. We find that most students kept studying during the crisis, returned to school to participate in the lower-secondary graduation exam after schools reopened, and transitioned to high school thereafter. However, we also find that students’ exposure to the economic downturn had substantial implications: The likelihood that the father experienced income losses due to the crisis is negatively associated with a student’s propensity to study during school closure, participation and performance in the final exam, and with the likelihood to transition to high school. In contrast, the likelihood that the mother experienced income losses is positively associated with student studying during the crisis, with participation in the final exam and with transition to high school — potentially because mothers used the time at home to encourage their children to study.
    Keywords: Covid-19, schooling, Cambodia
    JEL: I18 I25 O12
    Date: 2022
  17. By: Achard, Pascal (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research)
    Keywords: Cultural Assimilation; Contraceptive Usage; Neighborhood Effect
    Date: 2022
  18. By: Akbobek Akhmediyarova (NAC Analytica, Nazarbayev University)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyse the drivers of housing price fluctuations in Kazakhstan using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model with the housing market. We estimate the model with Bayesian methods using the data for the period from 2010Q1 to 2020Q4. We find that housing prices are primarily driven by housing preference shocks, rather than by price mark up disturbances or monetary policy shocks. We identify strong housing wealth effects and show that housing preference shocks of borrowers explain a vast part of the consumption volatility. Besides, we find that pension withdrawal policy plays a small role in determining the business-cycle fluctuations of Kazakhstan in the long-term period. Overall, the technology shock is key in explaining the variance in GDP of Kazakhstan, while the variation in inflation rate is mainly explained by monetary policy and foreign demand shocks.
    Keywords: DSGE; Housing market; Bayesian estimation; Kazakhstan.
    JEL: C11 E30 E32 R21
    Date: 2021–12
  19. By: Xing, Yan; Pike, Susan; Pourrahmani, Elham; Handy, Susan; Wang, Yunshi
    Abstract: Microtransit is an emerging, technology-enabled, on-demand transportation mode whereby small shuttles provide shared rides through flexible routing and scheduling in response to customers’ requests for rides. Given its potential to address the equity and accessibility needs of the public, public transportation agencies are experimenting with this service to fill gaps in traditional transportation in the US. However, why some people are interested in microtransit while others are not remains an open question. For people who have never used it, what factors could work as facilitators or barriers in their willingness to adopt microtransit? Who are the early adopters of microtransit? Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this study aims to fill the gap in knowledge by conducting a large-scale survey of microtransit adopters and users of other means of transportation in the Sacramento area of California in 2021. This study focuses on the microtransit service SmaRT Ride (SR), operated by the Sacramento Regional Transit District (SacRT). Focus groups and interviews were conducted before the largescale online survey to gather preliminary information, help develop survey questions, and improve understanding of research findings, given the novelty of microtransit. Discrete choice models, including binary logit and ordered logit models and latent class analysis, were employed to explore barriers to and facilitators of SR adoption, willingness to use it, and underlying subgroups of early adopters. Important findings include that people who like fixed-route transit are less likely to adopt microtransit. Social support plays an important role in explaining the willingness to use microtransit. The analysis reveals three salient classes of microtransit users: travel time savers with environmental awareness, riders with a neutral mindset, and pro-SR and travel cost savers. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Microtransit, theory of planned behavior, focus group, discrete modeling, latent class
    Date: 2022–05–01
  20. By: Eiji Yamamura
    Abstract: Post-World War II , there was massive internal migration from rural to urban areas in Japan. The location of Sumo stables was concentrated in Tokyo. Hence, supply of Sumo wrestlers from rural areas to Tokyo was considered as migration. Using a panel dataset covering forty years, specifically 1946-1985, this study investigates how weather conditions and social networks influenced the labor supply of Sumo wrestlers. Major findings are; (1) inclemency of the weather in local areas increased supply of Sumo wrestlers in the period 1946-1965, (2) the effect of the bad weather conditions is greater in the locality where large number of Sumo wrestlers were supplied in the pre-war period, (3) neither the occurrence of bad weather conditions nor their interactions with sumo-wrestlers influenced the supply of Sumo wrestlers in the period 1966-1985. These findings imply that the negative shock of bad weather conditions on agriculture in the rural areas incentivized young individuals to be apprenticed in Sumo stables in Tokyo. Additionally, in such situations, the social networks within Sumo wrestler communities from the same locality are important. However, once the share of workers in agricultural sectors became very low, this mechanism did not work.
