nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2022‒04‒11
fifty-nine papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Judge Dread: court severity, repossession risk and demand in mortgage and housing markets By Montebruno Bondi, Piero; Silva, Olmo; Szumilo, Nikodem
  2. Road Safety in Cities: Street Design and Traffic Management Solutions By ITF
  3. Understanding what attracts new residents to smaller cities By Vij, Akshay; Ardeshiri, Ali; Li, Tiebei; Beer, Andrew; Crommelin, Laura
  4. On the Use of Satellite-Based Vehicle Flows Data to Assess Local Economic Activity: The Case of Philippine Cities By Go, Eugenia; Nakajima, Kentaro; Sawada , Yasuyuki; Taniguchi, Kiyoshi
  5. Pricing vehicle emissions and congestion externalities using a dynamic traffic network simulator By Shaghayegh Vosough; André de Palma; Robin Lindsey
  6. Impact of female peer composition on gender norm perceptions and skills formation in secondary school By Martina Querejeta
  7. The Effect of Housing First Programs on Future Homelessness and Socioeconomic Outcomes By Elior Cohen
  8. The ripple effects of large-scale transport infrastructure investment By Damiaan Persyn; Javier Barbero; Jorge Díaz-Lanchas; Patrizio Lecca; Giovanni Mandras; Simone Salotti
  9. Public School Funding, School Quality, and Adult Crime By E. Jason Baron; Joshua M. Hyman; Brittany N. Vasquez
  10. Why Aren’t People Leaving Janesville? Industry Persistence, Trade Shocks, and Mobility By Sebastian Ottinger; Michael Poyker
  11. Recidivism and neighborhood institutions: evidence from the rise of the evangelical church in Chile By Barrios-Fernandez, Andres; Garcia Hombrados, Jorge
  12. Streets That Fit: Re-allocating Space for Better Cities By ITF
  13. Designing a price index for the Spanish commercial real estate market By Matías Lamas; Sara Romaniega
  14. Suburbanization in the United States 1970-2010 By Redding, Stephen
  15. Agency and Economic Change in Regions: Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to identify Routes to New Path Development By Grillitsch, Markus; Sotarauta, Markku; Asheim, Björn; Fitjar, Rune Dahl; Haus-Reve, Silje; Kolehmainen, Jari; Kurikka, Heli; Lundquist, Karl-Johan; Martynovich, Mikhail; Monteilhet, Skirmante; Nielsen, Hjalti; Nilsson, Magnus; Rekers, Josefine; Sopanen, Sami; Stihl, Linda
  16. Objectified Housing Sales and Rent Prices in Representative Household Surveys: the Impact on Macroeconomic Statistics By Denisa Naidin; Sofie R. Waltl; Michael Ziegelmeyer
  17. Digital Entrepreneurship Indicator (DEI): An Analysis of the Case of the Greater Paris Metropolitan Area By Dorine CORNET; Jean BONNET; Sébastien BOURDIN
  18. Conditional cash transfers and high school attainment: Evidence from a large-scale program in the Dominican Republic By Hernandez, Manuel A.; Pellerano, Jose A.; Sanchez, Gonzalo E.
  19. Screening and Recruiting Talent at Teacher Colleges Using Pre-College Academic Achievement By Christopher Neilson; Sebastian Gallegos; Franco Calle; Mohit Karnani
  20. Ride-sharing with Inflexible Drivers in the Paris Metropolitan Area By André de Palma; Lucas Javaudin; Patrick Stokkink; Léandre Tarpin-Pitre
  21. Construction and Application of Regional Input-Output Table: The Case of Mito City in Ibaraki Prefecture By Seiji Yamada
  22. House prices in Spain: Is it always sunny and warm? By Juan Carlos Cuestas; Mercedes Monfort; Javier Ordóñez
  23. Preference Learning in School Choice Problems By Aaron Bodoh-Creed; SangMok Lee
  24. Good or Bad? Short- versus Long-Term Effects of Multigrading on Child Achievement By Gian Paolo Barbetta; Patrick Chuard-Keller; Giuseppe Sorrenti; Gilberto Turati
  25. Impact of teacher content knowledge on student achievement in a low-income country By Anna Holvio
  26. Policing and Management By Max Kapustin; Terrence Neumann; Jens Ludwig
  27. Insuring Longevity Risk and Long-Term Care: Bequest, Housing and Liquidity By Mengyi Xu; Jennifer Alonso Garcia; Michael Sherris; Adam Shao
  28. Learning Losses from School Closure Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic for Thai Kindergartners By Weerachart Kilenthong; Khanista Boonsanong; Sartja Duangchaiyoosook; Wasinee Jantorn; Varunee Khruapradit
  29. Place-Based Consequences of Person-Based Transfers: Evidence from Recessions By Brah J. Hershbein; Bryan A. Stuart
  30. Analyzing EU-15 immigrants’ language acquisition using Twitter data By B. Sofia Gil-Clavel; André Grow; Maarten J. Bijlsma
  31. Impact of Social Network Usage on Academic Performance of the Vietnamese Students By , Le Thanh Tung
  32. Immigrant-native gap in risk and time preferences in Germany: Levels, socio-economic determinants, and recent changes By Deole, Sumit S.; Rieger, Marc Oliver
  33. Is the Age Structure of the Population One of the Determinants of the Household Saving Rate in China? A Spatial Panel Analysis of Provincial Data By Jingwen Yin; Charles Yuji Horioka
  34. Job Protection and Mortgage Conditions: Evidence from Italian Administrative Data By Paolo Emilio Mistrulli; Tommaso Oliviero; Zeno Rotondi; Alberto Zazzaro
  35. Is the Age Structure of the Population One of the Determinants of the Household Saving Rate in China? A Spatial Panel Analysis of Provincial Data By Jingwen Yin; Charles Yuji Horioka
  36. The dynamic consequences of state-building: evidence from the French Revolution By Cédric Chambru; Emeric Henry; Benjamin Marx
  37. “Pictures are worth many words: Effectiveness of visual communication in dispelling the rent–control misconception” By Jordi Brandts; Isabel Busom; Cristina Lopez-Mayan; Judith Panadés
  38. Is the Age Structure of the Population One of the Determinants of the Household Saving Rate in China? A Spatial Panel Analysis of Provincial Data By Yin, Jingwen; Yuji Horioka, Charles
  39. Where do politicians send pork? Evidence from central government transfers to French municipalities By Brice Fabre; Marc Sangnier
  40. Knowledge and Technology Transfer under Digital Conditions: Transfer Intermediaries in Eastern Germany and the Role of Digital Means, Trust and Face-to-Face Interactions By Noack, Anika
  41. The Evolution of U.S. Retail Concentation By Dominic A. Smith; Sergio Ocampo
  42. Transport Connectivity in Northeast Asia: in the Context of Trans-Eurasian Transport By Ryuichi Shibasaki; Hirofumi Arai; Kentaro Nishimura; Takuya Yamaguchi
  43. Productive and regional development policies in Latin America since 1890 By Luis Bertola
  44. An overview of effects of COVID-19 on mobility and lifestyle: 18 months since the outbreak By André de Palma; Shaghayegh Vosough; Feixiong Liao
  45. Tolls vs tradable permits for managing travel on a bimodal congested network with variable capacities and demands By Robin Lindsey; André de Palma; Pouya Rezaeini
  46. Refined Estimation of Service Price Differentials and their Effect on Productivity among Regions in Japan: Treatment of Commerce, and Transforming into Value-added Deflator (Japanese) By TOKUI Joji; MIZUTA Takeshi
  47. Japanese Inter-prefectural Input-Output Table: Construction Method and Main Results for 2011 (Japanese) By ARAI Sonoe
  48. Improving government quality in the regions of the EU and its system-wide benefits for Cohesion policy By Javier Barbero; Martin Christensen; Andrea Conte; Patrizio Lecca; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose; Simone Salotti
  49. Improving Service Delivery to Out-Of-School Youth from Minority Backgrounds: Case Study Findings from the Southern California Resource Services for Independent Living By John O’Neill; Mira Wang; Frank Martin
  50. The Role of Non-Pecuniary Considerations: Locations Decisions of College Graduates from Low Income Backgrounds By Yifan Gong; Todd Stinebrickner; Ralph Stinebrickner; Yuxi Yao
  51. Effects of Policy Mix on European Regional Convergence By Ignacio Sacristán López-Bravo; Carlos San Juan Mesonada
  52. Effects of land tenure rights formalization on household investments – The case of PRODEP in Nicaragua By De la O Campos, Ana Paula; Edouard, Fabrice; Ruiz Salvago, Marta
  53. Robust Design, Analysis and Evaluation of Variable Speed Limit Control in a Connected Environment with Uncertainties: Performance Evaluation and Environmental Benefits By Yuan, Tianchen; Alasiri, Faisal; Ioannou, Petros A.
