nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2022‒02‒28
78 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. The Long-Run Educational Benefits of High-Achieving Classrooms By Canaan, Serena; Mouganie, Pierre; Zhang, Peng
  2. Residential mobility and unemployment in the UK By Langella, Monica; Manning, Alan
  3. Teacher Labor Market Equilibrium and Student Achievement By Bates, Michael; Dinerstein, Michael; Johnston, Andrew C.; Sorkin, Isaac
  4. Stimulating Housing Policy and Housing Tenure Choice: Evidence from the G7 Countries By Eugeniya Malinskaya; Konstantin A. Kholodilin
  5. Scared Straight? Threat and Assimilation of Refugees in Germany By Jaschke, Philipp; Sardoschau, Sulin; Tabellini, Marco
  6. The Economics of Internal Migration: Advances and Policy Questions By Jia, Ning; Molloy, Raven; Smith, Christopher L.; Wozniak, Abigail
  7. The long run impact of childhood interracial contact on residential segregation By Merlino, Luca; Steinhardt, Max; Wren-Lewis, Liam
  8. School Closures and Effective In-Person Learning during COVID-19: When, Where, and for Whom By Kurmann, Andre; Lalé, Etienne
  9. When Do Informational Interventions Work? Experimental Evidence from New York City High School Choice By Sarah Cohodes; Sean Corcoran; Jennifer Jennings; Carolyn Sattin-Bajaj
  10. Exploring the Potential Role of Staff Surveys in School Leader Evaluation By Whitney Kozakowski; Brian Gill; Menbere Shiferaw
  11. The Agglomeration of Urban Amenities: Evidence from Milan Restaurants By Marco Leonardi; Enrico Moretti
  12. House Price Expectations By Niklas Gohl; Peter Haan; Claus Michelsen; Felix Weinhardt
  13. Urban cycling tourism. How can bikes and public transport ride together for sustainability? By Daniele Crotti; Elena Maggi; Evangelia Pantelaki
  14. Air Pollution and Student Performance in the U.S. By Michael Gilraine; Angela Zheng
  15. Rate the Leader: A Different Perspective on Principal Evaluation By Menbere Shiferaw; Whitney Kozakowski
  16. Is There a Diminishing Value of Urban Amenities as a Result of the COVID-19 Pandemic? By van Vuuren, Aico
  17. Where Is Standard of Living the Highest? Local Prices and the Geography of Consumption By Diamond, Rebecca; Moretti, Enrico
  18. Disamenity or a Signal of Competence? The Empirical Political Economy of Local Road Maintenance By Ben Blemings; Margaret Bock
  19. Localization Economies and Firm Productivity: Evidence from Football Teams in Sao Paulo, Brazil By Brad R. Humphreys; Amir B. Ferreira Neto
  20. State Exit Exams and Graduation Rates: A Hierarchical SLX Modelling Approach By Joshua C. Hall; Donald J. Lacombe; Shree B. Pokharel
  21. Determinants of Labor Market in Jakarta Metropolitan Area: a Survival Analysis of Commuters By Setyawan, Dhani; Wardhana, Irwanda Wisnu; Khairunnisah, Khairunnisah
  22. Liberalizing Passenger Rail: The Effect of Competition on Local Unemployment By Badura, Ondrej; Melecky, Ales; Melecky, Martin
  23. Agglomeration and Technological Specialization By Basheer Kalash
  24. Digitalisation in Italy: evidence from a new regional index By Andrea Benecchi; Carlo Bottoni; Emanuela Ciapanna; Annalisa Frigo; Aldo Milan; Elisa Scarinzi
  25. Benchmarking “Smart City” Technology Adoption in California: An Innovative Web Platform for Exploring New Data and Tracking Adoption By Post, Alison PhD; Ratan, Ishana; Hill, Mary; Huang, Amy; Soga, Kenichi PhD; Zhao, Bingyu PhD
  26. Modelling of mortgage debt´s determinants: the case of the Czech Republic By Lukáš Fiala
  27. Economic geography of contagion: A study on Covid-19 outbreak in India By Chakraborty, Tanika; Mukherjee, Anirban
  28. Do highway widening reduce congestion? By Ioulia Ossokina; Jos van Ommeren; Henk van Mourik
  29. Quarterly Youth Unemployment Rates in Large Metro Areas, 2021 By Hande Inanc; Megan Caruso
  30. Simulating the Effects of Shared Automated Vehicles and Benefits to Low-Income Communities in Los Angeles By Rodier, Caroline; Chai, Huajun; Kaddoura, Ihab
  31. Geography, Growth and Inequalities: Market Failures and Public Policy Implications By Benjamin Montmartin
  32. The Long-Run Impacts of Mexican-American School Desegregation By Antman, Francisca M.; Cortes, Kalena E.
  33. Territorial disparities in youth labour market chances in Europe By Ruggero Cefalo; Rosario Scandurra
  34. The Intended and Unintended Effects of Promoting Labor Market Mobility By Caliendo, Marco; Künn, Steffen; Mahlstedt, Robert
  35. Costs of Living and Real Incomes in the Russian Regions By Gluschenko, Konstantin
  36. When Promising Interventions Fail: Personalized Coaching for Teachers in a Middle-Income Country By Carneiro, Pedro; Cruz-Aguayo, Yyannú; Intriago, Ruthy; Ponce, Juan; Schady, Norbert; Schodt, Sarah
  37. Market Design for Distributional Objectives in (Re)assignment: An Application to Improve the Distribution of Teachers in Schools By Julien Combe; Umut Mert Dur; Olivier Tercieux; Camille Terrier; M. Utku Ünver
  38. In platforms we trust: misinformation on social networks in the presence of social mistrust By Charlson, G.
  39. Online Teaching, Procrastination and Students’ Achievement: Evidence from COVID-19 Induced Remote Learning By De Paola, Maria; Gioia, Francesca; Scoppa, Vincenzo
  40. Review of Statewide Transportation Plans for California By Chow, Chun Ho; Deakin, Elizabeth; Son, Daisy
  41. Segregation and the Initial Provision of Water in the United States By Brian Beach; John Parman; Martin H. Saavedra
  42. Long-Term Care Insurance Financing Using Home Equity Release: Evidence from an Online Experimental Survey By Katja Hanewald; Hazel Bateman; Hanming Fang; Tin Long Ho
  43. Professional Sporting Events Increase Seasonal Influenza Mortality in US Cities By Alexander Cardazzi; Brad Humphreys; Jane E. Ruseski; Brian P. Soebbing; Nicholas Watanabe
  44. Syrian Refugees and Human Capital Accumulation of Native Children in Turkey By Çakır, Selcen; Erbay, Elif; Kirdar, Murat G.
  45. Where are Private “Smart City” Transportation Technologies Concentrated in California? By Huang, Amy; Post, Alison E.; Ratan, Ishana; Hill, Mary C.; Zhao, Bingyu
  46. The Impact Evaluation of Vietnam's Escuela Nueva (New School) Program on Students' Cognitive and Non-cognitive Skills By Dang, Hai-Anh; Glewwe, Paul; Lee, Jongwook; Vu, Khoa
  47. Can Schools Change Religious Attitudes? Evidence from German State Reforms of Compulsory Religious Education By Arold, W. Benjamin; Woessmann, Ludger; Zierow, Larissa
  48. State-building on the Margin: An Urban Experiment in Medellín By Christopher Blattman; Gustavo Duncan; Benjamin Lessing; Santiago Tobon
  49. Examination of Key Transportation Funding Programs in California and Their Context By Gahbauer, John; Matute, Juan; Coutin, Talia S.; Rios Gutierrez, Alejandra; Rios Gutierrez, Nataly
  50. Alumni Job Networks at Elite Universities and the Efficacy of Affirmative Action By Machado, Cecilia; Reyes, Germán; Riehl, Evan
  51. Understanding the Resurgence of the SOEs in China: Evidence from the Real Estate Sector By Hanming Fang; Jing Wu; Rongjie Zhang; Li-An Zhou
  52. Life Out of the Shadows: Impacts of Amnesties in the Lives of Migrants By Ibanez, Ana Maria; Moya, Andres; Ortega, María Adelaida; Rozo, Sandra V.; Urbina, Maria José
  53. "Pictures are worth many words: Effectiveness of visual communication in dispelling the rent–control misconception". By Jordi Brandts; Isabel Busom; Cristina Lopez-Mayan; Judith Panadés
  54. The Historical Racial Regime and Racial Inequality in Poverty in the American South By Regina Baker
  55. AMORE Project: Integrated knowledge translation and geospatial analysis to improve travel times to health services (accessibility) and health equity in Cali, Colombia: a proof of concept using mixed-methods research By CUERVO, Luis Gabriel MD, MSc, SFM; Cuervo, Daniel; Hatcher-Roberts, Janet; Herrera, Eliana Martínez; Pinilla, Luis Fernando; Piquero, Felipe; Ospina, Maria; Molina, Ciro Jaramillo
  56. Promoting Positive Parent-Child Relationships Through Early Head Start Home Visits By Cassandra Baxter; Yange Xue; Sally Atkins-Burnett
  57. MPO Planning and Implementation of State Policy Goals By Barbour, Elisa; Rodriguez, Emil; Thoron, Noah; Handy, Susan; Lee, Amy
  58. The Labor Market Integration of Syrian Refugees in Turkey By Demirci, Murat; Kirdar, Murat G.
  60. The Impact of Local Labor Market Conditions on Opioid Transactions: Evidence from the COVID-19 Pandemic By Anna Hill; Isabel Musse; Yonatan Ben-Shalom; William Shaw
  61. A Brief History of Transportation Policies and Institutions By Deakin, Elizabeth
  62. Civic Engagement Practice at Planning and Monitoring System by Local Government (s) of Nepal By Thapa, Manish
  63. The economic costs of NIMBYism: evidence from renewable energy projects By Jarvis, Stephen
  64. Peer Competition: Evidence from 5- to 95-Year-olds By Jose De Sousa; Benoit Schmutz
  65. Public subsidies and cooperation in research and development. Evidence from the lab By Antonio Acconcia; Sergio Beraldo; Carlo Capuano; Marco Stimolo
  66. Conforming with Peers in Honesty and Cooperation By Isler, Ozan; Gächter, Simon
  67. Developing a Sustainable Concept for Urban Last-Mile Delivery By Siegfried, Patrick; Zhang, John Jiyuan
  68. The rural exodus and the rise of Europe By Thomas BAUDIN; Robert STELTER
  69. Dynamic Impacts of Lockdown on Domestic Violence:Evidence from Multiple Policy Shifts in Chile By Bhalotra, S; Brito, E; Clarke, D; Larroulet, P; Pino, F