    Date: 2022–04
  21. By: Jacob Nielsen Arendt; Christian Dustmann; Hyejin Ku
    Abstract: Denmark has accepted refugees from a large variety of countries and for more than four decades. Denmark has also frequently changed policies and regulations concerning integration programs, transfer payments, and conditions for permanent residency. Such policy variation in conjunction with excellent administrative data provides an ideal laboratory to evaluate the effects of different immigration and integration policies on the outcomes of refugee immigrants. In this article, we first describe the Danish experience with refugee immigration over the past four decades. We then review different post-arrival refugee policies and summarize studies that evaluate their effects on the labor market performance of refugees. Lastly, we discuss and contrast these findings in the context of international studies of similar policies and draw conclusions for policy.
    Keywords: refugee integration, immigration policies, labor supply, employment, language
    JEL: J22 J24 J61
    Date: 2022
  22. By: Miriam Juárez-Torres; Jonathan Puigvert; Francisco Zazueta-Borboa
    Abstract: This paper follows an algorithm that considers different dimensions of linkages across service and manufacturing industries to identify a cluster configuration of the Mexican economy and analyze their role in the economic performance of regions. It identifies 24 clusters and analyzes their geographical distribution, their role in regional growth, the evolution of their employment concentration, and their spillover effects. The main findings suggest that manufacturing-oriented clusters have a strong presence in the Northern states of the country, while services-oriented clusters in the Central ones. Finally, clusters such as plastic products manufacturing; retail and eating services; food and beverage manufacturing; and, automotive show relatively high direct and indirect spillover effects on the economy.
    JEL: L60 L80 O54
    Date: 2022–04
  23. By: Fransham, Mark
    Abstract: A recent “return to the city” by middle-class professionals in England, with the increasing “suburbanisation” of poverty and an ongoing housing crisis, has increased the salience of concerns about neighbourhood gentrification via the involuntary displacement of established working class residents. This paper reports a systematic analysis of gentrification and income poverty in England that adopts innovative methodological approaches: a multivariate index of gentrification, propensity score matching to establish a comparison group, and sensitivity testing with respect to different “gentrification” definitions. The paper investigates three possible theoretical processes that could have driven the observed decline in income poverty rates in gentrifying areas: inward mobility to areas, outward mobility from areas, and in situ changes in poverty status. The post-recession period 2010–2014 is studied using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study. There is good evidence from aggregate and individual-level analyses for a relationship between “inward” mobility, poverty status, and area gentrification. In addition, people moving to gentrifying areas were more likely to have a university degree and more likely to be in the professional occupational class than people who moved to nongentrifying comparison areas. On the other hand, no such relationships are found for “outward” mobility. The strongest evidence is found for “exclusionary displacement” (the restricted ability of low-income households to move in to an area) rather than “direct displacement” (increased outward mobility of existing residents) as the dominant driver of gentrification in this period.
    Keywords: gentrification; longitudinal analysis; migration; neighbourhood change; poverty dynamics; residential mobility; ES/J500112/1; EP/K503113/1; EP/L505031/1; EP/M50659X/1
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2020–07–01
  24. By: HAYAKAWA Kazunobu; ITO Tadashi; URATA Shujiro
    Abstract: Using firm/plant-level data from the Census of Manufacture, this study investigates the impact of Chinese import competition, focusing on different effects based on firm characteristics and regional factors. We find that import competition from China harms Japanese firms’ survival ratios, with the negative impacts being especially strong for smaller firms. Subcontractors are also more vulnerable to Chinese import competition. However, subcontractors in metropolitan areas experience lesser negative impact. In terms of the effects on firm employment, import competition from China had a negative impact, but no statistically significant difference exists based on firm size or whether firms are subcontractors. Firms with overseas affiliates in China or multiple domestic plants reduced their employment in Japan. Moreover, plants in Tokyo, Aichi, and Osaka areas have been particularly inflicted an adverse effect.