  54. International Migration, Cross-Border Labor Mobility, and Regional Economic Integration in Asia and the Pacific By Aiko Kikkawa; Raymond Gaspar; Cyn-Young Park
  55. A New Claims-Based Unemployment Dataset: Application to Postwar Recoveries Across U.S. States By Fieldhouse, Andrew; Howard, Sean; Koch, Christoffer; Munro, David
  56. A generalized framework for estimating spatial econometric interaction models By Dargel, Lukas; Thomas-Agnan, Christine
  57. Entrepreneurship and Regulatory Voids: The Case of Ridesharing By Deerfield, Amanda; Elert, Niklas
  58. Modeling and Forecasting Industrial Electricity Demand for Saudi Arabia: Uncovering Regional Characteristics By Jeyhun Mikayilov; Ryan Alyamani; Abdulelah Darandary; Muhammad Javid; Fakhri Hasanov; Saleh T. AlTurki; Rey B. Arnaiz
  59. In-group Favoritism and Peer Effects in Wrongful Acquittals: NBA Referees as Judges By Naci H. Mocan; Eric Osborne-Christenson

  1. By: Montebruno Bondi, Piero; Silva, Olmo; Szumilo, Nikodem
    Abstract: We study the impact of borrower protection on mortgage and housing demand. We focus on variation in the likelihood that a house is repossessed – conditional on the mortgage being in arrears and taken to court – coming from heterogeneity in preferences of judges that adjudicate on repossession cases in England and Wales. We develop a simple theoretical framework that shows that too much borrower protection restricts credit supply, while not enough restricts credit demand. Market outcomes depend on which side dominates. To test the predictions of our model, we exploit exogenous spatial variation in repossession risk created by the boundaries of courts’ catchment areas. In our setting, housing market characteristics, borrower attributes and mortgage rates do not change discontinuously across these boundaries – allowing us to isolate the causal effects of borrower protection. We find that less borrower protection decreases both mortgage sizes and house prices. This pattern suggests that judges in our sample are too strict and that demand determines market outcomes. Furthermore, we find that our measure of borrower protection does not react to market conditions – causing frictions in credit and housing markets.
    Keywords: house repossessions; mortgages; house prices; housing demand; mortgage default
    JEL: G21 R21
    Date: 2021–05–11
  2. By: ITF
    Abstract: This booklet presents measures that effectively reduce road traffic deaths and serious injuries in cities. It covers urban street design, traffic management and improving mobility options. Measures are illustrated with examples reported by cities collaborating in the ITF Safer City Streets network and include information on cost and effectiveness.
    Date: 2022–02–16
  3. By: Vij, Akshay; Ardeshiri, Ali; Li, Tiebei; Beer, Andrew; Crommelin, Laura
    Abstract: This project examined the current mobility and settlement patterns across Australian metropolitan and regional areas; identify key drivers of population mobility to/from both metropolitan and regional areas; and measure the relative influence of different factors (e.g. employment, infrastructure) that support migration to regional areas.
    Date: 2022–03–23
  4. By: Go, Eugenia (Asian Development Bank); Nakajima, Kentaro (Hitotsubashi University); Sawada , Yasuyuki (University of Tokyo); Taniguchi, Kiyoshi (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: The lack of suitable data is a key challenge in ex-post policy evaluations. This paper proposes a novel data to measure local economic activities using vehicle counts in each 500 meter (m) x 500 m tile. The metric is derived from high resolution satellite images using a machine learning algorithm. Using the opening of the new international airport terminal in Cebu, Philippines, as a quasi-experiment, we estimate the impact of the new infrastructure on the local economy of Metro Cebu. Results of the difference-in-differences analysis show that the new terminal significantly increased vehicle traffic in urban Cebu. The effect decays with distance from the airport, is stronger in areas where hotels are located, and is most pronounced in the peak months for international tourists. These findings imply that the opening of the new international terminal has enhanced Cebu's local economy through international tourism.
    Keywords: transportation infrastructure; satellite imagery data
    JEL: R11
    Date: 2022–03–14
  5. By: Shaghayegh Vosough; André de Palma; Robin Lindsey (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, THEMA)
    Abstract: Road traffic is a major contributor to air pollution which is a serious problem in many large cities. Experience in London, Milan, and Stockholm indicates that road pricing can be useful in reducing vehicle emissions as well as congestion. This study uses a dynamic traffic network simulator that models choices of mode, departure time, and route to investigate the effectiveness of tolls to target emissions and congestion externalities on a stylized urban road network during a morning commuting period. The spatial distribution of four pollutants is calculated using a Gaussian dispersion model that accounts for wind speed and direction. Single and double cordon tolls are evaluated, as well as flat tolls that do not change during the simulation period and step tolls that change at half-hourly intervals. The presence of emissions externalities raises optimal toll levels, and substantially increases the welfare gains from tolling, although the proportional advantage of step tolls over flat tolls is lower than if congestion is the only externality. The individual welfare-distributional effects of tolling vary strongly with residential and workplace locations relative to the cordon, and also differ for the upwind and downwind sides of the city.
    Keywords: congestion, dynamic traffic simulation, emissions, pollution dispersion, tolls
    JEL: R4 K32
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Martina Querejeta
    Abstract: This paper examines peer effects on students' gender norm perceptions and skills formation. I use a Uruguayan nationally representative survey of 9th grade students and exploit the quasi-random variation in the proportion of female peers across classes within schools for causal identification. Results show that a higher exposure to female peers in the class leads to more progressive gender norms. Furthermore, these effects in gender perceptions are driven mostly by male students.
    Keywords: Peer effect, Gender norms, Gender inequality, Developing countries
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Elior Cohen
    Abstract: Housing First programs provide housing assistance without preconditions for homeless individuals as a platform for rehabilitation. Despite the programs’ increasing popularity, limited evidence exists on their effects on socioeconomic outcomes. Using a novel dataset combining administrative records from multiple public agencies in Los Angeles County and a random case manager assignment design, I estimate that Housing First assistance reduces homelessness and crime, increases income and employment, and does not have a detectable effect on healthcare utilization. Cost-benefit analysis implies that these potential savings offset program costs within 18 months. These findings demonstrate that Housing First can be rehabilitative and cost-effective.
    Keywords: Homelessness; Housing First; Case managers
    JEL: H42 I38 J18
    Date: 2022–03–29
  8. By: Damiaan Persyn (University of Gottingen); Javier Barbero (European Commission - JRC); Jorge Díaz-Lanchas (Universidad Pontificia Comillas); Patrizio Lecca (PBL); Giovanni Mandras (European Commission - JRC); Simone Salotti (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: We analyse the general equilibrium effects of an asymmetric decrease in transport costs, combining a large scale spatial dynamic general equilibrium model for 267 European NUTS 2 regions with a detailed transport model at the level of individual road segments. As a case study we consider the impact of the road infrastructure investments in Central and Eastern Europe in the context of the EU cohesion policy programme. Our analysis suggests that the decrease in transportation costs benefits the regions targeted by the policy via substantial increases in GDP and exports compared to the baseline, and small increases in population. The geographic information embedded in the transport model leads to relatively large predicted benefits in peripheral countries such as Greece and Finland who hardly receive funds, but whose trade links cross Central and Eastern Europe and thus profit from the investments there. The richer, Western European non-targeted regions also enjoy a higher GDP after the investment in the East, but these effects are smaller. Thus, the policy reduces interregional disparities. There are rippled patterns in the predicted spillovers of the policy. In non-targeted countries, regions trading more intensely with regions where the investment is taking place on average benefit more compared to other regions within the same country, but also compared to neighbouring regions across an international border. Using regression analysis we uncover that regions which import intermediate inputs from Central and Eastern Europe enjoy the largest spillovers. These regions become more competitive and expand exports locally, at the detriment of other regions in the same country.
    Keywords: transport infrastructure; economic geography; computable general equilibrium modelling.