  70. A force competition of predator on urban ecosystem By Phormkhunathon, Kacharat
  71. Migration on the Rise, a Paradigm in Decline: The Last Half-Century of Global Mobility By Clemens, Michael A.
  72. Working from a Distance: Productivity Dispersion and Labor Reallocation By Dongya Koh; Jingping Gu; Andrew Liu
  73. Whose intergenerational mobility?: A new set of estimates for Indonesia by gender, geography, and generation By Diding Sakri; Andy Sumner; Arief Anshory Yusuf
  74. Will all autonomous cars cooperate? Brands' strategic interactions under dynamic congestion By Xiaojuan Yu; Vincent van den Berg; Erik Verhoef; ZhiChun Li
  75. Gender differences in time allocation contribute to differences in developmental outcomes in children and adolescents By Nguyen, Ha Trong; Brinkman, Sally; Le, Huong Thu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Mitrou, Francis
  76. Referral Hiring and Social Network Structure By Yoshitaka Ogisu
  77. How Do Firms Adjust to Negative Labor Supply Shocks? Evidence from Migration Outflows By Dicarlo, Emanuele
  78. Flexibility in California Transportation Funding Programs and Implications for More Climate-Aligned Spending By Segal, Katie; Elkind, Ethan; Lamm, Ted

  1. By: Canaan, Serena (Simon Fraser University); Mouganie, Pierre (Simon Fraser University); Zhang, Peng (University of Cambridge)
    Abstract: Despite the prevalence of school tracking, evidence on whether it improves student success is mixed. This paper studies how tracking within high school impacts high-achieving students' short- and longer-term academic outcomes. Our setting is a large and selective Chinese high school, where first-year students are separated into high-achieving and regular classrooms based on their performance on a standardized exam. Classrooms differ in terms of peer ability, teacher quality, class size, as well as level and pace of instruction. Using newly collected administrative data and a regression discontinuity design, we show that high-achieving classrooms improve math test scores by 23 percent of a standard deviation, with effects persisting throughout the three years of high school. Effects on performance in Chinese and English language subjects are more muted. Importantly, we find that high-achieving classrooms substantially raise enrollment in elite universities, as they increase scores on the national college entrance exam—the sole determinant of university admission in China.
    Keywords: classroom tracking, peer quality, teacher quality, regression discontinuity, China
    JEL: I21 I24 I26 J24
    Date: 2022–01
  2. By: Langella, Monica; Manning, Alan
    Abstract: The UK has suffered from persistent spatial differences in unemployment rates for many decades. A low responsiveness of internal migration to unemployment is often argued to be an important cause of this problem. This paper uses UK census data to investigate how unemployment affects residential mobility using small areas as potential destinations and origins and four decades of data. It finds that both in- and out-migration are affected by local unemployment - but also that there is a very high ‘cost of distance’, so most moves are very local. We complement the study with individual longitudinal data to analyse individual heterogeneities in mobility. We show that elasticities to local unemployment are different across people with different characteristics. For instance, people who are better educated are more sensitive, the same applies to homeowners. Ethnic minorities are on average less sensitive to local unemployment rates and tend to end up in higher unemployment areas when moving.
    Keywords: residential mobility; regional inequality; unemployment; ES/N012259/1
    JEL: J60 R23 Z10
    Date: 2022–04–01
  3. By: Bates, Michael (University of California, Riverside); Dinerstein, Michael (University of Chicago); Johnston, Andrew C. (University of California, Merced); Sorkin, Isaac (Stanford University)
    Abstract: We study whether reallocating existing teachers across schools within a district can increase student achievement, and what policies would help achieve these gains. Using a model of multi-dimensional value-added, we find meaningful achievement gains from reallocating teachers within a district. Using an estimated equilibrium model of the teacher labor market, we find that achieving most of these gains requires directly affecting teachers' preferences over schools. In contrast, directly affecting principals' selection of teachers can lower student achievement. Our analysis highlights the importance of equilibrium and second-best reasoning in analyzing teacher labor market policies.
    Keywords: teacher labor markets, teacher and principal preferences, market timing, match effects
    JEL: I28 J45
    Date: 2022–01
  4. By: Eugeniya Malinskaya; Konstantin A. Kholodilin
    Abstract: Housing affordability is a hotly debated issue on global scale. A lack of affordable housing of decent quality is a chronic problem in urban areas. Governments try to alleviate it by stimulating homeownership among middle-income households and providing social housing for the low-income households. Such policies are very costly. Thus, this study aims to assess at least tentatively the effectiveness of the policies supporting construction of affordable housing. We do this using a novel index of the governmental support of affordable housing construction. It covers G7 countries between 1919 and 2020. We conclude from our empirical analysis that governmental policy indeed positively affects homeownership rates and social housing rates. Thus, the government can contribute to the provision of the affordable housing, although the cost of this policy cannot be quantified yet.
    Keywords: housing policy; affordable housing; homeownership rate; social housing; G7 countries; regulation indices
    JEL: K25 R38 C23 C43
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Jaschke, Philipp (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg); Sardoschau, Sulin (Humboldt University Berlin); Tabellini, Marco (Harvard Business School)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of threat on convergence to local culture and on economic assimilation of refugees, exploiting plausibly exogenous variation in their allocation across German regions between 2013 and 2016. We combine novel survey data on cultural preferences and economic outcomes of refugees with corresponding information on locals, and construct a threat index that integrates contemporaneous and historical variables. On average, refugees assimilate both culturally and economically. However, while refugees assigned to more hostile regions converge to local culture more quickly, they do not exhibit faster economic assimilation. We provide evidence consistent with the hypothesis that refugees exert more assimilation effort in response to local threat, but fail to successfully integrate because of higher discrimination by locals in more hostile regions.
    Keywords: migration, refugees, culture, assimilation, identity
    JEL: F22 J15 Z10
    Date: 2021–12
  6. By: Jia, Ning (Central University of Finance and Economics); Molloy, Raven (Federal Reserve Board of Governors); Smith, Christopher L. (Federal Reserve Board of Governors); Wozniak, Abigail (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis)
    Abstract: We review developments in research on within-country migration, focusing on internal migration in the U.S. We begin by describing approaches to modelling individuals' migration decisions and equilibrium outcomes across local areas. Next, we summarize evidence regarding the impact of migration on individuals' outcomes, implications of migration for local labor market adjustment, and interactions between migration and housing markets. Finally, we discuss evidence on the efficacy of policies aimed at encouraging migration and conclude by highlighting important unanswered questions that are critical for informing migration-related policy.
    Keywords: migration, internal migration, labor market adjustment, housing markets, migration policy, migration theory
    JEL: J61 J68 J11
    Date: 2022–01
  7. By: Merlino, Luca; Steinhardt, Max; Wren-Lewis, Liam
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether interracial contact in childhood impacts residential choices in adulthood. We exploit quasi-random variation in the share of black students across cohorts within US schools. We find that more black peers of the same gender in a grade induces whites to live in blacker census tracts more than 20 years after exposure. We do not find any effect on labor market outcomes or other neighborhood characteristics, suggesting the most likely mechanism is a change in preferences of respondents
    Date: 2022–01–30
  8. By: Kurmann, Andre (Drexel University); Lalé, Etienne (University of Québec at Montréal)
    Abstract: We match cell phone data to administrative school records and combine it with information on school learning modes to study effective in-person learning (EIPL) in the U.S. during the pandemic. We find large differences in EIPL for the 2020-21 school year. Public schools averaged less EIPL than private schools. Schools in more affluent localities and schools with a larger share of non-white students provided lower EIPL. Higher school spending and federal emergency funding is associated with lower EIPL. These results are explained in large part by regional differences, reflecting political preferences, vaccination rates, teacher unionization rates, and local labor conditions.
    Keywords: COVID-19, school closures and reopenings, effective in-person learning, inequality
    JEL: E24 I24
    Date: 2022–01
  9. By: Sarah Cohodes; Sean Corcoran; Jennifer Jennings; Carolyn Sattin-Bajaj
    Abstract: This paper reports the results of a large, school-level randomized controlled trial evaluating a set of three informational interventions for young people choosing high schools in 473 middle schools, serving over 115,000 8th graders. The interventions differed in their level of customization to the student and their mode of delivery (paper or online); all treated schools received identical materials to scaffold the decision-making process. Every intervention reduced likelihood of application to and enrollment in schools with graduation rates below the city median (75 percent). An important channel is their effect on reducing nonoptimal first choice application strategies. Providing a simplified, middle-school specific list of relatively high graduation rate schools had the largest impacts, causing students to enroll in high schools with 1.5-percentage point higher graduation rates. Providing the same information online, however, did not alter students’ choices or enrollment. This appears to be due to low utilization. Online interventions with individual customization, including a recommendation tool and search engine, induced students to enroll in high schools with 1-percentage point higher graduation rates, but with more variance in impact. Together, these results show that successful informational interventions must generate engagement with the material, and this is possible through multiple channels.
    JEL: D83 H75 I21 I24
    Date: 2022–01
  10. By: Whitney Kozakowski; Brian Gill; Menbere Shiferaw
    Abstract: The Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory partnered with the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) to explore the potential use of teacher surveys in school leader evaluation.
    Keywords: rel, mid-atlantic, report, exploring, potential role, staff surveys, school leader, evaluation
  11. By: Marco Leonardi; Enrico Moretti
    Abstract: In many cities, restaurants and retail establishments are spatially concentrated. Economists have long recognized the presence of demand externalities that arise from spatial agglomeration as a possible explanation, but empirically identifying this type of spillovers has proven difficult. We test for the presence of agglomeration spillovers in Milan's restaurant sector using the abolition of a unique regulation that until recently restricted where new restaurants could locate. Before 2005, Milan mandated a minimum distance between restaurants that kept the spatial distribution of restaurants artificially uniform. As a consequence, restaurants were evenly distributed across neighborhoods. The regulation was abolished in 2005 by a nationwide reform that allowed new restaurants to locate anywhere in the city. Using administrative data on the universe of restaurants and retail establishments in Milan between 2000 and 2012, we study how the spatial distribution of restaurants changed after the reform. Consistent with the existence of significant agglomeration externalities, we find that after 2005, the geographical concentration of restaurants increased sharply. By 2012, 7 years after the liberalization of restaurant entry, the city's restaurants had agglomerated in some neighborhoods and deserted others. By contrast, not much happened to the spatial concentration of retail establishments or even retail establishments that sell food, which were never covered by the minimum distance regulations and therefore were not directly affected by its reform. We also find that in neighborhoods where the number of restaurants grew the most after the reform, restaurants reacted to the increased competition by becoming more differentiated based on price, quality and type of cuisine.