    Date: 2022–04
  25. By: Blanden, Jo (University of Surrey); Doepke, Matthias (Northwestern University); Stuhler, Jan (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
    Abstract: This chapter provides new evidence on educational inequality and reviews the literature on the causes and consequences of unequal education. We document large achievement gaps between children from different socio-economic backgrounds, show how patterns of educational inequality vary across countries, time, and generations, and establish a link between educational inequality and social mobility. We interpret this evidence from the perspective of economic models of skill acquisition and investment in human capital. The models account for different channels underlying unequal education and highlight how endogenous responses in parents' and children's educational investments generate a close link between economic inequality and educational inequality. Given concerns over the extended school closures during the Covid-19 pandemic, we also summarize early evidence on the impact of the pandemic on children's education and on possible long-run repercussions for educational inequality.
    Keywords: educational inequality, education finance, social mobility
    JEL: I21 I24 J62
    Date: 2022–04
  26. By: Di, Zeyu (Jönköping University, Sogang University); Heshmati, Almas (Jönköping University, Sogang University); Liu, Sijia (Jönköping University, Sogang University)
    Abstract: In China, real estate and the stock market are the two main markets favored by both individual and institutional investors. There is a significant economic link between the two. Therefore, their relationship and long-term and short-term causality can provide good guidance for investors. This paper studies the causality and correlation relationship between the stock market and real estate sector's trading volumes in 31 provinces of China. Its empirical results are based on panel data from 2000 to 2016. Various panel unit root, co-integration, and model specification and estimation tests are carried out. The panel mean group is found to be the most suitable method for the analysis. The study finds that the main industries in different provinces may affect the short-term causal relationship between the real estate sector and the stock market. But in the long-run, the causal relationship between the two is 2-way and stable.
    Keywords: real estate, stock market, causal relationship, asset allocation, portfolio, economic area, Chinese provinces
    JEL: E22 H54 O16 O18 R53
    Date: 2022–04
  27. By: Khalifany-Ash Shidiqi (Department of Economics, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Faculty of Economics and Business, Indonesia & University of Barcelona, Faculty of Economics and Business, 690 Diagonal Av. 08034, Barcelona, Spain.); Antonio Di Paolo (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona, Faculty of Economics and Business, 690 Diagonal Av. 08034, Barcelona, Spain.); Álvaro Choi (University of Barcelona, Faculty of Economics and Business, 690 Diagonal Av. 08034, Barcelona, Spain.)
    Abstract: Natural disasters are a significant threat to human development. In this paper, we analyze the effects of being exposed to a strong earthquake during school age on schooling outcomes. We merge geolocated data about the intensity of the shock at the district level with individual information from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. The identification strategy exploits variation in exposure to the natural shock by birth cohort and district of residence, considering as the treated group individuals who were residing in affected districts while they were in school age. Earthquake exposure reduces years of schooling by somewhat less than one year and negatively affects the probability of completing compulsory education but does not alter the chances of enrolling into post-compulsory education. Falsification analysis and several robustness checks corroborate the causal interpretation of our findings. The analysis of the potential mechanisms indicates that induced migration and casualties occurring at the family level as a consequence of the earthquake do not seem to play a relevant role. However, damages in educational infrastructures do represent a relevant channel through which natural disasters harm human capital formation. Part of the overall impact of the earthquake represents a delay in schooling progression, but a substantial share of its effect consists in a permanent loss of human capital among affected individuals.
    Keywords: Natural disasters, Earthquake, Schooling, Educational infrastructures. JEL classification: I25, I24, O15, Q54.
    Date: 2022–05
  28. By: Field, Erica (Duke University); Vyborny, Kate (Duke University)
    Abstract: In cities with conservative norms or high crime, female workers may face greater restrictions on their physical mobility. This limits women’s labor market opportunities and the pool of workers that firms can attract. In this study, we experimentally vary access to a transport service in Lahore, Pakistan, to quantify the overall impact of transport to work on men, women, and the differential impact of transport exclusively for women. We show that reducing physical mobility constraints has a large impact on job searching for women, including women who are not searching at baseline. Women’s response is driven by a women-only transport treatment arm, suggesting that safety and social acceptability, rather than simply cost, are key constraints.