    JEL: C68 R11 R13 R15 R41
    Date: 2022–02
  9. By: E. Jason Baron; Joshua M. Hyman; Brittany N. Vasquez
    Abstract: This paper asks whether improving the quality of public schools can be an effective long-run crime-prevention strategy in the U.S. Specifically, we examine the effect of school quality improvements early in children's lives on the likelihood that they are arrested as adults. We exploit quasi-experimental variation in school quality due to increases in public school funding, leveraging two natural experiments in Michigan and a novel administrative dataset linking the universe of Michigan public school students to adult criminal justice records. The first research design exploits variation in operating expenditures due to Michigan's 1994 school finance reform, Proposal A. The second design exploits variation in capital spending by leveraging close school district capital bond elections in a regression discontinuity framework. In both cases, we find that students exposed to additional funding during elementary school were substantially less likely to be arrested in adulthood. We show that the Marginal Value of Public Funds of improving school quality (via increases in funding) is greater than one, even when considering only the crime-reducing benefits.
    JEL: H75 I21 I22 K42
    Date: 2022–03
  10. By: Sebastian Ottinger (Northwestern University); Michael Poyker (University of Nottingham)
    Abstract: Particular industries have dominated many locations in the United States for more than a century. We show that individuals residing in such locations were systematically less likely to move away from there during the past few decades. By identifying locations with sizable employment shares in the same manufacturing industries in 1870 and 1980, we documented less out-migration in the decades following 1980 than earlier. In response to the largest shock affecting manufacturing employment since then, these locations adjusted differently: the “China shock” led to higher unemployment in their communities, but fewer people moved away. Drawing on rich data of social links across counties and surveys of individuals residing there, we document that these individuals have stronger local friendship networks than residents of more thriving communities and exhibit systematic differences in their job-market search behavior. We hypothesize that when local opportunities narrow, residents of these locations both lack information about job opportunities elsewhere and benefit from the amenity value of extended social networks in their location of origin. Instrumental variable results based on a historical shock to local industries’ chances of survival suggest that the effect of dominant manufacturing industries on migration is causal. Mediation analysis reveals that the emergence of strong local ties primarily drives such migration.
    Keywords: Employment persistence, labor mobility, local ties
    JEL: J23 N31 N32 N71 N72 R12 Z1
    Date: 2022–02
  11. By: Barrios-Fernandez, Andres; Garcia Hombrados, Jorge
    Abstract: Rehabilitating convicted criminals is challenging; indeed, an important share of them return to prison only a few years after their release. Thus, finding effective ways of encouraging crime desistance, particularly among young individuals, has become an important policy goal to reduce crime and incarceration rates. This paper provides causal evidence that the local institutions of the neighborhood that receives young individuals after prison matter. Specifically, we show that the opening of an Evangelical church reduces twelve-months re-incarceration rates among property crime offenders by more than 10 percentage points. This effect represents a drop of 16% in the probability of returning to prison for this group of individuals. We find smaller and less precise effects for more severe types of crime. We discuss two classes of mechanisms that could explain our results: religiosity and social support. We provide evidence that the social support provided by evangelical churches is an important driver of our findings. This suggests that non-religious local institutions could also play an important role in the rehabilitation of former inmates.
    Keywords: crime desistance; recidivism; religion
    JEL: K42 H42 J40
    Date: 2021–05–21
  12. By: ITF
    Abstract: Street space in cities is a rare resource. Much of it is currently allocated to highly space-consuming transport modes without taking into account that demands for that space vary over time. This report looks at how street space has typically been allocated in the past, examines the rationale for street space allocation and describes how to measure space consumption for mobility purposes. The study also explores by way of a simulation how new mobility services and travel modes interact when a limited, dynamic and demand-responsive re-allocation of street space is introduced in a mid-sized city.
    Date: 2022–02–17
  13. By: Matías Lamas (Banco de España); Sara Romaniega (European Central Bank)
    Abstract: This paper proposes a price index for the Spanish commercial real estate (CRE) market and its main segments. No official price indices currently exist for these assets and non-official statistics are thin on the ground and offer limited coverage. The estimated index fills this statistical gap, providing for enhanced monitoring of CRE market developments. The price indicator draws on the methodology used to calculate the Spanish National Statistics Institute’s housing market price indices, but factoring in certain elements specific to the CRE sector. Various alternative indices are also considered, although the indicator proposed is that which strikes the best balance between the different statistical properties analysed here.
    Keywords: commercial real estate market, price indices, hedonic regression modela
    JEL: R33
    Date: 2022–03
  14. By: Redding, Stephen
    Abstract: The second half of the twentieth century saw large-scale suburbanization in the United States, with the median share of residents who work in the same county where they live falling from 87 to 71 percent between 1970 and 2000. We introduce a new methodology for discriminating between the three leading explanations for this suburbanization (workplace attractiveness, residence attractiveness and bilateral com-muting frictions). This methodology holds in the class of spatial models that are characterized by a structural gravity equation for commuting. We show that the increased openness of counties to commuting is mainly explained by reductions in bilateral commuting frictions, consistent with the expansion of the interstate highway network and the falling real cost of car ownership. We find that changes in workplace attractiveness and residence attractiveness are more important in explaining the observed shift in employment by workplace and employment by residence towards lower densities over time.
    Keywords: economic geography; suburbanization; transportation
    JEL: R12 R30 R40
    Date: 2021–05–19
  15. By: Grillitsch, Markus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Sotarauta, Markku (Tampere University); Asheim, Björn (CIRCLE, Lund University); Fitjar, Rune Dahl (University of Stavanger); Haus-Reve, Silje (University of Stavanger); Kolehmainen, Jari (Tampere University); Kurikka, Heli (Tampere University); Lundquist, Karl-Johan (CIRCLE, Lund University); Martynovich, Mikhail (Lund University); Monteilhet, Skirmante (University of Stavanger); Nielsen, Hjalti (Lund University); Nilsson, Magnus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Rekers, Josefine (Lund University); Sopanen, Sami (Tampere University); Stihl, Linda (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of human agency in 40 phases of regional economic development in 12 Nordic regions over 30 years. The paper contributes with a theoretical framework to study agency over time and a fuzzyset qualitative comparative analysis based on a unique dataset combining over 200 interviews, with printed and online sources, and quantitative data. The paper identifies which combinations of agency types and context conditions make industrial upgrading or diversification possible, and investigates how such combinations come into being. The causal claims from this analysis are illustrated with empirical examples and discussed in relation to previous literature.
    Keywords: regional development; industrial diversification; innovation; entrepreneurship; place-based leadership; institutions
    JEL: O10 O30 R11
    Date: 2022–04–04
  16. By: Denisa Naidin; Sofie R. Waltl; Michael Ziegelmeyer
    Abstract: Reliable macroeconomic housing and wealth statistics as well as counterfactual analyses across housing tenure status require hypothetical sales and rent prices for properties off the market reflecting current market conditions and representing the entire housing stock. We replace subjective values reported by participants in the Luxembourg Household Finance and Consumption Survey by objectified values imputed via hedonic models estimated on observable market data. We find that the participants’ tendency to over- and under-report values is strongly correlated with tenure length, tenure type, type of dwelling, household income and wealth. We find shifts in the wealth distribution, detect large regional variation in price-to-rent, price-to-income and rent-to-income ratios as well as stark affordability concerns: only 18% of all renting households could theoretically afford to purchase the dwelling they rent given current market conditions. These renters are usually younger, placed at the top of the wealth and income distribution, and reside outside Luxembourg City.
    Keywords: Macroeconomic Statistics; Housing Wealth; Subjective Assessments; Affordability; Surveys; Measurement Errors; Housing and Rent Markets
    JEL: E58
    Date: 2022–03
  17. By: Dorine CORNET (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, 106-112 bd de l'Hôpital, 75642 Paris Cedex 13); Jean BONNET (Normandie Univ, Unicaen, CNRS, CREM, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 CAEN cedex 5); Sébastien BOURDIN (EM Normandie Business School, Métis Lab, 9 rue Claude Bloch, 14 000 Caen)
    Abstract: The DIGITAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP INDICATOR (DEI), which combines individual and institutional data, is designed to chart the vitality of metropolitan areas in terms of digital entrepreneurship on a suburban scale. In this study, we apply it to the case of the Greater Paris Metropolitan area. Using geographically weighted regression, we explore the spatial heterogeneity of the effect of digital entrepreneurial ecosystems on the location quotient of information and communication technology firms with fewer than 10 employees. The results highlight a positive link between the DEI and the location quotient of small ICT firms. In particular, the aspects of both ATTitudes and CAPacities (i.e., urbanization economies, Human Development Index, density of incubators, accounting and financial services, and fiber optic coverage) appear to have a significant effect on a suburban scale.