    JEL: F1 J0 R0
    Date: 2022–01
  12. By: Niklas Gohl; Peter Haan; Claus Michelsen; Felix Weinhardt
    Abstract: This study examines short-, medium-, and long-run price expectations in housing markets. We derive and test six hypothesis about the incidence, formation, and relevance of price expectations. To do so, we use data from a tailored household survey, past sale and rental offerings, satellites, and from an information RCT. As novel findings, we show that price expectations exhibit mean reversion in the long-run. Moreover, we do not find evidence for biases related to individual housing tenure decisions or regret aversion. Confirming existing findings, we show that local market characteristics matter for expectations throughout, as well as aggregate price information. Lastly, we corroborate existing evidence that expectations are relevant for portfolio choice.
    Keywords: Housing markets, price expectations
    JEL: R21 R31
    Date: 2022
  13. By: Daniele Crotti (University of Insubria); Elena Maggi (University of Insubria); Evangelia Pantelaki (University of Insubria)
    Abstract: In the last years, sustainable travels have included bike tourists visiting cities to enjoy cultural and urban environments. Yet, when considering cycling tourists’ intra-destination trips by motorized vehicles, the extent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could reduce the sustainability of those tourism experiences. In this paper we study the bike tourists’ choice of visiting urban places and of using greener transport means, such as public transportation. By using 858 observations from an on-line survey on bike tourism in 2020 in Italy, we develop a bivariate probit model, considering socio-demographics, bike-related factors, travel characteristics, and the evaluation of cycling and accommodation features at destination. The odds of visiting cities are positively affected by travel features, e.g., picking foreign countries, travel groups, the length of stays, the availability of commercial and bike recovery services, but also negatively by road traffic. Notably, using public transportation is more likely for longer daily trips by bike, for low-cost tourists lodging in B&Bs, and for those having a higher sensitivity to bike-related services. Since we statistically found a linkage between the two choices, from a destination management perspective, our results support the sustainability claim for policies affecting them simultaneously.
    Keywords: Sustainable travels, Cycling holidays, Urban tourism, Public transportation, Bivariate probit
    JEL: C25 L92 O18 Q56 R41 Z32
    Date: 2022–01
  14. By: Michael Gilraine; Angela Zheng
    Abstract: We combine satellite-based pollution data and test scores from over 10,000 U.S. school districts to estimate the relationship between air pollution and test scores. To deal with potential endogeneity we instrument for air quality using (i) year-to-year coal production variation and (ii) a shift-share instrument that interacts fuel shares used for nearby power production with national growth rates. We find that each one-unit increase in particulate pollution reduces test scores by 0.02 standard deviations. Our findings indicate that declines in particulate pollution exposure raised test scores and reduced the black-white test score gap by 0.06 and 0.01 standard deviations, respectively.
    Keywords: air pollution; education; coal
    JEL: Q53 I14 I24
    Date: 2022–02
  15. By: Menbere Shiferaw; Whitney Kozakowski
    Abstract: This infographic discusses the use of staff feedback in evaluating school leaders' performance based on evidence from teacher surveys.
    Keywords: 360 degree evaluations, school principal performance evaluation, school staff surveys, student outcomes, school climate, teacher turnover, development of teacher skills, instructional culture, District of Columbia public schools
  16. By: van Vuuren, Aico (University of Gothenburg)
    Abstract: We investigate whether the COVID-19 pandemic decreased the willingness to pay for urban amenities such as restaurants, cinemas and theaters. We do this by using a hedonic pricing model in combination with a time-gradient difference-in-difference approach. We use a data set that contains virtually all apartments for sale in the larger Stockholm area. We use a very detailed and flexible definition of density of urban amenities based on the exact location of these amenities and the walking distance from the apartments to these amenities. We find a decrease of 1.9 percent of apartments that we label as amenity rich.
    Keywords: COVID-19, urban economics, amenities
    JEL: R00 R23 R30
    Date: 2022–01
  17. By: Diamond, Rebecca (Stanford U); Moretti, Enrico (U of California, Berkeley)
    Abstract: Income differences across US cities are well documented, but little is known about the level of standard of living in each city—defined as the amount of market-based consumption that residents are able to afford. In this paper we provide estimates of the standard of living by commuting zone for households in a given income or education group, and we study how they relate to local cost of living. Using a novel dataset, we observe debit and credit card transactions, check and ACH payments, and cash withdrawals of 5% of US households in 2014 and use it to measure mean consumption expenditures by commuting zone and income group. To measure local prices, we build income-specific consumer price indices by commuting zone. We uncover vast geographical differences in material standard of living for a given income level. Low-income residents in the most affordable commuting zone enjoy a level of consumption that is 74% higher than that of low-income residents in the most expensive commuting zone. We then endogenize income and estimate the standard of living that low-skill and high-skill households can expect in each US commuting zone, accounting for geographical variation in both costs of living and expected income. We find that for college graduates, there is essentially no relationship between consumption and cost of living, suggesting that college graduates living in cities with high costs of living—including the most expensive coastal cities—enjoy a standard of living on average similar to college graduates with the same observable characteristics living in cities with low cost of living—including the least expensive Rust Belt cities. By contrast, we find a significant negative relationship between consumption and cost of living for high school graduates and high school drop-outs, indicating that expensive cities offer a lower standard of living than more affordable cities. The differences are quantitatively large: High school drop-outs moving from the most to the least affordable commuting zone would experience a 26.9% decline in consumption.
    Date: 2021–12
  18. By: Ben Blemings (West Virginia University); Margaret Bock (West Virginia University)
    Abstract: Empirical results find different conclusions than theoretical evidence of how electorates perceive road work. This paper uses a geographically smaller unit of analysis than prior work, political alignment, local election cycles, and difference-in-differences. It finds political distortions in invasive road maintenance timing and rules out maintenance seasonality. Spatial discontinuity plots leveraging ward boundary cutoffs confirm the shift. Results identify new public distortions to road maintenance, local election cycles, which are widespread and frequent. The estimates are used to calculate financial costs of local elections on road maintenance. Local elections have cost medium-large U.S. cities over $185.5 million from 1960- 2020.
    Keywords: Road Maintenance, Infrastructure, Political Economy, Election
    JEL: H40 H76 R42 R53
    Date: 2020–05–29
  19. By: Brad R. Humphreys (West Virginia University); Amir B. Ferreira Neto (Florida Gulf Coast University)
    Abstract: Agglomeration economies affect urban economic outcomes. We analyze variation in sports team productivity and localization of teams across divisions and cities in Campeonato Paulista an annual football competition in São Paulo state, Brazil, exploiting plausibly exogenous variation in localization generated by a promotion and relegation system in this league. Results show that both urbanization, proxied by population, and localization affects short and long run team productivity. These results provide new evidence on the importance of localization economies in the urban economy in developing countries and shed light on why sports teams in larger cities enjoy more success than those in smaller cities.
    Keywords: Agglomeration, urbanization, localization, sports league outcomes, Elo rankings
    JEL: R12 Z21
    Date: 2020–07
  20. By: Joshua C. Hall (West Virginia University); Donald J. Lacombe (Texas Tech University); Shree B. Pokharel (West Virginia Legislature)
    Abstract: The literature on high school exit exams has found both positive and negative effects of these high stake exams on high school graduation rates. To this point the literature has not taken into account the embedded nature of school districts within state education systems. We employ a Bayesian Hierarchical SLX model to account for the hierachical nature of education data in the United States. Our approach also allows us to account for spatial spillovers that influence graduation rates across districts and states. Using school district and state-level data for 45 states and 8194 school districts in the United States in 2015, we generally find no statistically significant effect of state exit exams on high school graduation rates. Random effect coefficients, however, point towards high school exit exams being negatively associated with graduation rates in a handful of states.
    Keywords: Spatial dependence, Bayesian statistics, hierarchical modelling, state exit exams
    JEL: C11 C21 C30
    Date: 2020–04
  21. By: Setyawan, Dhani; Wardhana, Irwanda Wisnu; Khairunnisah, Khairunnisah
    Abstract: This study aims to assess the determinants of the labor market in the Greater Jakarta Area (Jabodetabek) with a population of 27.9 million (2010 census) and growth rate of 3.6 percent per annum over the period 2000-2010. With a total area of 4,384 square kilometers (1,693 sq mi), the city has a very high population density of 14,464 people per square kilometer (37,460/ sq mi), while the metro area has a density of 4,383 people/sq km (11,353/sq mi). The paper employs the survival regression analysis by incorporating attributes of commuter, namely gender, age, distance, travel time, wages, stress, education level, double income households and home ownership. The area consists of Jakarta as the receiving labor market and eight municipalities and regencies as labor suppliers. The study utilizes a cross-section data from a commuter survey with more than 4,000 respondents participated using different modes of land transport. The results reveal that some determinants have influenced commuters' resiliency and their willingness to participate in the receiving labor market. This study found that gender, distance, wages and home ownership do not affect the respondent’s decision whether to stay or quit as commuters. On the other hand, the fittest model exhibits that age, education level, stress, travel time and double income households have significant effects on individual's decision to stay or quit as a commuter. It is found that gender, distance, wages and home ownership do not matter for respondent’s decision on whether to stay or to quit as commuters. The model exhibits that age, education level, stress, travel time and double-income household have significant effects on an individual's decision to stay or quit as a commuter. Education level has a positive effect; on the other hand, age, stress, double-income household and travel time have a negative effect. The policy implications for improving the labor supply provision and some contested policy options are suggested, such as the provision of affordable housing in Jakarta, the improvement of commuting enjoyment, the establishment of child care facilities in the office buildings and the creation of more sophisticated jobs within the Jakarta’s surrounding municipalities and regencies.