    Keywords: transport; mobility; gender; female labor force participation
    JEL: J16 J22 J28 L91
    Date: 2022–04–28
  29. By: Graziella Bonanno (Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)); Filippo Domma (Department of Economics, Statistics and Finance 'Giovanni Anania', University of Calabria, Rende (Italy)); Lucia Errico (Department of Economics, Statistics and Finance 'Giovanni Anania', University of Calabria, Rende (Italy))
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of ‘inner areas’ on income inequality of the Italian municipalities during the period 2012-2018. In doing so, we employ the Beta GLMM approach to overcome the limits arising from the use of the Gaussian distribution in the analysis of income, as suggested by the existing empirical literature. Our main results show that inner areas of Southern Italy seem to have a higher concentration index than the internal areas located in the North. However, in the South, the odds ratio of the average concentration of inner areas appears to be lower than that in central zones. This finding seems to be driven by the peripheral and ultra-peripheral municipalities, highlighting the importance of analysing the phenomenon under scrutiny at a more disaggregated level.
    Keywords: Inequality, Inner areas, Italy, Beta GLMM
    JEL: I30 O15 R10
    Date: 2022–05
  30. By: Velvart, Joëlle (University of Basel); Dato, Prudence (University of Basel); Kuhlmey, Florian (University of Basel)
    Abstract: Major life decisions such as the choice of housing and its characteristics have significant implications for a household and its energy consumption because they alter structural aspects of energy demand. Energy policy interventions targeting these decisions can therefore have a long-lasting impact. To assess non-monetary policy instruments as incentives for energy-conserving housing choices we implement a discrete choice experiment with a representative sample of Swiss households. The purpose of this paper is the investigation of behavioural differences across households in reaction to social norms and energy-related information. To this end, we distinguish different types of households with a segmentation approach useful for policy makers. Our study provides insights for the question whether the tailoring of non-monetary measures can contribute to a more effective policy design compared to a one-size-fits-all approach. Estimating panel mixed logit models, we find treatment effects to significantly differ across household segments as well as with the baseline energy consumption. The evident treatment heterogeneity suggests a targeted approach for non-monetary interventions.
    Keywords: Housing choice, household heterogeneity, non-monetary incentives, social norms, energy literacy
    JEL: D1 D83 D9 Q4 Q5 R21
    Date: 2022–02–17
  31. By: Nirav Mehta
    Abstract: This paper views teacher quality through the human capital perspective. Teacher quality exhibits substantial growth over teachers’ careers, but why it improves is not well understood. I use a human capital production function nesting On-the-Job-Training (OJT) and Learning-by-Doing (LBD) and experimental variation from Glewwe et al. (2010), a teacher incentive pay experiment in Kenya, to discern the presence and relative importance of these forces. The identified set for the OJT and LBD components has a closed-form solution, which depends on experimentally estimated average treatment effects. The results provide evidence of an LBD component, as well as an informative upper bound on the OJT component.
    Keywords: human capital, teacher quality, on-the-job training, learning-by-doing, partial identification
    JEL: I20 I28 J20 J24 J45 C10
    Date: 2022
  32. By: Xing, Yan
    Abstract: Microtransit is a new, technology-enabled, on-demand transportation mode in which small shuttles provide shared rides through flexible routing and scheduling in response to customers’ requests for rides. It can potentially offer greater efficiency and more equitable service than ride-hailing services, and it may fill gaps in traditional transit services. Thus far, the early shape of the microtransit customer market remains unclear. Specifically, why some people are interested in microtransit while others are not remains an open question. For people who have never used it, what factors could work as facilitators or barriers in their willingness to adopt microtransit? Who are early adopters of microtransit? Aiming to fill this gap, in 2021, researchers at the University of California, Davis conducted focus groups and an online survey of SmaRT Ride adopters and users of other means of transportation in the Sacramento area. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Microtransit, theory of planned behavior, focus group, discrete modeling, latent class
    Date: 2022–05–01
  33. By: Peter Arcidiacono; Josh Kinsler; Tyler Ransom
    Abstract: Using detailed admissions data made public in the SFFA v. Harvard and SFFA v. UNC cases, we examine how racial preferences for under-represented minorities (URMs) affect their admissions to Harvard and UNC-Chapel Hill. At Harvard, the admit rates for typical African American applicants are on average over four times larger than if they had been treated as white. For typical Hispanic applicants the increase is 2.4 times. At UNC, preferences vary substantially by whether the applicant is in-state or out-of-state. For in-state applicants, racial preferences result in an over 70% increase in the African American admit rate. For out-of-state applicants, the increase is more than tenfold. Both universities provide larger racial preferences to URMs from higher socioeconomic backgrounds.