    Keywords: digital entrepreneurial ecosystem, urban area, innovation, spatial econometrics
    JEL: R12 L26 O31 P25
    Date: 2022–04
  18. By: Hernandez, Manuel A.; Pellerano, Jose A.; Sanchez, Gonzalo E.
    Abstract: Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs are widely implemented in developing countries but evidence of their medium- and long-term effects on educational achievements is still relatively scarce. This paper examines the impact of a large-scale CCT program on high school attainment in the Dominican Republic. We implement a quasi-experimental approach combining extensive educational, administrative, and household records from program participants across the country and exploiting variations in the scheme (amount) of school transfers received among program participants. We find that receiving additional transfers specific for high school education is, on average, associated with an 11.7-13.2 percentage points higher probability of completing high school relative to not receiving these transfers. We do not find major differences across urban and rural areas nor between female and male students. The transfers seem to play an important role during the last high school year of targeted students. The estimated impacts point to non-negligible effects on employment, salaries, and delayed parenthood. Several robustness checks support our findings.
    Keywords: DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; CARIBBEAN; LATIN AMERICA; AMERICAS; cash transfers; secondary education; models; cost benefit analysis; education; programmes; gender; urban areas; rural areas; social protection; educational attainment; large-scale programs; conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs; female students; male students
    Date: 2022
  19. By: Christopher Neilson (Princeton University); Sebastian Gallegos (Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez); Franco Calle (University of Chicago); Mohit Karnani (MIT)
    Abstract: This paper studies screening and recruiting policies that restrict or incentivize entry to teacher-colleges. Using historical records of college entrance exam scores since 1967 and linking them to administrative data on the population of teachers in Chile, we first document a robust positive and concave relationship between precollege academic achievement and several short and long run measures of teacher productivity. We use an RD design to evaluate two recent policies that increased the share of high-scoring students studying to become teachers. We then show how data-driven algorithms and administrative data can enhance similar teacher screening and recruiting policies.
    Keywords: incentives, college entrance exams, administrative data
    JEL: I23 J24 C21
    Date: 2022–02
  20. By: André de Palma; Lucas Javaudin; Patrick Stokkink; Léandre Tarpin-Pitre (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, THEMA)
    Abstract: In ride-sharing, commuters with similar itineraries share a vehicle for their trip. Despite its clear benefits in terms of reduced congestion, ride-sharing is not yet widely accepted. We propose a specific ride-sharing variant, where drivers are completely inflexible. This variant can form a competitive alternative against private transportation, due to the limited efforts that need to be made by drivers. However, due to this inflexibility, matching of drivers and riders can be substantially more complicated, compared to the situation where drivers can deviate. In this work, we propose a four-step procedure to identify the effect of such a ride-sharing scheme. We use a dynamic mesoscopic traffic simulator, Metropolis, which computes departure-time choices and route choices for each commuter. The optimal matching of potential drivers and riders is obtained outside the simulation framework through an exact formulation of the problem. We evaluate the potential of this ridesharing scheme on a real network of the Paris metropolitan area for the morning commute. We show that even with inflexible drivers and when only a small portion of the population is willing to participate in the ride-sharing scheme, ride-sharing can alleviate congestion. Further improvements can be obtained by increasing the capacity of the vehicles or by providing small monetary incentives, but without jeopardizing the inflexibility of the drivers. Thereby, we show that ride-sharing can lead to fuel savings, CO2 emission reductions and travel time savings on a network level, even with a low participation rate.
    Keywords: Ride-sharing, Carpooling, Matching, Dynamic Congestion
    JEL: R41 R48
    Date: 2022
  21. By: Seiji Yamada (Faculty of Management and Administration Tokiwa University / Research Fellow, Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University)
    Date: 2022–03
  22. By: Juan Carlos Cuestas (IEI and Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); Mercedes Monfort (IEI and Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); Javier Ordóñez (IEI and Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyse the evolution of real estate prices in Spain in the last 50 years, focusing on the existence of rational bubbles, and to assess how to covid pandemic has affected the evolution of those prices. In order to do that, we estimate autoregressive models with structural breaks, and run a forecasting exercise to compare those values with the observed ones from 2020. We find that the real estate market in Spain has been hit by a continuum of bubbles since the 1970s and that the pandemic has negatively affected the real estate prices in Spain.
    Keywords: Spain, house prices, real estate, COVID19, structural breaks
    JEL: C22 F15
    Date: 2022
  23. By: Aaron Bodoh-Creed; SangMok Lee
    Abstract: Many school districts in the U.S. have replaced the Boston mechanism with deferred acceptance (DA) due to manipulability and unfairness. Nonetheless, the Boston mechanism Pareto dominates the DA in ex-ante welfare, especially when students have similar ordinal preferences and schools have coarse priorities. We show that the DA's inefficiency relative to the Boston worsens if students have to acquire information about preferences at a cost before submitting rank-order lists to a given mechanism. Under the DA, greater homogeneity in rank-order reports and less information acquisition reinforce each other. A higher information cost intensifies this reinforcement and exacerbates the DA's inefficiency.
    Date: 2022–02
  24. By: Gian Paolo Barbetta (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore); Patrick Chuard-Keller (University St. Gallen); Giuseppe Sorrenti (University of Amsterdam); Gilberto Turati (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of multigrading—mixing children of different ages in the same classroom—on students’ short- versus long-term academic achievement in Italy. We cope with the endogeneity of multigrading (and class size) through an instrumental variable identification strategy based on a law that disciplines class composition. By relying on longitudinal data that follow a cohort of Italian students over their compulsory school career, we show that multigrading has a positive short-term effect on achievements. This effect fades away over time to become negative in the long run if students spend several years in a multigrade class. The analysis of mechanisms points to the fundamental role of teachers and suggests that no negative long-term effect arises when multigrade classes are taught by more experienced and motivated teachers. These results reconcile contrasting findings in the literature based on cross-sectional data and a short-term focus.
    Keywords: Multigrade, Child development, Education, Class size, Peer effects
    JEL: I26 I28 R53 H52
    Date: 2022–03–22
  25. By: Anna Holvio
    Abstract: This paper estimates the causal impact of teacher content knowledge on student achievement in Mozambique, a low-income country where a large share of fourth-graders fail to meet the minimum requirements of literacy and numeracy. I use nationally representative data from the Service Delivery Indicator survey, and exploit within-student across-subject variation in a sample of students taught by the same teacher in maths and Portuguese, thus circumventing bias caused by unobserved student and teacher heterogeneity.
    Keywords: Education quality, Mozambique, Education
    Date: 2022
  26. By: Max Kapustin; Terrence Neumann; Jens Ludwig
    Abstract: How can we get more ‘output,’ and of the right sort, from policing? The question has only taken on greater importance with recent, widely publicized instances of police misconduct; declines in public trust in police; and a rise in gun violence, all disproportionately concentrated in economically disadvantaged communities of color. Research typically focuses on two levers: (1) police resources, and (2) policing strategies or policies, historically focused on crime control but increasingly also on accountability, transparency, and fairness. Here we examine a third lever: management quality. We present three types of evidence. First, we show there is substantial variability in violent crime and police use of force both across cities and within a city across police districts, and that this variation is related to the timing of police leader tenures. Second, we show that an effort to change police management in selected districts in Chicago generates sizable changes in policing outcomes. Third, as part of that management intervention the department adopted a predictive policing tool that randomizes which high-crime areas it shows to officers. We use that randomization to generate district-specific measures of implementation fidelity and show that, even within the context of a management intervention designed to improve implementation of the department’s strategies, there is variability in implementation.