    Keywords: commuter, labor supply, survival analysis, transportation
    JEL: O18
    Date: 2020–04–01
  22. By: Badura, Ondrej; Melecky, Ales; Melecky, Martin
    Abstract: Competitive passenger rail can help workers access new or better jobs. This paper studies the wider economic impacts on local unemployment of the liberalized passenger rail between Ostrava, the third-biggest city in the Czech Republic, and Prague, its capital. The local impacts are estimated at the LAU 1 level (administrative districts) using the difference-in-differences method. The liberalization motivated the entry of two new private providers. The resulting competition in ticket prices, the number of connections, and service quality had a strong beneficial effect on labor market connectivity. It significantly reduced unemployment in the districts along the line compared with the control districts. The effect weakens with the level of urbanization of the treated district. It could partly transmit through higher firm entry and lower firm exit in the local market, as well as better skill matching on the back of higher inward and outward migration.
    Keywords: Competition; difference in differences; districts; liberalization; local labor market; passenger transport; railways; unemployment; urbanization; EU country; OECD country
    JEL: J6 L40 R10 R40
    Date: 2022–01
  23. By: Basheer Kalash (Université Côte d'Azur; GREDEG CNRS; Sciences Po, OFCE, France)
    Abstract: Notable attention has been given to the relationship between agglomeration and innovation. However, there is a lack of evidence of how agglomeration affects the type of innovation produced. This study aims to causally assess the impact of a change in agglomeration economies, via transportation improvements, on regional technological specialization. It investigates this relationship using the inauguration of the Öresund Bridge between Sweden and Denmark in 2000 as a quasi-experiment for a difference-in-difference approach. It considers the Öresund area, which consists of Copenhagen and the Swedish Skåne, as the treated regions and the other regions in Denmark and Sweden as a control group. The International Patent Classification (IPC) codes of European Patent Office (EPO) applications are employed to define technology classes for 30 NUTS-3 regions in Sweden and Denmark from 1988 to 2011. The results show that the opening of the Öresund bridge led to an increase in Skåne's highly cited patent technology classes, but no significant change in the specialization of Copenhagen. The results suggest that changes in regions' specializations are not only dependent on the quality of patent technology classes but are also region-specific.
    Keywords: Agglomeration, technological specialization, Öresund, transportation infrastructure, innovation
    JEL: O31 O33 R11
    Date: 2022–01
  24. By: Andrea Benecchi (Bank of Italy); Carlo Bottoni (Bank of Italy); Emanuela Ciapanna (Bank of Italy); Annalisa Frigo (Bank of Italy); Aldo Milan (AGCOM); Elisa Scarinzi (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: The geographic digital divide has a significant, though largely unexplored, dimension within a country. This paper proposes an index of digital development for the Italian NUTS2 regions (rDESI) based on the European Commission’s Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI). The rDESI monitors the regional digital divide across five dimensions: (i) the infrastructure and the network usage (connectivity), (ii) the population’s digital skills, (iii) the use of internet services by households, (iv) the integration of ICT by firms, and (v) the level of digital services offered by local government. Southern regions tend to lag behind in most of these dimensions, even if infrastructures and the quality of connectivity appears quite homogeneous across the country. In the last part of the paper, we highlight the limitations of the DESI methodology, proposing some improvements.
    Keywords: digitalization, connectivitym DESI, regional divergence
    JEL: C43 C80 L96 R10
    Date: 2021–12
  25. By: Post, Alison PhD; Ratan, Ishana; Hill, Mary; Huang, Amy; Soga, Kenichi PhD; Zhao, Bingyu PhD
    Abstract: In recent years, “smart city” technologies have emerged that allow cities, counties, and other agencies to manage their infrastructure assets more effectively, make their services more accessible to the public, and allow citizens to interface with new web-and mobile-based alternative service providers. This project developed an innovative user-friendly web interface for local and state policymakers that tracks and displays information on the adoption of such technologies in California across the policing, transportation, and water and wastewater sectors for a comprehensive set of local service providers: Contrary to conventional smart city indices, our platform allows users to view rates of adoption in maps that attribute adoption to the local public agencies or service providers actually procuring or regulating the technologies in question. Users can construct indices or view technologies one by one. Users can also explore the relationship between technology adoption and local service area conditions and demographics, or download the raw data and scripts used to collect it. This report illustrates the utility of the data we have collected, and the analytics one can perform using our web interface through an analysis of the rollout of three technologies in the transportation sector: electric vehicle (EV) chargers, transportation network company (TNC) service areas, and micromobility services across California.
    Keywords: Engineering, Smart cities, data collection, micromobility, ridesourcing, electric vehicle charging, local government agencies, private sector, market penetration, databases, web applications
    Date: 2021–11–01
  26. By: Lukáš Fiala
    Abstract: This paper deals with the Czech household mortgage debt and its determinants in the 1Q2005 - 2Q2021 period. Our analysis focuses on variables determining the level of mortgage debt from short run and long run perspective. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we examine the relationship between selected variables within cross-correlation analysis, which confirms assumed relationship between mortgage debt and level selected variables. Second, we employ Johansen methodology and identify one cointegration relationship. Our results show that house prices and real wages affect the level of mortgage debt in the short run. However, in the long run the mortgage debt is determined by real GDP, real interest rates, house prices and real wages.
    Keywords: Mortgage debt, Household debt, Cointegration, ARDL model
    JEL: C01 C22
    Date: 2021–12–06
  27. By: Chakraborty, Tanika; Mukherjee, Anirban
    Abstract: We propose a regional inequality-based mechanism to explain the heterogeneity in the spread of Covid-19 and test it using data from India. We argue that an area characterized by coreperiphery economic structure creates regional inequality in which the periphery remains dependent on the core for the supply of jobs, goods and services. Hence, areas arranged in coreperiphery structure induce greater degree of mobility which in turn ends up at a higher infection rate than the more homogeneously developed areas at the time of pandemic. Using nightlights data to measure regional inequality in the degree of economic activity, we find evidence in support of our hypothesis. Further, we find that regions with higher nightlight inequality also experience higher spread of Covid-19 only when lockdown measures have been relaxed and movement of goods and services are near normal. Using mobility data, we provide direct evidence in support of our proposed mechanism; that the positive relationship between regional inequality and Covid-19 infection is driven by mobility. Our findings imply that policy responses to contain Covid-19 contagion needs to be heterogeneous across India where the priority areas can be chosen ex-ante based on inequality in economic activity.
    Keywords: Covid-19,contagion,core-periphery,nightlight,mobility
    JEL: I15 I18 R1
    Date: 2022
  28. By: Ioulia Ossokina (Eindhoven University of Technology); Jos van Ommeren (VU Amsterdam); Henk van Mourik (Ministry of Infrastructure and Rijkswaterstaat)
    Abstract: Highway construction occurs nowadays mainly through widening of ex- isting roads rather than building new roads. This paper documents that highway widenings considerably reduce congestion in the short run, defined here as 6 years. Using longitudinal microdata from highway detector loops in the Netherlands, we find substantial travel time savings. These savings occur despite strong increases in traffic flow. The welfare benefits in the short run already cover 40% of the widenings’ investment costs. Our paper contributes to an explanation why countries invest in roadworks even when the fundamental law of congestion predicts that travel savings disappear in the long run.
    Keywords: highway widening, congestion, traffic flow, welfare effects, economic activity
    JEL: R3 R33 R4 R42 H4
  29. By: Hande Inanc; Megan Caruso
    Abstract: In 2021, quarterly youth unemployment data from six large metro areas—Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, New York, and Washington, DC—show that youth unemployment patterns varied across metro areas.
    Keywords: youth unemployment
  30. By: Rodier, Caroline; Chai, Huajun; Kaddoura, Ihab
    Abstract: Studies show that automated vehicles are likely to increase vehicle travel, resulting in more congestion and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). Pricing policies such as increasing the cost of driving and reducing the cost of alternative travel modes could lessen the negative impacts of automated vehicle deployment, although it is unclear to what extent. Cities located in the Westside Cities Council of Governments planning area in western Los Angeles County could be candidates for early deployment of automated vehicles because of their high travel volumes, well-maintained roads, and temperate weather conditions. Los Angeles County also faces high levels of poverty. Thus, the Westside Cities area presents an important opportunity to study how automated vehicles and associated pricing policies might affect congestion, vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and GHGs, and whether they might improve mobility for marginalized populations. Researchers at the University of California, Davis and the Technical University of Berlin evaluated these questions by simulating three scenarios in the Westside Cities area using an open-source, dynamic, agent-based travel model called MATSim. The researchers then calculated the benefits of each scenario compared to the base case for various income groups, considering monetary travel costs and the value of travel time for each income group. This policy brief summarizes the findings from that research and provides policy implications. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Autonomous vehicles, Case studies, Equity (Justice), Greenhouse gases, Modal shift, Taxi services Geographic Terms: Los Angeles (California)
    Date: 2022–02–01
  31. By: Benjamin Montmartin (SKEMA Business School; Université Côte d'Azur; OFCE Sciences.Po; GREDEG CNRS)
    Abstract: We propose a unique market and social planner solution for a generalized new economic geography and growth model that highlights the importance of taking into account the existence of agglomeration externalities in the analysis of market failures and public policies. Our model disentangles the underinvestment in R&D and the suboptimal growth link present in the previous endogenous growth model. Consequently, our framework allows the market economy to reach various steady-state situations. By evaluating the effects of two strategic policies implemented in the European Union, namely, an innovation and a cohesion policy, we highlight that the complementarity or substitutability of these policies to bring the economy closer to its optimum is directly related to the hypothesis made on the link between agglomeration and growth.
    Keywords: Agglomeration, growth, spatial income inequality, innovation and cohesion policies
    JEL: F43 H50 R12
    Date: 2022–01
  32. By: Antman, Francisca M. (University of Colorado, Boulder); Cortes, Kalena E. (Texas A&M University)
    Abstract: We present the first quantitative analysis of the impact of ending de jure segregation of Mexican-American school children in the United States by examining the effects of the 1947 Mendez v. Westminster court decision on long-run educational attainment for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites in California. Our identification strategy relies on comparing individuals across California counties that vary in their likelihood of segregating and across birth cohorts that vary in their exposure to the Mendez court ruling based on school start age. Results point to a significant increase in educational attainment for Hispanics who were fully exposed to school desegregation.