    JEL: I23 I24 J15
    Date: 2022–04
  34. By: Oscar Egu (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Patrick Bonnel (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: To examine the variability of travel behaviour over time, transportation researchers need to collect longitudinal data. The first studies around day-to-day variability of travel behaviour were based on surveys. Those studies have shown that there is considerable variation in individual travel behaviour. They have also discussed the implications of this variability in terms of modelling, policy evaluation or marketing. Recently, the multiplication of big data has led to an explosion in the number of studies about travel behaviour. This is because those new data sources collect lots of data, about lots of people over long periods. In the field of public transit, smart card data is one of those big data sources. They have been used by various authors to conduct longitudinal analyses of transit usage behaviour. However, researchers working with smart card data mostly rely on clustering techniques to measure variability, and they often use conceptual framework different from those of transportation researchers familiar with traditional data sources. In particular, there is no study based on smart card data that explicitly measure day-to-day intrapersonal variability of transit usage. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation is to address this gap. To do this, a clustering method and a similarity metric are combined to explore simultaneously interpersonal and intrapersonal variability of transit usage. The application is done with a rich dataset covering a 6 months period (181 days) and it contributes to the growing literature on smart card data. Results of this research confirm previous works based on survey data and show that there is no one size fits all approach to the problem of day-to-day variability of transit usage. They also prove that combining clustering algorithm with day-to-day intrapersonal similarity metric is a valuable tool to mine smart card data. The findings of this study can help in identifying new passenger segmentation and in tailoring information and services.
    Keywords: Public transit,Travel behavior,Smart card data,Passenger clustering,Day-to-day variability,User segmentation
    Date: 2020–04
  35. By: Theresa Kuchler; Johannes Stroebel
    Abstract: We argue that the increasing availability of digital trace data presents substantial opportunities for researchers and policy makers to better understand the importance of social networks and social interactions in fostering economic opportunity and resilience. We review recent research efforts that have studied these questions using data from a wide range of sources, including online social networking platform such as Facebook, call detail record data, and network data from payment systems. We also describe opportunities for expanding these research agendas by using other digital trace data, and discuss various promising paths to increase researcher access to the required data, which is often collected and owned by private corporations.
    Date: 2022
  36. By: William N. Evans; Maciej H. Kotowski
    Abstract: We develop a theoretical model to explain both the high level and persistence in gun violence for black males ages 15–24 consistent with the empirical literature. A person may carry a gun for instrumental (i.e., criminal) reasons or for its perceived protective benefit. Discerning underlying motives is difficult. A shock to the instrumental benefit can move the equilibrium to one with a high gun prevalence. The model demonstrates that there are larger returns to reducing the value of guns for crime than trying to reduce their protective benefit, suggesting different policy paths to combat the problem of gun violence.
    JEL: C7 C72 K4 K42
    Date: 2022–04
  37. By: Sakketa, Tekalign Gutu
    Abstract: This paper reviews the current state of literature on the impacts of urbanization on rural development in developing countries, with an emphasis on Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It also provides a conceptual framework for linking these phenomena, and identifies research gaps that have important policy implications. In particular, this study identifies the following pathways through which urbanization can impact rural (economic) development: Production and consumption linkages, labor/employment linkages, financial linkages, land market linkages, linkages with information or public services, linkages with social interaction, and linkages with environmental externalities such as waste/pollution, environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity. To this end, the review has identified the following research gaps. First, although effective rural-urban planning, monitoring and evaluation of rural-urban development policies require better data, there is lack of data collection systems or their quality is poor. In this respect, investing in emerging data sources such as satellites data can help countries improve their data collection systems and measures. Second, research is needed to revise and reformulate better theoretical frameworks that take into account the uniqueness of African urban cities. Third, empirical evidence which documents to what extent and how rural-urban linkages provide an important arena for improving social interactions among neighbors, societies, and communities is needed. Finally, as many African countries continue to experience rapid urbanization (mostly urban sprawl), a thorough study of the impacts of urban externalities on agricultural productivity, food security, biodiversity, and the health of rural communities is necessary.