    JEL: H41 H75 J0 M0
    Date: 2022–03
  27. By: Mengyi Xu; Jennifer Alonso Garcia; Michael Sherris; Adam Shao
    Date: 2022
  28. By: Weerachart Kilenthong; Khanista Boonsanong; Sartja Duangchaiyoosook; Wasinee Jantorn; Varunee Khruapradit
    Abstract: This paper presents empirical evidence of learning losses from school closure due to the COVID-19 pandemic for kindergartners using a large-scale school readiness survey in Thailand. Its findings indicate that school closure during the outbreak of COVID-19 causes enormous learning losses in cognitive skills, especially in mathematics and working memory. The negative impact is heterogeneous across several dimensions, including child gender, special needs, wealth, having private tutoring, caregiver’s education and parental absence. This paper also estimates daily learning gains, of which significant results confirm that going to school has significantly benefited young children, especially in receptive language, mathematics and working memory.
    Keywords: Learning Losses; School Closure; School Readiness; Daily Learning Gains; COVID-19; COVID Slide; Disadvantaged Children; Working Memory; Math; Literacy; Receptive Language; Non-cognitive
    JEL: I21 I25 J24
    Date: 2022–03
  29. By: Brah J. Hershbein (W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research); Bryan A. Stuart (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia)
    Abstract: This paper studies how government transfers respond to changes in local economic activity that emerge during recessions. Local labor markets that experience greater employment losses during recessions face persistent relative decreases in earnings per capita. However, these areas also experience persistent increases in transfers per capita, which offset 16 percent of the earnings loss on average. The increase in transfers is driven by unemployment insurance in the short run, and medical, retirement, and disability transfers in the long run. Our results show that nominally place-neutral transfer programs redistribute considerable sums of money to places with depressed economic conditions.
    Keywords: recessions, safety net, government transfers, demand shocks, local labor markets, event study
    JEL: E32 H50 R12 R28
    Date: 2022–01
  30. By: B. Sofia Gil-Clavel (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); André Grow (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Maarten J. Bijlsma (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: The increasingly complex and heterogeneous immigrant communities settling in Europe have led European countries to adopt civic-integration measures. Among these, measures that aim to facilitate language acquisition are often considered crucial for integration and cooperation between immigrants and natives. Simultaneously, the rapid expansion of the use of online social networks is believed to change the factors that affect immigrants’ language acquisition. However, so far, few studies have analyzed whether this is the case. This article uses a novel longitudinal data source derived from Twitter to: (1) analyze differences between destination-countries in the pace of immigrants’ language acquisition depending on the citizenship and civic-integration policies of those countries; and (2) study how the relative size of migrant groups in the destination-country, and the linguistic and geographical distance between origin- and destination countries, are associated with language acquisition. We focus on immigrants whose destination countries were in the EU-15 between 2012 and 2016. We study time until a user mostly tweets in the language of the destination-country for one month as a proxy of language acquisition using survival analysis. Results show that immigrants who live in countries with strict requirements for immigrants’ language acquisition and low levels of liberal citizenship policies have the highest median times of language acquisition. Furthermore, on social media such as Twitter, language acquisition is associated with classic explanatory variables, such as size of the immigrant group in the destination country, linguistic distance between origin- and destination-language, and geographical distance between origin- and destination-country.
    Keywords: European Union, computational social science, culture, immigration policy, international migration, languages
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2022
  31. By: , Le Thanh Tung
    Abstract: Social networks and communication on the Internet have an important role in people's daily life worldwide. This paper examines the impact of Social network usage on the Academic performance of students. The research data were collected from a stratified sampling survey including 576 Vietnamese undergraduate students. The research model has five independent variables (Perceived usefulness, Perceived ease of use, Social influences, Facilitating conditions, Community identity), one mediating variable (Social network usage), and one dependent variable (Academic performance). The study methods include the Cronbach’s alpha test, the Exploratory factor analysis, the Confirmatory factor analysis, and the Structural equation modeling are employed to quantitatively analyze the relationship among variables. The result finds that there are positive and significant impacts of Perceived usefulness, Perceived ease of use, Social influences, Community identity on Social network usage. The impact of Facilitating conditions on Social network usage is positive, however, it is not significant. The result also concludes that there is a positive and significant impact of Social network usage on the Academic performance of students. Besides, the empirical statistical data indicates that social networks are really a popular and familiar tool for helping students to communicate with each other in Vietnam. Finally, the study result suggests that educational managers may use social networks as an informal tool to enhance not only the academic performance of students but also other educational activities in universities.
    Date: 2020–03–08
  32. By: Deole, Sumit S.; Rieger, Marc Oliver
    Abstract: We present new descriptive evidence on the immigrant-native gap in risk and time preferences in Germany, one of the most preferred host countries for immigration. Using the recent waves of the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) dataset, we find that the immigrant-native gap in risk preferences has widened for recent immigration cohorts, especially around the 2015 European Refugee Crisis. We attribute the recent widening to decreased assimilation rates of new immigrants caused by a reduced integration due to sudden increases in immigrants flows from culturally diverse parts of the world, particularly around the year 2015. We also find that the immigrant-native gap varies across different migrant groups: "Opportunity seekers", which we define as economic immigrants who intend to stay in Germany only temporarily, are very similar in their risk preferences to natives. Other immigrants, however, are substantially more risk-averse than natives. A smaller gap in risk preferences is also found among migrants who are female, highly educated, proficient in the host language, self-employed and working in predominantly high-skilled jobs. Concerning time preferences, although a noticeably large immigrant-native gap is evident, the gap is not found to vary across most individual-level socio-economic variables.
    Keywords: Risk aversion,time discounting,immigration,assimilation
    JEL: J61 D91
    Date: 2022
  33. By: Jingwen Yin (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University, JAPAN); Charles Yuji Horioka (Research Institute for Economics and Business Administration, Kobe University, Asian Growth Research Institute, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University, Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University, National Bureau of Economic Research, JAPAN)
    Abstract: In this paper, we use provincial panel data on China for the 2002-19 period to conduct a spatial autocorrelation analysis of household saving rates as well as a dynamic panel analysis of the determinants of household saving rates using a spatial Durbin model. To summarize our main findings, we find that, in China, the household saving rate shows significant positive spatial autocorrelation with an overall "high-high" and "low-low" clustering pattern, that, as predicted by the life-cycle hypothesis, the youth dependency ratio and the old-age dependency ratio have a negative and significant impact on the household saving rate, and that the logarithm of per capita household disposable income, the regional economic growth rate, the share of the urban population, the industrialization rate, and the income disparity between urban and rural areas also have a significant impact on the household saving rate.
    Keywords: Age structure of the population; China; Dependency ratio; Household saving rate; Life-cycle hypothesis or model; Old-age dependency ratio; Spatial autocorrelation; Spatial Durbin model; Youth dependency ratio
    JEL: D14 D15 E21 G51 J11 O16 R20
    Date: 2022–03
  34. By: Paolo Emilio Mistrulli (Bank of Italy); Tommaso Oliviero (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF); Zeno Rotondi (Unicredit); Alberto Zazzaro (University of Naples Federico II, CSEF and MoFiR.)
    Abstract: In this paper we combine administrative data from the Italian National Institute for Social Security and proprietary data from a major Italian commercial bank to analyse the impact of job protection legislation on mortgage conditions. An exogenous change in the degree of job protection against individual dismissals of workers with open-ended contracts is identified by exploiting the 2015 Labor market reform, the so-called Jobs Act, which reduced employment protection of newly hired employees in medium and large private firms. We find that the weaker job security induced by the 2015 legislation change leads to a lower mortgage amount and a lower leveraging capacity, as measured by the loan-to-value ratio. Furthermore, the effect of job insecurity is mitigated by the presence of co-mortgagors while it is amplified for young and low-income mortgagors.
    Keywords: Employment protection law; job stability; mortgage market.
    JEL: C21 G51 J41
    Date: 2022–03–31
  35. By: Jingwen Yin; Charles Yuji Horioka
    Abstract: In this paper, we use provincial panel data on China for the 2002-19 period to conduct a spatial autocorrelation analysis of household saving rates as well as a dynamic panel analysis of the determinants of household saving rates using a spatial Durbin model. To summarize our main findings, we find that, in China, the household saving rate shows significant positive spatial autocorrelation with an overall “high-high” and “low-low” clustering pattern, that, as predicted by the life-cycle hypothesis, the youth dependency ratio and the old-age dependency ratio have a negative and significant impact on the household saving rate, and that the logarithm of per capita household disposable income, the regional economic growth rate, the share of the urban population, the industrialization rate, and the income disparity between urban and rural areas also have a significant impact on the household saving rate.