    Keywords: Mexican-American, school desegregation, Mendez v. Westminster
    JEL: I24 I26 J15 J18
    Date: 2022–01
  33. By: Ruggero Cefalo (Universität Wien); Rosario Scandurra (UAB - Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona)
    Abstract: Comparative research on youth employment has mostly focused on differences between countries or regimes of youth transitions. The territorial differentiation below country level has been less explored, notwithstanding the potential impact on youth-life chances and the territorial cohesion of the European Union. This paper aims at deepening into the investigation of regional variations in patterns of youth labour market chances. To do this, we build on a composite indicator measuring regional youth labour market integration (YLMI) as a comprehensive measure of contextual fragilities (or strengths) of regional youth labour markets. We provide both comparative and longitudinal views over 15 years (2004–18). Furthermore, we explore the impact of contextual factors related to economic conditions, labour market and demographic trends on the regional patterns of youth integration in the labour market.
    Keywords: abour market transitions,European Union regions,regional divide,migration,employment,Cohesion Policy
    Date: 2021
  34. By: Caliendo, Marco (University of Potsdam); Künn, Steffen (Maastricht University); Mahlstedt, Robert (University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: Subsidizing the geographical mobility of unemployed workers may improve welfare by relaxing their financial constraints and allowing them to find jobs in more prosperous regions. We exploit regional variation in the promotion of mobility programs along administrative borders of German employment agency districts to investigate the causal effect of offering such financial incentives on the job search behavior and labor market integration of unemployed workers. We show that promoting mobility - as intended - causes job seekers to increase their search radius, apply for and accept distant jobs. At the same time, local job search is reduced with adverse consequences for reemployment and earnings. These unintended negative effects are provoked by spatial search frictions. Overall, the unconditional provision of mobility programs harms the welfare of unemployed job seekers.
    Keywords: job search, active labor market policy, labor market mobility, unintended consequence, search frictions
    JEL: J61 J68 D04 C21
    Date: 2022–01
  35. By: Gluschenko, Konstantin
    Abstract: Comparisons of well-being indicators in monetary terms across regions of a country do not provide insights into actual differences in well-being. The reason is variability of price levels across regions, especially in large countries like Russia. Thus, the indicators should be adjusted to the regional price levels, which, in turn, poses a problem of estimating such levels. In Russia, official data on price levels (termed cost-of-living indices) are available; however, they are by city/town rather than by region, so being unsuitable for regional studies. This paper describes the methodology of aggregating the city cost-of-living indices to the regional ones and presents the results obtained for 2016–2020. These results serve as a mean for estimation of price-adjusted regional incomes per capita (regional real incomes). As can be expected, taking account of regional costs of living smooths to some extent the pattern of regional inequality. A comparison of the European and Asian parts of Russia suggests that real income per capita in the latter permanently remains lower than in the former.
    Keywords: spatial price index regional price level cross-region income comparison price-adjusted income
    JEL: D31 R10
    Date: 2022–01–30
  36. By: Carneiro, Pedro (University College London); Cruz-Aguayo, Yyannú (Inter-American Development Bank); Intriago, Ruthy (Flacso); Ponce, Juan (Flacso); Schady, Norbert (Inter-American Development Bank); Schodt, Sarah
    Abstract: Children in developing countries have deep deficits in math and language. Personalized coaching for teachers has been proposed as a way of raising teacher quality and child achievement. We designed a coaching program that focused on one aspect of teacher quality—teacher-child interactions—that researchers in education and psychology have argued is critical for child development and learning. We implemented the coaching program in Ecuador, with 100 1st grade teachers randomly assigned to treatment and 100 to control. Coaching improved the quality of teacher-child interactions but reduced child achievement. Our results underline the importance of evaluating new forms of professional development for teachers, even those that follow best practice, before these interventions are taken to scale.
    Keywords: teacher quality, coaching
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2022–01
  37. By: Julien Combe (École Polytechnique); Umut Mert Dur (North Carolina State University); Olivier Tercieux (Paris School of Economics); Camille Terrier (University of Lausanne); M. Utku Ünver (Boston College)
    Abstract: Centralized (re)assignment of workers to jobs is increasingly common in public and private sectors. These markets often suffer from distributional problems. To alleviate these, we propose two new strategy-proof (re)assignment mechanisms. While they both improve individual and distributional welfare over the status quo, one achieves two-sided efficiency and the other achieves a novel fairness property. We quantify the performance of these mechanisms in teacher (re)assignment where unequal distribution of experienced teachers in schools is a widespread concern. Using French data, we show that our efficient mechanism reduces the teacher experience gap across regions more effectively than benchmarks, including the current mechanism, while also effectively increasing teacher welfare. As an interesting finding, while our fairness-based mechanism is very effective in reducing teacher experience gap, it prevents the mobility of tenured teachers, which is a detrimental teacher welfare indicator.
    Keywords: Matching Theory, Market Design, Priority Design, Teacher Reassignment, Status- quo Improvement, Fairness, Efficiency, Distributional Welfare Measures
    JEL: C78 D50 D61 I21
    Date: 2022–02–15
  38. By: Charlson, G.
    Abstract: We examine the effect social mistrust has on the propagation of misinformation on a social network. Agents communicate with each other and observe information sources, changing their opinion with some probability determined by their social trust, which can be low or high. Low social trust agents are less likely to be convinced out of their opinion by their peers and, in line with recent empirical literature, are more likely to observe misinformative information sources. A platform facilitates the creation of a homophilic network where users are more likely to connect with agents of the same level of social trust and the same social characteristics. Networks in which worldview is relatively important in determining network structure have more pronounced echo chambers, reducing the extent to which high and low social trust agents interact. Due to the asymmetric nature of these interactions, echo chambers then decrease the probability that agents believe misinformation. At the same time, they increase polarisation, as disagreeing agents interact less frequently, leading to a trade-off which has implications for the optimal intervention of a platform wishing to reduce misinformation. We characterise this intervention by delineating the most effective change in the platform's algorithm, which for peer-to-peer connections involves reducing the extent to which relatively isolated high and low social trust agents interact with one another.
    Keywords: communication, misinformation, network design, platforms
    JEL: D82 D83 D85
    Date: 2022–01–14
  39. By: De Paola, Maria (University of Calabria); Gioia, Francesca (University of Milan); Scoppa, Vincenzo (University of Calabria)
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic forced schools and universities to transit from traditional class-based teaching to online learning. This paper investigates the impact produced by this shift on students' performance. We use administrative data of four cohorts of students enrolled in an Italian University and adopt a difference-in-differences strategy exploiting the fact that the transition to online teaching has taken place at the beginning of the second semester, while classes were face-to-face in the first semester. We compare students' performance in the second semester of 2020 with their performance in the first semester and contrast this difference with the difference between second and first semester in the previous academic years. Controlling for a number of variables proxying for COVID-19 incidence and internet connections' quality, we find that online teaching has reduced students' performance of about 1.4 credits per semester (0.11 Standard Deviations). Freshmen are those who suffer more, while almost no negative effect is found for Master's Degree students. Since the need for self-discipline in an online environment could cause students' low achievements, we study the role of procrastination and show that online teaching has been particularly detrimental for students affected by present-bias problems.
    Keywords: online teaching, students' performance, COVID-19, procrastination
    JEL: I21 I23 I28 D90 L86
    Date: 2022–01
  40. By: Chow, Chun Ho; Deakin, Elizabeth; Son, Daisy
    Abstract: Evaluation of California State and Regional Transportation Plans and Their Prospects for Attaining State Goals: Summary and Synthesis pulls together the key findings and recommendations of all the white papers. It assesses the prospects for achieving the state’s diverse goals through its transportation planning and programming processes and identifies strengths and weaknesses of current policies and practices. It also provides the authors’ recommendations for changes to policy and practice that could improve overall system performance and achievement of state goals for climate, equity, environment, safety, infrastructure, and the economy.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2021–10–01
  41. By: Brian Beach; John Parman; Martin H. Saavedra
    Abstract: U.S. cities invested heavily in water and sewer infrastructure throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These investments improved public health and quality of life by helping U.S. cities control typhoid fever and other waterborne diseases. We show that segregated cities invested in water infrastructure earlier but were slower to reach universal access and slower to eliminate typhoid fever. We develop a theoretical model that illustrates how segregation, by facilitating the exclusion of Black households from water and sewer systems, explains these seemingly paradoxical findings.
    JEL: H4 J1 N3
    Date: 2022–01
  42. By: Katja Hanewald; Hazel Bateman; Hanming Fang; Tin Long Ho
    Abstract: This paper explores new mechanisms to fund long-term care using housing wealth. Using data from an online experimental survey fielded to a sample of 1,200 Chinese homeowners aged 45-64, we assess the potential demand for new financial products that allow individuals to access their housing wealth to buy long-term care insurance. We find that access to housing wealth increases the stated demand for long-term care insurance. When they could only use savings, participants used on average 5% of their total (hypothetical) wealth to purchase long-term care insurance. When they could use savings and a reverse mortgage, participants used 15% of their total wealth to buy long-term care insurance. With savings and home reversion, they used 12%. Reverse mortgages do not require regular payments until the home is sold, while home reversion involves a partial sale and leaseback. Our results inform the design of new public or private sector programs that allow individuals to access their housing wealth while still living in their homes.
    JEL: D14 G11 G21
    Date: 2022–01
  43. By: Alexander Cardazzi (West Virginia University); Brad Humphreys (West Virginia University); Jane E. Ruseski (West Virginia University); Brian P. Soebbing (University of Alberta); Nicholas Watanabe (University of South Carolina)
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic shut down sporting events worldwide. Local policy makers and league officials face important decisions about restarting play, especially in professional leagues that draw large numbers of spectators to games. We analyze the impact of professional sporting events on local seasonal influenza mortality to develop evidence that will help inform sports league reopening policy decisions. Results from a difference-in-differences model applied to data from a sample of US cities that gained new professional sports teams over the period 1962-2016 show that the presence of games in these cities increased local influenza mortality by between 4% and 24%, depending on sport, relative to cities with no professional sports teams and relative to mortality in those cities before a new team arrived. Influenza mortality fell in cities with teams in some years when work stoppages occurred in sports leagues. Sports league reopening policies should take into account the role played by sporting events in increasing local seasonal flu mortality.