    Keywords: Rural development,urbanization,rural-urban linkages,social cohesion,Sub-Saharan Africa,rapid review
    JEL: D6 O1 Q1 R2
    Date: 2022
  38. By: Julia Fonseca (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); Adrien Matray (Princeton University)
    Abstract: We study how financial development affects economic development and wage inequality. We use a large expansion of government-owned banks into Brazilian cities with low bank branch coverage and combine it with data on the universe of employees from 2000–2014. We find that higher financial development fosters firm growth, higher labor demand, and higher average wages, especially for cities initially in banking deserts. However, these gains are not shared equally. Instead, they increase with workers’ productivity, implying a substantial increase in wage inequality. The changes to inequality are concentrated in cities where the initial supply of skilled workers is low, indicating that talent scarcity can drive how financial development affects inequality. Our results are inconsistent with alternative explanations such as differential exposure to Brazil’s economic boom, an overall increase in government lending, and other government or social welfare programs. These results motivate embedding skill heterogeneity into macro-finance development models in order to capture these distributional consequences.
    Keywords: Banking, Economic Development, Financial Development, Wage Inequality
    JEL: O10
    Date: 2022–03
  39. By: John Higgins (Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA); Tarun Sabarwal (Department of Economics, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA)
    Abstract: We study proliferation of an action in binary action network coordination games that are generalized to include global effects. This captures important aspects of proliferation of a particular action or narrative in online social networks, providing a basis to understand their impact on societal outcomes. Our model naturally captures complementarities among starting sets, network resilience, and global effects, and highlights interdependence in channels through which contagion spreads. We present new, natural, and computationally tractable algorithms to define and compute equilibrium objects that facilitate the general study of contagion in networks and prove their theoretical properties. Our algorithms are easy to implement and help to quantify relationships previously inaccessible due to computational intractability. Using these algorithms, we study the spread of contagion in scale-free networks with 1,000 players using millions of Monte Carlo simulations. Our analysis provides quantitative and qualitative insight into the design of policies to control or spread contagion in networks. The scope of application is enlarged given the many other situations across different fields that may be modeled using this framework.
    Keywords: Network games, coordination games, contagion, algorithmic computation
    JEL: C62 C72
    Date: 2022–04
  40. By: Antonio Accetturo (Bank of Italy); Giuseppe Albanese (Bank of Italy); Rosario M. Ballatore (Bank of Italy); Tiziano Ropele (Bank of Italy); Paolo Sestito (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide an updated overview of the economic divide between the South and the Centre-North of Italy from 2007 onwards. We show that the double-dip recession (2008-09 and 2012-13) has widened the gap between the two areas. The sharpest fall in GDP in the South was caused by a marked drop in investment and is associated with less favourable labour market trends. The production base of southern Italy - which has not undergone the same level of restructuring as the rest of the country - remains unfit to compete in a globalized world. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may have more long-lasting negative consequences in the South due to the fragility of its economy.
    Keywords: regional inequality, Mezzogiorno
    JEL: R11 R12 O18
    Date: 2022–04
  41. By: Chiyemura, Frangton; Gambino, Elisa; Zajontz, Tim
    Abstract: Infrastructure development has experienced a political renaissance in Africa and is again at the centre of national, regional, and continental development agendas. At the same time, China has been identified by African policy-makers as a particularly suitable strategic partner. As infrastructure has become a main pillar of Sino-African cooperation, there has been growing analytical interest on the role of African actors in shaping the terms and conditions and, by extension, the implementation of infrastructure projects with Chinese participation. This follows a more general African “agency turn” in China-Africa studies, which has shifted the research focus on the myriad ways in which African state and non-state actors shape the continent’s engagements with China. This article is situated within this growing body of literature and explores different forms of African state agency in the context of Tanzania’s planned Bagamoyo port, Ethiopia’s Adama wind farms, and Kenya’s Lamu port. We posit a non-reductionist and social-relational ontology of the (African) state which sees the state as a multifaceted and multi-scalar institutional ensemble. We show that the extent and forms of state agencies exerted are inherently interrelated with and, thus, highly contingent upon concrete institutional, economic, political, and bureaucratic contexts in which African state actors are firmly embedded. In doing so, we make the case for a context-sensitive analysis of various spheres of state agency in particular conjunctures of Sino-African engagement.