    Date: 2022–03
  36. By: Cédric Chambru; Emeric Henry; Benjamin Marx
    Abstract: How do radical reforms of the state shape economic development over time? In 1790, France’s first Constituent Assembly overhauled the kingdom’s organization to set up new administrative entities and local capitals. In a subset of departments, new capitals were chosen quasi-randomly as the Assembly abandoned its initial plan to rotate administrative functions across multiple cities. We study how exogenous changes in local administrative presence affect the state’s coercive and productive capacity, as well as economic development in the ensuing decades. In the short run, proximity to the state increases taxation, conscription, and investments in law enforcement capacity. In the long run, the new capitals and their periphery obtain more public goods and experience faster economic development. One hundred years after the reform, capitals are 40% more populated than comparable cities in 1790. Our results shed new light on the intertemporal and redistributive impacts of state-building in the context of one of the most ambitious administrative reforms ever implemented.
    Keywords: State capacity, state-building, administrative reform, economic development
    JEL: D70 H41 H71 O18 O43
    Date: 2022–02
  37. By: Jordi Brandts (Instituto de Análisis Económico and Barcelona School of Economics); Isabel Busom (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.); Cristina Lopez-Mayan (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona); Judith Panadés (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and Barcelona School of Economics)
    Abstract: The popular belief that rent–control leads to an increase in the amount of affordable housing is in contradiction with ample empirical evidence and congruent theoretical explanations. It can therefore be qualified as a misconception. We present the results of a preregistered on–line experiment in which we study how to dispel this misconception using a refutational approach both in a video and in a text format. Communication in a video format comes closer to how citizens are typically exposed to information. We find that the refutational video has a significantly higher positive impact on revising the misconception than a refutational text, an effect that is driven by the departure from the misconception by individuals who initially agreed with it. The refutational text, in turn, does not have a significant impact relative to a non–refutational baseline text. Higher cognitive reflective ability positively affects the impact on beliefs of all interventions. Our research shows that visual communication effectively reduces the gap between scientific economic knowledge and the views of citizens.
    Keywords: Misconceptions, Written and visual communication, Refutation, Persuasion, Online experiment. JEL classification: A12, A2, D9, I2.
    Date: 2022–02
  38. By: Yin, Jingwen; Yuji Horioka, Charles
    Abstract: In this paper, we use provincial panel data on China for the 2002-19 period to conduct a spatial autocorrelation analysis of household saving rates as well as a dynamic panel analysis of the determinants of household saving rates using a spatial Durbin model. To summarize our main findings, we find that, in China, the household saving rate shows significant positive spatial autocorrelation with an overall “high-high” and “low-low”clustering pattern, that, as predicted by the life-cycle hypothesis, the youth dependency ratio and the old-age dependency ratio have a negative and significant impact on the household saving rate, and that the logarithm of per capita household disposable income, the regional economic growth rate, the share of the urban population, the industrialization rate, and the income disparity between urban and rural areas also have a significant impact on the household saving rate.
    Keywords: age structure of the population, China, dependency ratio, household saving rate, life-cycle hypothesis or model, old-age dependency ratio, spatial autocorrelation, spatial Durbin model, youth dependency ratio, D14, D15, E21, G51, J11, O16, R20
    Date: 2022–03
  39. By: Brice Fabre (Paris School of Economics (PSE) and Institut des Politiques Publiques (IPP)); Marc Sangnier
    Abstract: This paper uses French data to simultaneously estimate the impact of two types of connections on government subsidies allocated to municipalities. We distinguish between municipalities in which ministers held office before being appointed to the government, and those where they lived as children. Exploiting ministers’ entries into and exits from the government, we show that cities where a minister was mayor receive 30% more investment subsidies when the politician they are linked to enters into the government, and a similar size decrease when the minister leaves. We do not find these outcomes for cities that ministers lived in as children.
    Date: 2022–02
  40. By: Noack, Anika
    Abstract: Even before the corona pandemic broke out in 2020, the role of digitalisation became more and more apparent within Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) processes. Since the pandemic,intermediary organisations that bridge the distance between academia and the world of business to pave the way for successful university-industry linkages have not primarily been able to build on face-to-face-encounters to create those relations. Based on an ongoing research project, this paper examines how digitally mediated communications potentially enhance or limit knowledge and technology transfer that is primarily based on face-to-face interactions.On the one hand, the use of digitally mediated communications seem to foster the spatial expansion of networks, save travel times and costs and foster a special form of social inclusion. University-industry-relations, on the other hand,still rely on a positive evaluation of face-to-face contacts and geographical proximity for trust to develop between heterogeneous partners. Here, actors with bridging functions like transfer scouts are vital in enabling a regular communicative exchange to create commitment, social cohesion and cooperation in digital contexts. Although the relevance of digitalised transfer processes has been increasing over time, an important set of activities, involving face-to-face contacts and co-location, currently still plays a major role for transfer intermediaries in university-industry-relations.
    Keywords: Knowledge and technology transfer (KTT),transfer intermediaries,face-to-faceinteractions,mutual trust,focused ethnography
    Date: 2022
  41. By: Dominic A. Smith; Sergio Ocampo
    Abstract: Increases in national concentration have been a salient feature of industry dynamics in the U.S. and have contributed to concerns about increasing market power. Yet, local trends may be more informative about market power, particularly in the retail sector where consumers have traditionally shopped at nearby stores. We find that local concentration has increased almost in parallel with national concentration using novel Census data on product-level revenue for all U.S. retail stores. The increases in concentration are broad based, affecting most markets, products, and retail industries. We implement a new decomposition of the national Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and show that despite similar trends, national and local concentration reflect different changes in the retail sector. The increase in national concentration comes from consumers in different markets increasingly buying from the same firms and does not reflect changes in local market power. We estimate a model of retail competition which links local concentration to markups. The model implies that the increase in local concentration explains one-third of the observed increase in markups.
    Date: 2022–02
  42. By: Ryuichi Shibasaki (School of Engineering, the University of Tokyo); Hirofumi Arai (Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia (ERINA)); Kentaro Nishimura (Graduate School of Engineering, the University of Tokyo); Takuya Yamaguchi (Graduate School of Engineering, the University of Tokyo)
    Abstract: As China has promoted the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) since 2014 and some CIS countries including Russia established the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) in 2015, trans-Eurasian land transport has gained attention. Under this background, this paper examines two questions. The first question is how significantly the recent strategic policies such as BRI and EAEU could shift container cargo from maritime shipping to land transport. The other is how much the shift could affect individual countries and regions in Northeast Asia. To answer these questions, the authors estimate their impacts on cargo volume using the intermodal network simulation model. The simulation results indicate that the cargo volume shifted would be about 10 percent of the total container flows between Asia and Europe, under our assumptions. Although land transport can potentially increase cargo volume several times its current level, maritime shipping will remain the dominant mode in intercontinental cargo transport. In addition, the simulation reveals possible negative impacts on the Primorye region of Russia and Mongolia, while the shift will advance.
    Date: 2021–12
  43. By: Luis Bertola (Programa de Historia Económica y Social, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to identify the main stages of Latin American economic development with respect to the kind of productive policy implemented by the States to promote growth and their implications for regional development. Productive or industrial policy is considered here not only as a sectoral policy, but also as a horizontal one. The relation between industrial and development policy and regional development is not obvious. Regional and local development has become a particular approach to development, departing from the fact that development always takes place in particular territorial environments. There has been always a tension in development studies, between theories that emphasize the existence of some universal development trends, and those who emphasize the specific features of different regions. Development studies, and local development theories, have always emphasized the limits of very general theories to understand the situation of les developed regions, which not only have different positions in the international or national arena, but also different social structures in general. Thus, policy must be specially designed according to the particular circumstances, why there is an important difference between development policies inspired by general theories and applied to a territory, and policies that depart from the particular features of a territory
    Keywords: Development; Latin America; Productive and industrial policy
    JEL: O20 O40 O43 O54
    Date: 2020–06
  44. By: André de Palma; Shaghayegh Vosough; Feixiong Liao (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, THEMA)
    Abstract: The outbreak of SARS-COV-2 has led to the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020 and caused over 4.5 million deaths worldwide by September 2021. Besides the public health crisis, COVID-19 affected the global economy and development significantly. It also led to changes in people’s mobility and lifestyle during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to short-term changes, the drastic transformation of the world may account for the potentially disruptive long-term impacts. Recognizing the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic is crucial in mitigating the negative behavioral changes that directly relate to people’s psychological and social well-being. It is important to stress that citizens and governments face an uncertain situation since nobody knows exactly how the viruses and cures will develop. Better understanding uncertainties and evaluating behavioral changes contribute to addressing the future of urban development, public transportation, and behavioral strategies to tackle COVID-19 negative consequences. The major sources of impacts on short-term (route, departure time, mode, teleshopping, and teleworking) and medium and long-term (car ownership, work location, choice of job, and residential location) mobility decisions are mostly reviewed and discussed in this paper.