    Keywords: influenza mortality; sporting events; health policy
    Date: 2020–06
  44. By: Çakır, Selcen (Bogazici University); Erbay, Elif (Istanbul University); Kirdar, Murat G. (Bogazici University)
    Abstract: Turkey hosts the highest number of refugees in the world. The arrival of Syrian refugees has significantly changed the relative abundance of different skill groups in Turkey and the labor market conditions. This paper examines how this massive refugee influx affects native working-age children's school enrollment and employment outcomes using a difference-indifferences IV methodology. We find that employment of both boys and girls falls substantially, but a large fraction of this fall stems from the transition of children who used to combine school and work into school only. School enrollment increases only for boys, and this is stronger for boys with more educated parents. The incidence of being neither in employment nor in education or training (NEET) increases among girls, particularly for those with less-educated parents, but not among boys. In fact, the NEET incidence drops for boys with more-educated parents.
    Keywords: syrian refugees, school enrollment, employment, child work, education, NEET, Turkey
    JEL: I25 J61
    Date: 2021–12
  45. By: Huang, Amy; Post, Alison E.; Ratan, Ishana; Hill, Mary C.; Zhao, Bingyu
    Abstract: In recent years, “smart city” information and communication technologies have proliferated. For local government agencies, procuring and introducing these technologies offers the possibility to manage infrastructure assets more effectively, plan for preventive maintenance, and disseminate schedules and information about transit and other services. Many of these technologies are deployed by private firms in the context of local regulations and government-sponsored incentives. In the transportation sector, examples of “smart city” technology services provided by private firms include: electric vehicle (EV) chargers, micro-mobility (e.g., scooter and bike rentals), and transportation network company (TNC) services, such as Uber and Lyft. To understand variation in how private sector smart city transportation technologies are deployed across California, researchers at UC Berkeley webscraped and cross verified data on EV chargers, Uber services, and micro-mobility. EV charger data was obtained from the Department of Energy, and Uber and micromobility access data came from vendor websites.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2022–01–01
  46. By: Dang, Hai-Anh (World Bank); Glewwe, Paul (University of Minnesota); Lee, Jongwook (University of Minnesota); Vu, Khoa (University of Minnesota)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates how Vietnam's Escuela Nueva (VNEN) program, an educational reform for primary schools supported by the World Bank, affected the cognitive (mathematics and Vietnamese) and non-cognitive (socioemotional) skills of students in that country. We use propensity score matching to estimate both short-term (1-3 years) and long-term (5-7 years) average treatment effects on the treated (ATT). We find that the impacts of VNEN on students' cognitive skills are relatively small in the short-term, and that they are larger for boys, ethnic minorities, and students in Northern Vietnam. The VNEN program modestly increased primary school students' non-cognitive skills in the short-term; these impacts on non-cognitive skills are sizable and significant for ethnic minority students, although there seems to be little gender difference. The long-term impacts are less precisely estimated, but they appear to fade away, showing little or no impact of the VNEN program on cognitive skills. There is little variation of long-term impacts by gender or geographical region, although the imprecision of the estimates for ethnic minority students does not allow us to rule out large long-term impacts on cognitive skills for those students. The program's impacts on non-cognitive skills also seem to have dissipated in the long-term.
    Keywords: VNEN, Vietnam Escuela Nueva, education, cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills, impact evaluation, propensity score matching, IV
    JEL: I2 O1
    Date: 2022–01
  47. By: Arold, W. Benjamin (LMU Munich); Woessmann, Ludger (University of Munich); Zierow, Larissa (Ifo Institute for Economic Research)
    Abstract: We study whether compulsory religious education in schools affects students' religiosity as adults. We exploit the staggered termination of compulsory religious education across German states in models with state and cohort fixed effects. Using three different datasets, we find that abolishing compulsory religious education significantly reduced religiosity of affected students in adulthood. It also reduced the religious actions of personal prayer, church-going, and church membership. Beyond religious attitudes, the reform led to more equalized gender roles, fewer marriages and children, and higher labor-market participation and earnings. The reform did not affect ethical and political values or non-religious school outcomes.
    Keywords: religious education, religiosity, school reforms
    JEL: Z12 I28 H75
    Date: 2022–01
  48. By: Christopher Blattman; Gustavo Duncan; Benjamin Lessing; Santiago Tobon
    Abstract: Medellín's government wanted to raise its efficacy, legitimacy, and control. The city identified 80 neighborhoods with weak state presence and competing armed actors. In half, they increased non-police street presence tenfold for two years, offering social services and dispute resolution. In places where the state was initially weakest, the intervention did not work, mainly because the government struggled to deliver on its promises. Where the state began stronger, the government raised opinions of its services and legitimacy. If there are indeed low marginal returns to investing in capacity in the least-governed areas, this could produce increasing returns to state-building.
    JEL: C93 H11 K42 N46 O17
    Date: 2022–01
  49. By: Gahbauer, John; Matute, Juan; Coutin, Talia S.; Rios Gutierrez, Alejandra; Rios Gutierrez, Nataly
    Abstract: Examination of Key Transportation Funding Programs in California and Their Context assesses the congruence between funding programs and state goals for transportation. Particular attention is given to major funding sources, such the State Operation and Protection Program, and programs designed to promote key state goals, including the Affordable Housing and Sustainable Communities program, the Transit and Intercity Rail Capital Program, the Transformative Climate Communities program, and the Sustainable Transportation Planning Grant program.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2021–12–01
  50. By: Machado, Cecilia (Fundação Getúlio Vargas); Reyes, Germán (Cornell University); Riehl, Evan (Cornell University)
    Abstract: We examine the efficacy of affirmative action at universities whose value depends on peer and alumni networks. We study an elite Brazilian university that adopted race- and income-based affirmative action at a large scale. Using employer-employee data, we show that a key benefit of attending the university is access to high-paying jobs affiliated with its alumni. Affirmative action increased disadvantaged students' access to these firms and raised their early-career earnings. But these benefits faded over time. Further, the increase in student body diversity lowered the job prospects and earnings of the school's most highly ranked students.
    Keywords: affirmative action, alumni network, higher education
    JEL: I23 I26 J31
    Date: 2022–01
  51. By: Hanming Fang; Jing Wu; Rongjie Zhang; Li-An Zhou
    Abstract: We advance a novel hypothesis that China’s recent anti-corruption campaign may have contributed to the recent resurgence of the state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in China as an unintended consequence. We explore the nexus between the anti-corruption campaign and the SOE resurgence by presenting supporting evidence from the Chinese real estate sector, which is notorious for pervasive rent-seeking and corruption. We use a unique data set of land parcel transactions merged with firm-level registration information and a difference-in-differences empirical design to show that, relative to the industrial land parcels which serve as the control, the fraction of residential land parcels purchased by SOEs increased significantly relative to that purchased by private developers after the anti-corruption campaign. This finding is robust to a set of alternative specifications. We interpret the findings through the lens of a model where we show, since selling land to private developers carries the stereotype that the city official may have received bribes, even the “clean” local officials will become more willing to award land to SOEs despite the presence of more efficient competing private developers. We find evidence consistent with the model predictions.
    JEL: D73 R31 R52
    Date: 2022–01
  52. By: Ibanez, Ana Maria (Inter-American Development Bank); Moya, Andres (Universidad de los Andes); Ortega, María Adelaida (University of California, Davis); Rozo, Sandra V. (World Bank); Urbina, Maria José (World Bank)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of a government regularization program offered to half a million Venezuelan refugees in Colombia. For this purpose, 2,232 surveys of refugee families were collected and used to compare refugees who arrived in Colombia around a specified eligibility date in 2018. We find that program beneficiaries experienced improvements in consumption (60 percent), income (31 percent), physical and mental health (1.8 sd), registration rates in the system that assesses vulnerability and awards public transfers (40 pp), and financial services (64.3 pp), relative to other refugees. The program also induced a change in labor formalization of 10 pp.
    Keywords: migration, refugees, amnesties, Latin America
    JEL: F22 O15 R23
    Date: 2022–01
  53. By: Jordi Brandts (Instituto de Análisis Económico and Barcelona School of Economics.); Isabel Busom (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.); Cristina Lopez-Mayan (Serra Húnter Fellow and AQR-IREA, Universitat de Barcelona.); Judith Panadés (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and Barcelona School of Economics.)
    Abstract: The popular belief that rent–control leads to an increase in the amount of affordable housing is in contradiction with ample empirical evidence and congruent theoretical explanations. It can therefore be qualiï¬ ed as a misconception. We present the results of a preregistered on–line experiment in which we study how to dispel this misconception using a refutational approach both in a video and in a text format. Communication in a video format comes closer to how citizens are typically exposed to information. We ï¬ nd that the refutational video has a signiï¬ cantly higher positive impact on revising the misconception than a refutational text, an effect that is driven by the departure from the misconception by individuals who initially agreed with it. The refutational text, in turn, does not have a signiï¬ cant impact relative to a non–refutational baseline text. Higher cognitive reflective ability positively affects the impact on beliefs of all interventions. Our research shows that visual communication effectively reduces the gap between scientiï¬ c economic knowledge and the views of citizens.
    Keywords: Misconceptions, Written and visual communication, Refutation, Persuasion, Online experiment. JEL classification: A12, A2, D9, I2.
    Date: 2022–02
  54. By: Regina Baker
    Abstract: Building on literatures on racial regimes and the legacy of slavery, this study conceptualizes and constructs a novel measure of the historical racial regime (HRR), and examines how HRR influences contemporary poverty and racial inequality in the American South. The HRR scale measures different manifestations of the U.S. racial regime across different historical periods (i.e. slavery and Jim Crow) and is based on state-level institutions including slavery, sharecropping, disfranchisement, and segregation. Using Current Population Study data from the Luxembourg Income Study 2010-2018 for 527,829 Southerners and historical state-level data from various sources, evidence is triangulated from bivariate associations, multilevel regressions, and decomposition analyses. Results show that residing in a state with stronger HRR is not significantly associated with greater poverty for all and especially not among White Southerners. Rather, a higher level of HRR worsens Black poverty and especially Black-White inequalities in poverty. Further, HRR explains a significant share of the Black-White poverty gap. These results hold even after adjusting for a wide variety of individual-level variables, many of which plausibly mediate the influence of HRR. Altogether, this study demonstrates the enduring influence of historical state institutions on contemporary poverty and inequality.