    Keywords: African agency; BRI; Ethiopia; Kenya; Tanzania; infrastructure; state; Tim Zajontz’s field research was conducted with the help of PhD scholarships from the Friedrich Ebert Foundation and the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC).; Springer deal
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2022–04–01
  42. By: Almatrudi, Sulaiman; Parvate, Kanaad; Rothchild, Daniel; Vijay, Upadhi
    Abstract: Passenger and heavy-duty vehicles make up 36% of California’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reducing emissions from vehicular travel is therefore paramount for any path towards carbon neutrality. Efforts to reduce GHGs by encouraging mode shift or increasing vehicle efficiency are, and will continue to be, a critical part of decarbonizing the transportation sector. Emerging technologies are creating an opportunity to reduce GHGs. Human driving behaviors in congested traffic have been shown to create stop-and-go waves. When waves form, cars periodically slow down (sometimes to a stop) and then speed back up again; this repeated braking and accelerating leads to higher fuel consumption, and correspondingly increasingly GHG emissions. Flow smoothing, or the use of a specially designed adaptive cruise controllers to dissipate these waves, can reduce fuel consumption of all the cars on the road. By keeping all vehicles at a constant speed, flow smoothing can minimize system-wide GHG emissions. This report presents the results of flow-smoothing when used in simulation, discusses current work on implementing flow-smoothing in real world-highways, and presents policy discussions on how to support flow smoothing.
    Keywords: Engineering, Greenhouse gases, traffic flow, traffic congestion, autonomous intelligent cruise control, intelligent vehicles, fuel consumption, traffic simulation
    Date: 2022–04–01
  43. By: Giorgio Albareto (Bank of Italy); Michele Cascarano (Bank of Italy); Stefania De Mitri (Bank of Italy); Cristina Demma (Bank of Italy); Roberto Felici (Bank of Italy); Carlotta Rossi (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the territorial gap in firms’ access to credit between 2008 and 2019 and describes the functioning of the credit market in the southern regions of Italy. The southern firms are characterized by a higher level of credit risk; all other things being equal, these firms face less favourable credit conditions than others, paying higher interest rates and providing more collateral on loans. Despite this, the dynamics of loans to firms was more marked in the south with respect to the rest of the country, given the support of the southern banks, which increased lending to firms in these regions, especially to small businesses, more than other banks. During the period 2008-2019, the proportion of riskier loans of banks headquartered in the south increased; these banks are characterized by lower quality credit portfolios and lower profitability.
    Keywords: firm credit, banking system, credit conditions territorial gaps, Italy’s southern regions
    JEL: G10 G21 G3 L10
    Date: 2022–04
  44. By: Fang, Tony (Memorial University of Newfoundland); Xiao, Na (Laurentian University); Zhu, Jane (Memorial University of Newfoundland); Hartley, John (Memorial University of Newfoundland)
    Abstract: What are the perceptions of employers towards hiring immigrants and international students in Atlantic Canada? How are they related to hiring outcomes? Our analysis based on a 2019 random, representative survey of 801 employers finds that those employers who report beliefs that multiculturalism is creativity-enhancing in the workplace and that immigrants are harder working than local workers are more likely to report hiring or intending to hire newcomers and international students Although most employers report positive attitudes towards newcomers and international students, employers who report perceptions that immigrants tend to take jobs from domestic workers, accept lower pay, have a lower retention probability, face language barriers, have higher training costs, and hold unreliable credentials are less likely to report hiring from this group.