    Keywords: COVID-19 effects, mobility, lifestyle, teleworking, residential location
    JEL: I14 R1 R4
    Date: 2022
  45. By: Robin Lindsey; André de Palma; Pouya Rezaeini (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, THEMA)
    Abstract: Congestion pricing has long been considered an efficient tool for tackling road traffic congestion, but tolls are generally unpopular. Interest is growing in tradable permits as an alternative. Tolls and tradable permits are interchangeable if travel conditions are unchanging, but not if conditions vary, and tolls and permit quantities are inflexible. We compare the allocative efficiency of tolls and tradable permits under uncertainty on a bimodal network. Road links and public transit service are both congestion prone. Road traffic entering a cordon area around the downtown is controlled using either a toll or a tradable permit. Two groups of travelers can drive or take transit. Group 1 travels downtown, and must either pay the toll or use a permit if driving. Group 2 travels to a suburb, and can avoid the cordon by taking a bypass. All demand and cost parameters of the model can vary, either systematically or irregularly. Travelers learn daily travel conditions in advance, and adapt their mode and route choices accordingly. A planner minimizes expected total travel costs by either setting the level of the toll or choosing the quota of permits to distribute. Two cases are considered. In the first, the toll and quota are flexible and can be adjusted to daily travel conditions. In the second, which is of central interest, the instruments are inflexible. If travelers have identical preferences, the optimal flexible toll is invariant to the numbers of travelers in each group and the capacity of the link entering the cordon. The toll is robust in the sense that inflexibility causes no welfare loss if these parameters vary. By contrast, the quota is not robust. We derive a general rule for ranking the efficiency of a fixed toll and fixed quota. We then explore a numerical example. In most instances, the fixed toll outperforms the fixed quota by a significant margin although the quota can do better for some realizations of parameter values. The relative performance of the quota improves if an environmental externality from driving also exists. Finally, we compare the welfare-distributional effects of tolls and permits, and find that suburban travelers fare better than downtown travelers from both forms of regulation.
    Keywords: traffic congestion; cordon toll; tradable permits; mode choice; route choice; uncertainty
    JEL: D62 R41 R48
    Date: 2022
  46. By: TOKUI Joji; MIZUTA Takeshi
    Abstract: In measuring regional productivity differences, it is important to pay due attention to service price differentials among regions. Although we dealt with this task in Tokui and Mizuta (2017), two significant unsolved questions remain. In this paper we tackle these two remaining issues; the first is how to estimate regional price differentials in commerce, and the other is how to derive value-added deflators from gross-product based price indexes. Since the SNA manual defines wholesale and retail output as the total value of the trade margins, we calculate the corresponding price data item by item from regional retail price data multiplied by the margin rate of each item. The Country-Product-Dummy Method of Tao and Timmer (2000) is applied to these data to produce indexes of regional price differentials in commerce. The estimated price indexes still include such costs as heating and lighting, communication, and advertisement expenses. To derive the value-added deflator from these gross-product based price indexes we derive converting formula from the Translog unit cost function. Based on these two refinement-of-service price differentials among regions we newly analyze regional productivity differences in Japan.
    Date: 2021–03
  47. By: ARAI Sonoe
    Abstract: As supplementary information for the R-JIP database project, two years ago we prepared and published a 2005 inter-prefectural input-output table connecting 47 prefectures, which made it possible to focus on the existence of production factors, production technology spillovers, and the resulting interregional division of labor as determinants of income distribution and productivity disparities among prefectures. We have now newly compiled the 2011 Inter-prefectural Input-Output Table. Since the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in the year 2011, we can analyze the changes of industrial structure among prefectures before and after the earthquake comparing the 2011 and 2005 tables. The basic method for compiling the inter-prefectural IO table is the same as that used in the 2005 table; we unified the tables for each prefecture into the same concepts and sectors and connected them to create the inter-prefectural input-output table. As for the activities of headquarters offices, we set up the same divisions as in the 2005 table. This makes it possible to analyze the flow of headquarters office services. It is also possible to analyze how the structure of the division of labor among regions in Japan has changed in recent years, and whether this has had the effect of narrowing the gap in productivity among regions. It is unfortunate that the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) stopped compiling interregional tables after 2005, so the 2011 Interregional Input-Output Table is the only data available for analyzing interregional transactions in the Japanese economy. The Great East Japan Earthquake had a significant impact on the Japanese economy, which was recovering from the burst of the bubble economy and its aftermath in the 1990s, especially on the regional economies. While the 2011 National Input-Output table provides an analysis of Japan's economic structure as a whole at that time, our newly compiled 2011 Inter-prefectural Input-Output table provides a more detailed analysis of the impact on Japan's economic structure across regions.
    Date: 2021–01
  48. By: Javier Barbero (European Commission - JRC); Martin Christensen (European Commission - JRC); Andrea Conte (European Commission - JRC); Patrizio Lecca (PBL); Andrés Rodríguez-Pose (London School of Economics); Simone Salotti (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: We quantify the general equilibrium effects on economic growth of improving the quality of institutions at the regional level in the context of the implementation of the European Cohesion Policy for the European Union and the UK. The direct impact of changes in the quality of government is integrated in a general equilibrium model to analyse the system-wide economic effects resulting from additional endogenous mechanisms and feedback effects. The results reveal a significant direct effect as well as considerable system-wide benefits from improved government quality on economic growth. A small 5% increase in government quality across European Union regions increases the impact of Cohesion investment by up to 7% in the short run and 3% in the long run. The exact magnitude of the gains depends on various local factors, including the initial endowments of public capital, the level of government quality, and the degree of persistence over time.
    Keywords: government quality, cohesion, economic growth, public investment, regions, EU
    JEL: C68 O17 R13 R15
    Date: 2022–02
  49. By: John O’Neill; Mira Wang; Frank Martin
    Abstract: This brief provides findings from a case study of the Southern California Resource Services for Independent Living, and shares insights on its approach to serving minority youth.
    Keywords: Minority youth, transition aged youth, disability, centers for independent living, intersectionality, youth transitions, employment
  50. By: Yifan Gong (College of Business, University of Nebraska-Lincoln); Todd Stinebrickner (University of Western Ontario); Ralph Stinebrickner (Berea College); Yuxi Yao (College of Business, University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
    Abstract: We examine the initial post-college geographic location decisions of students from hometowns in the Appalachian region that often lack substantial high-skilled job opportunities, focusing on the role of non-pecuniary considerations. Novel survey questions allow us to measure the full non-pecuniary benefits of each relevant geographic location, in dollar equivalents. A new specification test is designed and implemented to provide evidence about the quality of these non-pecuniary measures. Supplementing perceived location choice probabilities and expectations about pecuniary factors with our new non-pecuniary measures allows a new approach for obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the importance of pecuniary and non-pecuniary factors for location decisions. We compare this approach to alternative expectations-based approaches. We also combine the non-pecuniary measures with realized location and earnings outcomes to characterize inequality in overall welfare.
    Keywords: non-pecuniary preferences, expectations data, location choice, welfare and income inequality, Appalachia
    Date: 2022
  51. By: Ignacio Sacristán López-Bravo; Carlos San Juan Mesonada
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of the fiscal-monetary policy mix on the convergence on per capita income of the least developed regions (Objective 1) of the European Union (EU 28) during the implementation of the three European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) programmes between 2000 and 2020. The Solow-Swan growth model with control variables allows us to assess the absorption capacity of regions in the different phases of the economic cycle. The empirical results show the effectiveness of EU Regional and Cohesion Policy. However, the combination of fiscal and monetary policy shows an impact that is asymmetric, depending on the region. Thus, a policy mix of fiscal restraint and monetary expansion would boost growth in all regions, but would slow down the convergence process in Objective 1 regions.