    Date: 2021–11
  55. By: CUERVO, Luis Gabriel MD, MSc, SFM; Cuervo, Daniel; Hatcher-Roberts, Janet; Herrera, Eliana Martínez; Pinilla, Luis Fernando; Piquero, Felipe; Ospina, Maria; Molina, Ciro Jaramillo
    Abstract: Addressing accessibility to health services requires intersectoral multi-stakeholder action. There is not a lot of knowledge about the effects of traffic congestion on accessibility. The availability of new data allows putting forward simple metrics that all stakeholders can manage. This proof-of-concept reveals accessibility using a platform with intuitive heatmaps/choropleths, dials, and graphs. It uses filters and shows accessibility according to socio-demographic characteristics. It is dynamic, reflecting the impact of changes in traffic congestion. The platform (AMORE Platform) provides a situational analysis that can be updated as conditions or data changes. The Platform reveals and quantifies inequities of accessibility and allows maximizing accessibility by optimizing the location for new services. The proof-of-concept uses two scenarios (1) urgent care in a tertiary hospital; and (2) frequent care (hemodialysis and radiotherapy). The data generation component will be complemented with a participatory action research assessment with project collaborators involving different stakeholders (e.g., authorities, service providers and users, organized civil society and academia) who will use the platform and could determine its value and potential in service planning, urbanism, and intersectoral and multistakeholder collaboration. The platform can be updated and modified to cover other services within and beyond the health sector. The proof-of-concept is done in Cali, Colombia's third most populous city, with inputs from a broad range of stakeholders.
    Date: 2021–11–18
  56. By: Cassandra Baxter; Yange Xue; Sally Atkins-Burnett
    Abstract: This brief explores how the home-based program option in Early Head Start is supporting positive relationships between parents and children.
    Keywords: Babyfaces, early head start, parenting, early childhood, at-home engagement, professional development, parent-child relationship
  57. By: Barbour, Elisa; Rodriguez, Emil; Thoron, Noah; Handy, Susan; Lee, Amy
    Abstract: MPO Planning and Implementation of State Policy Goals evaluates California metropolitan planning organizations’ regional transportation plans and sustainable communities strategies and looks at the relationship between MPO plans and what is actually funded through transportation improvement programs.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2021–12–01
  58. By: Demirci, Murat (Koc University); Kirdar, Murat G. (Bogazici University)
    Abstract: Turkey hosts the largest population of refugees globally; however, we know little about their labor market outcomes at the national level. We use the 2018 round of the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey, which includes a representative sample of Syrian refugees in Turkey for the first time, to examine a rich set of labor market outcomes. We find that the native-refugee gap in men's employment in Turkey (in favor of natives) is much smaller than that reported for most developed countries. Moreover, men's employment peaks quite early (one year) after arrival and remains there, whereas women's employment is lower to begin with and changes little over time. Once we account for demographic and educational differences, the native-refugee gap in men's (women's) paid employment reduces to 4.7 (4.0) percentage points (pp). These small gaps conceal the fact that refugees' formal employment is much lower. Even after accounting for the covariates, refugee men's formal employment rate is 58 pp lower. In addition, the native-refugee gap is the smallest in manufacturing for men and in agriculture for women, and the gap is also much smaller in wage-employment than self-employment and unpaid family work for both genders. Young refugees are more likely to work than natives, whereas the gap favors natives among the prime-age working people. Moreover, the native-refugee gap in employment widens for more educated refugees. Finally, accounting for the differences in covariates, the native-refugee gap in men's employment vanishes for Turkish-speaking refugees but persists for Arabic- and Kurdish-speaking refugees.
    Keywords: Syrian refugees, labor market integration, employment, Turkey
    JEL: F22 J21 J61 O15
    Date: 2021–12
  59. By: Parker, Gail Denise; Costa, King (Global Centre for Academic Research)
    Abstract: Local economic development (LED) within municipalities in South Africa has been viewed as a failing project by many commentators, practitioners and scholars. One of the areas attributed as a causal factor for distrust on efforts related to local economic development is lack of clarity on foundational dynamics and drivers of LED. This study used interpretivist approaches to analyze key theoretical frameworks that provide explanations for challenges related to articulation of drivers for LED. As a theoretical paper authors established rigor through mapping theories to building blocks of a theoretical argument being the what, when, how and why. The central argument of this paper is that while the potential of LED strategies is not disputed and the economic value of land is , the implementation of such strategies does not assist in achieving the intended objectives of poverty alleviation and economic development. The study concluded that while local municipalities are mandated by the Constitution to “promote social and economic development”, they will not be able to do this without clear policy guidance; institutional capacity-building; inter-sectoral collaboration; political ‘champions’ to drive the process; and real empowerment of the beneficiaries whom the projects is supposed to assist. Key Words : Local economic development. Theoretical framework, Commonage, Business development, Black economic empowerment,
    Date: 2021–11–06
  60. By: Anna Hill; Isabel Musse; Yonatan Ben-Shalom; William Shaw
    Abstract: A quasi-experimental study to understand how changing labor market conditions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic affected opioid use.
    Keywords: COVID-19, employment, opioids
  61. By: Deakin, Elizabeth
    Abstract: A Brief History of Transportation Policy and Institutions presents the development of transportation systems in the United States, with particular attention to California. The review includes key technological advances in transportation and the institutions that were developed to implement them. The paper also discusses the problem of organizational inertia and the issues associated with changing organizational culture to better reflect the problems of the day. Review of Statewide Transportation Plans for California reviews the most recently adopted CTP and other key transportation plans adopted by state agencies, discusses the special attention given to new technologies in the CTP, and presents the findings from over 80 interviews with stakeholders across California who were asked to weigh in on the strengths and weaknesses of transportation planning practices in the state.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2021–12–01
  62. By: Thapa, Manish
    Abstract: Civic engagement stays an integral part of democracy, where citizen participates in government-led planning and monitoring process. This paper explored the current practices and underlying barriers of civic engagement at local government’s planning and monitoring set-up adopting Arnstein’s Ladder of Citizen Participation. Paper is based on responses from Local Government (s) on open-ended questionnaire. Considering the mandate of planning process, civic engagement at community level planning is high. The engagement level at ward level and municipal level remained from non-participation to tokenism level, where the partnerships and delegation of power to citizen, is yet to be effectively exercised. Paper emphasizes on need of civic engagement to build ownership and trust towards government mechanism.
    Keywords: Accountability, Civic, Engagement, Government, Monitoring, Planning, Trust
    JEL: I3 Z0
    Date: 2022–01–18
  63. By: Jarvis, Stephen
    Abstract: Large infrastructure projects can have important social benefits, but also prompt strong local opposition. This is often attributed to NIMBY (Not In My Backyard) attitudes. I study the economic costs of NIMBYism and local planning restrictions by looking at renewable energy projects. Using hedonic methods I find that wind projects can impose significant external local costs, while solar projects do not. I then show that planning officials are particularly sensitive to local costs in their area. The resulting misallocation of investment may have increased wind power deployment costs by 10-29%. I conclude by examining compensation payments as a policy solution.
    JEL: Q42 R11 Q51 Q31
    Date: 2021–11
  64. By: Jose De Sousa (U. Paris-Saclay, RITM and Sciences Po, Liepp); Benoit Schmutz (Ecole Polytechnique and CREST)
    Abstract: Good peers may help you learn, but they may also steal your spotlight. We use the panel of chess players in the French club championship to document this trade-off. With an instrumental variable strategy based on club closures, we show that better clubmates help players improve, but only when they do not monopolize the (good) opportunities to play. For players at the bottom of the club distribution, positive externalities are offset by competition. Junior players, who enjoy a steep learning curve, suffer more from peer competition in the short-run, but they may also reap higher benefits in the long-run.
    Keywords: Peer effects, Competition, Participation
    JEL: J24 R23
    Date: 2022–02–16
  65. By: Antonio Acconcia (University of Naples 'Federico II' and CSEF); Sergio Beraldo (University of Napoli 'Federico II' & CSEF); Carlo Capuano (University of Napoli 'Federico II' & CSEF Marco); Marco Stimolo (University of Campania 'Luigi Vanvitelli')
    Abstract: We implement an experimental design based on a duopoly game in which subjects choose whether to cooperate in Research and Development (R&D) activities. We first conduct six experimental markets that differ in both the levels of knowledge spillovers and the intensity of competition. Consistently with the theory, we find that the probability of cooperation increases in the level of spillovers and decreases in that of market competition. We then replicate the experimental markets by providing subsidies to subjects who cooperate. Subsidies relevantly increase the probability of cooperation in focus markets, causing, however, a sensible reduction of R&D investments. Overall, our evidence suggests that, depending on the characteristics of the market, the use of public subsidies might be redundant, for firms would anyway joined their R&D efforts; or counterproductive, inducing firms to significantly reduce R&D investments compared to the non-cooperative scenario.
    Keywords: Cooperation in R&D, Public Subsidies, Knowledge Spillovers, Market Competition
    JEL: L24 O3
    Date: 2022–01
  66. By: Isler, Ozan (Queensland University of Technology); Gächter, Simon (University of Nottingham)
    Abstract: Peer observation can influence social norm perceptions as well as behavior in various moral domains, but is the tendency to be influenced by and conform with peers domain-general? In an online experiment (N = 815), we studied peer effects in honesty and cooperation and tested the individual-level links between these two moral domains. Participants completed both honesty and cooperation tasks after observing their peers. Consistent with the literature, separate analysis of the two domains indicated both negative and positive peer influences in honesty and in cooperation, with negative influences tending to be stronger. Behavioral tests linking the two domains at the individual-level revealed that cooperative participants were also more honest—a link that was associated with low Machiavellianism scores. While standard personality trait measures showed no links between the two domains in the tendency to conform, individual-level tests suggested that conformism is a domain-general behavioral trait observed across honesty and cooperation. Based on these findings, we discuss the potential of and difficulties in using peer observation to influence social norm compliance as an avenue for further research and as a tool to promote social welfare.
    Keywords: conformism, peer influence, cooperation, honesty, social norms
    JEL: C91 J16
    Date: 2021–12
  67. By: Siegfried, Patrick; Zhang, John Jiyuan
    Abstract: In relation to the fast development of e-commerce and rapid increasing of parcels, urban logistic sector is facing the challenge of sustainability. Especially, last-mile delivery as the last step of goods transport, it connects to customers’ satisfaction, cost efficiency of logistic companies, and more and more public expectations to sustainability of urban logistics. To handle with the complexity of urban logistics conditions, governments and logistics companies should develop a co-operating strategy for sustainability of urban last-mile delivery. This paper is based on data collection from the long-term empirical research and a survey to the e-commerce users in Germany and China to develop a sustainable concept for the urban last-mile delivery. The key to the development of concept is to create a balance among the requirements of customers, the competition abilities of logistics companies and the public interest.