    Keywords: immigrants, international students, labour and skill shortages, employer hiring attitudes, employer survey, Atlantic Canada
    JEL: J23 J61 J63 J68
    Date: 2022–04
  45. By: Doerr, Annabelle; Hartmann, Carina; Sajons, Christoph
    Abstract: The integration of refugees in host countries' labor markets is complicated by structural barriers, missing formal qualification and language deficiencies. This leads to widespread concern that refugees may end up in informal and precarious employment relationships. Empirical evidence on the prevalence of unregistered work is missing, however, due to the sensitive and illegal nature of this phenomenon. In this paper, we conduct a list experiment to measure unregistered work among refugees in Germany. Our results indicate that 31% have had experience with an unregistered job since their arrival. Refugees who report that they do not have work permission show a significantly higher likelihood of experiencing unregistered work. Furthermore, the lack of post-secondary education and vocational degrees, and a low German proficiency predict the risk to work without registration.
    Keywords: Unregistered work, Informal employment, List experiment, Refugees, Germany, Survey experiment
    JEL: J46 J61 C83
    Date: 2022–01–04
  46. By: Raphaël Franck
    Abstract: To analyze the impact of labor scarcity on technology adoption and innovation, this study uses the differential spread of cholera across France in 1832, 1849 and 1854, before the transmission mode of this disease was understood. The results suggest that a larger share of cholera deaths in the population, which can be causally linked to summer temperature levels, had a positive and significant shortrun effect on technology adoption and innovation in agriculture but a negative and significant short-run impact on technology adoption in industry. These results, which are not driven by migration, urbanization, religiosity or local financial intermediation, can be explained by the positive impact of labor scarcity on human capital formation.
    Keywords: epidemics, labor scarcity, technology adoption
    JEL: I15 N13 O33
    Date: 2022
  47. By: Lockwood, Benjamin (University of Warwick); Porcelli, Francesco (University of Bari); Rockey, James (University of Birmingham)
    Abstract: This paper uses an instrumental variable approach based on close elections to evaluate the effect of political parties on local fiscal policy in England and Wales over the period 1998-2016. Our main finding is that political control of the council (by Labour, Conservative or Liberal Democrat parties) has no effect on total expenditure, the composition of expenditure, the property tax rate (council tax per band D property) or total council tax revenue. Thus, our results confirm the widely expressed belief that centrally imposed constraints on local government fiscal policy (rate-capping, and more recently, compulsory referenda) hold local government fiscal policy in a tight grip. JEL classification: H70 ; H71 ; D72
    Keywords: Party Control ; Grants ; Government Spending ; Taxation
    Date: 2022
  48. By: Walter Giuzio (Bank of Italy); Marco Corradetti (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: The paper examines indicators of the level of digitalization of local administrations in Italy, identifying differences between the South and the rest of the country. In particular, the paper analyses the following elements: ability to provide online services, basic IT infrastructure, integration of available technologies, governance of innovation processes, and training activities. Italy ranks 18th among 28 European countries for digital public services availability. Only one in three administrations are able to provide services to citizens and businesses through their websites. The South has basic IT infrastructure and systems integration in line with the Centre-North, but scores lower in the provision of online services, governance of innovation and training activities.
    Keywords: e-government, online services, digitalization, governance, public administration.
    JEL: H83 O33 O38
    Date: 2022–04
  49. By: Swati Sharma (Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi)
    Abstract: Workplace interactions have been identified as a valuable source of information and career advancement. This study examines workplace interaction by looking at personal ties of 1744 blue-collar workers in 2 garment manufacturing units in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi, India. Data analysis shows that men have a more expansive set of personal ties, even after controlling for variation in interpersonal and workplace-related characteristics. Women’s personal networks are smaller, clustered within their functional units and more homogeneous. While supervisors do not figure in personal networks of either gender, women are significantly less likely to mobilize interactions with supervisors for professional or personal purposes. Thus, women’s personal ties at the workplace exhibit patterns that are opposite of those identified by existing literature as instrumental for career advancement.
    Keywords: gender, workplace ties, social networks, garment manufacturing, India
    JEL: D21 D22 J40 M51 Z13
    Date: 2021–04

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