    Date: 2022
  52. By: De la O Campos, Ana Paula; Edouard, Fabrice; Ruiz Salvago, Marta
    Abstract: This study analyses the impacts of titling on tenure security, property value, access to credit, and household investments in the departments of Nueva Segovia, Jinotega y Chinandega, which are covered by Nicaragua’s Land Administration Programme (PRODEP). The programme has been in operation for over two decades, prioritized and sustained by the national government, International Financial Institutions, and other donors, targeting the poorest and most vulnerable households. Using quasi-experimental econometric techniques, namely propensity score techniques, and instrumental variables, we find that titling obtained through PRODEP, either individually or jointly, has significantly contributed to an increase in beneficiaries’ perception of both land tenure security and increased land value. We also find that the perception of an increase in owners’ land value was higher for women covered by the later phase of the program. While the overall findings are encouraging, we suggest that potential investments in land and housing by landowners be further enhanced through strengthening synergies with complementary programmes for local economic development, housing, and poverty reduction.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty
  53. By: Yuan, Tianchen; Alasiri, Faisal; Ioannou, Petros A.
    Abstract: Connectivity between vehicles and infrastructure allows the efficient flow of information in a dynamic traffic environment. This information can be used to provide recommendations to vehicles in order to alleviate traffic congestion, improve mobility with considerable benefits to the environment. The traffic flow environment however is very complex and involves many uncertainties that include inaccurate measurements, missing data, etc. Any approach to manage or control traffic should be able to handle such uncertainties in a robust way. This project focusses on variable speed limit (VSL) control as an approach to reduce congestion at bottlenecks despite the presence of uncertainties. Numerous research efforts have been made over the years in the field of VSL control in order to resolve bottleneck congestion and improve traffic mobility. Nevertheless, few of them have looked into the issue of robustness with respect to measurement or model uncertainties. In this project, a robust VSL controller is designed based on a modified multi-section cell transmission model (CTM) to alleviate freeway traffic congestion and reject uncertainties. The proposed VSL controller computes the speed limit recommendations using measured flows and densities and communicates them to the upstream vehicles. The optimum location where the speed limit recommendation should be communicated to vehicles is another control variable addressed in the project in order to maximize performance and benefits to the environment. The proposed VSL controller is integrated with ramp metering (RM) controllers and lane change (LC) recommendations to maximize performance. The effectiveness of the integrated control scheme is demonstrated using extensive Monte Carlo microscopic simulations under several traffic demand scenarios and different types and levels of uncertainties. The microscopic simulations are carried out using the commercial traffic software VISSIM. Real data are used to validate the traffic simulator. The benefits in terms of mobility, safety and emissions are quantified. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Variable speed limit, Uncertainty, Sign distance, Integrated control
    Date: 2022–03–01
  54. By: Aiko Kikkawa (Asian Development Bank (ADB)); Raymond Gaspar (Asian Development Bank (ADB)); Cyn-Young Park (Asian Development Bank (ADB))
    Abstract: International migration is considered an essential element of economic integration. Yet, the intraregional movement of people and labor in Asia and the Pacific has stagnated in recent years in contrast to the steadily rising flow of goods, services, and investment. This paper examines the key factors driving the movement of people from and within the region using bilateral international migrant stock data and evaluates whether some key indicators of economic integration between origin and destination economies have additive effects on this movement/these movements. Our analysis shows that commonly known determinants such as income differences; population size; and political, geographical, and cultural proximities between the migrant origin and destination countries are associated with greater movement, along with the growing share of older population in destination economies and the similarities in the level of educational attainment. The paper also finds that cross-border migration is affected, in varied directions, by the degree of economic integration between the origin and destination economies, especially through bilateral trade and value chain links. The offshoring of production—and hence jobs and other economic opportunities—to migrant origin countries suppresses outmigration, but the expected rise in the origin country income will eventually promote migration by relaxing financial constraints.
    Keywords: international migration, labor mobility, regional economic integration
    JEL: F22 O15
    Date: 2021–12
  55. By: Fieldhouse, Andrew; Howard, Sean; Koch, Christoffer; Munro, David
    Abstract: Using newly digitized unemployment insurance claims data we construct a historical monthly unemployment series for U.S. states going back to January 1947. The constructed series are highly correlated with the Bureau of Labor Statics' state-level unemployment data, which are only available from January 1976 onwards, and capture consistent patterns in the business cycle. We use our claims-based unemployment series to examine the evolving pace of post-war unemployment recoveries at the state level. We find that faster recoveries are associated with greater heterogeneity in the recovery rate of unemployment and slower recoveries tend to be more uniformly paced across states. In addition, we find that the pace of unemployment recoveries is strongly correlated with a states' manufacturing share of output.
    Keywords: State-Level Unemployment Rates,Unemployment Insurance,Economic Recoveries,Regional Business Cycles
    JEL: C82 E24 E32 J64 J65 R11
    Date: 2022
  56. By: Dargel, Lukas; Thomas-Agnan, Christine
    Abstract: In the framework of spatial econometric interaction models for origin-destination flows, we develop an estimation method for the case when the list of origins may be distinct from the list of destinations, and when the origin-destination matrix may be sparse. The proposed model resembles a weighted version of the one of LeSage and Pace (2008) and we are able to retain most of the efficiency gains associated with the matrix form estimation, which we illustrate for the maximum likelihood estimator. We also derive computationally feasible tests for the coherence of the estimation results and present an efficient approximation of the conditional expectation of the flows.
    Keywords: spatial econometric interaction models; zero flow problem
    JEL: C01 C21
    Date: 2022–03–01
  57. By: Deerfield, Amanda (Economics Department); Elert, Niklas (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: Formal institutions, e.g., regulations, are considered crucial determinants of entrepreneurship, but what enables regulatory change when there is a regulatory void, meaning entrepreneurship clashes with existing regulations? Drawing on public choice theory, we hypothesize that regulatory freedom facilitates the introduction of legislation to fill such voids. We test this hypothesis using unique data documenting the time for ridesharing to become legalized at the state level across the United States following its local (and often illegal) rollout. Results suggest states with greater regulatory freedom passed ridesharing legislation quicker, highlighting an underappreciated way that extant regulatory freedom facilitates the accommodation of entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Regulation; Institutional change; Institutional voids; Institutional entrepreneurship; Sharing economy; Economic freedom; Survival analysis
    JEL: C21 O31 R49
    Date: 2022–03–24
  58. By: Jeyhun Mikayilov; Ryan Alyamani; Abdulelah Darandary; Muhammad Javid; Fakhri Hasanov; Saleh T. AlTurki; Rey B. Arnaiz (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate Saudi Arabia’s industrial electricity consumption at the regional level. We apply structural time series modeling to annual data over the period of 1990 to 2019. In addition to estimating the size and significance of the price and income elasticities for regional industrial electricity demand, this study projects regional industrial electricity demand up to 2030. This is done using estimated equations and assuming different future values for price and income. The results show that the long-run income and price elasticities of industrial electricity demand vary across regions. The underlying energy demand trend analysis indicates some efficiency improvements in industrial electricity consumption patterns in all regions.
    Keywords: Electricity consumption, Electricity demand, Economic Modeling
    Date: 2022–01–13
  59. By: Naci H. Mocan; Eric Osborne-Christenson
    Abstract: We provide the first analysis of racial in-group bias in Type-I and Type-II errors. Using player-referee matched data from NBA games we show that there is no overall racial bias or in-group bias in foul calls made by referees. Similarly, there is no racial bias or in-group bias in Type-I errors (incorrect foul calls). On the other hand, there is significant in-group favoritism in Type-II errors. These are wrongful acquittals where the referee did not blow the whistle although a foul was committed. We also analyze peer effects and find that black referees’ proclivity to make Type-II errors in favor of black players exists as long black referees have at least one black peer referee on the court, and that the bias disappears only if black referees have two white peers. In case of white referees, in-group favoritism in Type-II errors emerges if white referees have two black peers with them on the court. We provide evidence showing that the results are not attributable to skill differences between referees. We also show that a higher Type-I error rate during the season lowers referees’ probability to be selected to officiate a game in the playoffs, whereas variations in the rate of Type-II errors have no impact on the likelihood of a playoff assignment. These results indicate that in-group favoritism takes place in a domain which is not costly (making Type-II errors), and that bias is eliminated when it is costly to the decisionmaker.
    JEL: D03 D9 J70 K0
    Date: 2022–03

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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.