    Keywords: Last-Mile Delivery, Urban Logistic, Sustainability, Sustainable Delivery, E-Commerce, Parcel Delivery, Logistic Solution
    JEL: L91 P25 Q01 Q5 R4
    Date: 2021–01–25
  68. By: Thomas BAUDIN (IESEG School of Management, Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 9221 - LEM - Lille Economie Management, F-59000 Lille, France and IRES, Université Catholique de Louvain); Robert STELTER (University of Basel, Faculty of Business and Economics and Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research)
    Abstract: We propose a unified model of growth and internal migration and identify its deep parameters using an original set of Swedish data. We show that inter- nal migration conditions had to be favorable enough to induce an exodus out of the countryside in order to fuel the industrial development of cities and the demographic transition of the country. We then compare the respective effects of shocks to internal migration costs, to infant mortality and to the productivity of rural industry to the economic take-off and demographic transition that occurred in Sweden. Negative shocks to internal mobility generate larger delays in the take-off of growth than do mortality shocks equivalent to the bubonic plague. These delays are dramatic when rural industry is less productive in the early phase of industrialization. The economic and demographic dynamics of Sweden were very similar to those of the rest of Europe at the time of industrialization, which allows us to generalize our findings
    Keywords: : Demographic transition, Industrialization, Rural exodus, Mortal- ity differentials, Fertility differentials
    JEL: J11 J13 O41
    Date: 2022–02
  69. By: Bhalotra, S (University of Warwick, CEPR, IEA, CAGE and IZA); Brito, E (Brown University); Clarke, D (University of Chile, MIPP and IZA); Larroulet, P (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile); Pino, F (University of Chile and IZA)
    Abstract: We leverage staggered implementation of lockdown across Chile’s 346 municipalities, identifying dynamic impacts on domestic violence (DV). Using administrative data, we find lockdown imposition increases indicators of DV-related distress, while decreasing DV reports to the police. We identify male job loss as a mechanism driving distress, and female job loss as driving decreased reporting. Stimulus payments to poor households act on both margins, their impacts partially differentiated by lockdown status. Once lockdown is lifted, police reports surge but we see a ratchet effect in distress. Our findings accentuate the controversy around welfare impacts of lockdown mandates.
    Keywords: domestic violence, social safety net, public health, COVID-19 JEL Classification:J12, I38, H53
    Date: 2022
  70. By: Phormkhunathon, Kacharat
    Abstract: Definitely the fact, is an undeniable impact of habitat change and fragmentation in the urban ecosystem take effect to species loss causes population decline into local extinction. The results that emerged from habitat selection in ecology in this case study may suggest possible opportunistic of population turnover are caused by behaviour adaptive in the life-history of predators. And provides functional responses proportion aim for response to available exploit habitat. Though data imperfectly create approach sufficient of N assumes initial of each predator for testing and experiment theory empirical [y = 2.4444, Pr (>F) = 0.002466]. Moreover, consequences interspecific competition were determine nonhierarchical pattern by supposing Golden Jackal (species B) is dominant species in the community, show when encounter 1) Leopard Cat (species A) have dNAj/dt = 1.821292 [Pr (>F) = 0.2261] and competitive coefficient = 0.96797 [Pr (>F) = 0.3961] and 2) Common Palm Civet (species A) have dNAj/dt = 4.777457 [Pr (>F) = 0.2261] and competitive coefficient = 0.93647 [Pr (>F) = 0.3961]. That demonstrates plausible Golden Jackal discriminated occasion predominant obviously from the functional responses the robust. However, these results expect the one essence for estimating the population growth rate, especially from individual metabolic rate causes behaviour adaptive in template phase of spatial-temporal dynamics and predict carrying capacity free-bias improving. Effort understanding to mechanism complex before into broadly practical aims enhance the wildlife management and conservation probabilities.
    Date: 2021–10–24
  71. By: Clemens, Michael A. (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: The past several decades have witnessed a rebirth of global labor mobility. Workers have begun to move between countries at rates not seen since before World War One. During the same period, economists' study of international migration has been framed by a particular textbook model of location choice. This paper reviews the evidence on the economic causes and effects of global migration during the past half century. That evidence falsifies most of the core predictions of the old model. The economics of migration will regain vitality and relevance by discarding and replacing its outworn paradigm.
    Keywords: labor, immigration, emigration, selection, impact, wages, employment, roy model, production, globalization, history
    JEL: F22 J61 O15
    Date: 2022–01
  72. By: Dongya Koh; Jingping Gu; Andrew Liu
    Abstract: Following the shocks of the COVID-19 pandemic, the economy may be significantly changed relative to the pre-pandemic world. One critical shift induced by the COVID-19 pandemic is a need for physical distance (at least 6 feet apart) between workers and customers. In this study, we examine the impacts of social distancing in the workplace on employment and productivity across industries. Using our constructed measure of adaptability to social distancing, we empirically find that industries that are more adaptive to social distancing had less decline in employment and productivity during the pandemic. Using this empirical evidence, our model predicts that employment and productivity dispersion would induce labor reallocation across sectors, while imperfect labor mobility may result in a long road to economic recovery.
    Date: 2022–02
  73. By: Diding Sakri; Andy Sumner; Arief Anshory Yusuf
    Abstract: Various scholars have estimated levels of intergenerational mobility in OECD countries. Fewer estimates are available for developing countries, where mobility arguably matters more due to starker differences in living standards. This paper presents new estimates of mobility for a developing country, namely Indonesia. The estimates are based on data from five waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, a longitudinal analysis of socio-economic status which began in 1993. We constructed a pooling sample consisting of 9,445 matching pairs of children and their parents.
    Keywords: Intergenerational Mobility, Longitudinal data analysis, Indonesia, Household survey
    Date: 2022
  74. By: Xiaojuan Yu (Zhongnan University of Economics and Law); Vincent van den Berg (VU Amsterdam); Erik Verhoef (VU Amsterdam); ZhiChun Li (Huazhong University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: Autonomous cars allow safe driving with a smaller headway than that required for normal human-driven cars, thereby potentially improving road capacity. To attain this capacity benefit, cooperation among autonomous cars is vital. However, the future market may have multiple car brands and the incentive for them to cooperate is unknown. This paper investigates competition and cooperation between multiple car brands, which may offer both autonomous and normal cars. In particular, we develop a two-stage game theoretic model to investigate brands' strategic interactions and evaluate, from both policy and organizational perspectives, the implications of their cooperation incentives and pricing competition. We compare four market structures: duopoly competition, perfect competition, a public welfare-maximizing monopoly, and a private profit-maximizing monopoly. Various parameters are evaluated, including factors such as price elasticity, capacity effects, and cooperation cost. This evaluation provides policy insights into actions that could be considered by regulators and organizations for the operation of autonomous cars.
    Keywords: Autonomous cars, Cooperation strategy, Duopoly competition, Game theory, Regulatory policy
    JEL: D21 R41 D43
    Date: 2022–02–03
  75. By: Nguyen, Ha Trong; Brinkman, Sally; Le, Huong Thu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Mitrou, Francis
    Abstract: Using over 50 thousand time-use diaries from two cohorts of children, we document significant gender differences in time allocation in the first 16 years in life. Relative to males, females spend more time on personal care, chores and educational activities and less time on physical and media related activities. These gender gaps in time allocation appear at very young ages and widen overtime. We provide novel evidence that gender differentials in time investment are quantitatively important in explaining a female advantage in most cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Moreover, gender disparity in educational time outside of school is the most important factor contributing to gender test score gaps and its contribution is more pronounced for higher performing students. By contrast, gender differences in media time are the main factor explaining gender gaps in non-cognitive skills. As children age, gender differences in time allocation play an increasing role in explaining gender gaps in both cognitive and non-cognitive skills.
    Keywords: Time Allocation,Time Use Diary,Gender Gap,Human Capital,Child Development
    JEL: I24 J13 J16 J22 J24
    Date: 2022
  76. By: Yoshitaka Ogisu
    Abstract: It is well known that differences in the average number of friends among social groups can cause inequality in the average wage and/or unemployment rate. However, the impact of social network structure on inequality is not evident. In this paper, we show that not only the average number of friends but also the heterogeneity of degree distribution can affect inter-group inequality. A worker group with a scale-free network tends to be disadvantaged in the labor market compared to a group with an Erd\H{o}s-R\'{e}nyi network structure. This feature becomes strengthened as the skewness of the degree distribution increases in scale-free networks. We show that the government's policy of discouraging referral hiring worsens social welfare and can exacerbate inequality.
    Date: 2022–01
  77. By: Dicarlo, Emanuele (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: The quality of workers in a country positively relates to productivity of firms, adoption of new technologies, and growth. This paper studies adjustments of Italian firms to negative labor supply shocks in the context of workers' outflows from Italy to Switzerland. My diff-in-diff leverages the implementation of a policy in which Switzerland granted free labor market mobility to EU citizens and different treatment intensity of Italian firms based on their distance to the Swiss border. Using detailed social security data on the universe of Italian firms and workers, I document large (12 percentage points higher) outflows of workers and fewer (2.5 percentage points) surviving firms in the treatment group relative to control. Despite replacing workers and becoming more capital intensive, treated firms are less productive and pay lower wages. I investigate this evidence through the lens of a simple production function with high and low-skilled labor within a heterogeneity analysis based on the skill intensity of the industry of each firm. In line with the brain drain literature, I show how adverse effects of large outflows of workers operate through firms that workers leave. I provide suggestive evidence that high-skill intensive firms are the main driver of the negative results on wages and productivity. I also show that low skill intensive firms instead suffer less from losing workers and provide new job opportunities for the workers who do not migrate.
    Keywords: migration, labor supply, skills, firms
    JEL: F22 J22 J24 J61
    Date: 2022–01
  78. By: Segal, Katie; Elkind, Ethan; Lamm, Ted
    Abstract: Flexibility in California Transportation Funding Programs and Implications for More Climate-Aligned Spending examines key features of the legislative authority for transportation planning and finance in California, including local option sales taxes for transportation, and assesses the amount of flexibility that current laws and practices allow for reprioritizing projects as problems and priorities change.
    Keywords: Law
    Date: 2021–12–01

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