nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2022‒02‒21
76 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Housing prices in Spain: convergence or decoupling? By Corinna Ghirelli; Danilo Leiva-León; Alberto Urtasun
  2. Heterogeneous Peer Effects under Endogenous Selection: An Application to Local and Migrant Children in Elementary Schools in Shanghai By Chen, Yuanyuan; Feng, Shuaizhang; Yang, Chao
  3. Gifted and Talented Programs and Racial Segregation By Owen Thompson
  4. The expected impact of COVID-19 on the housing market By Fritsche, Charmaine
  5. The Great Migration and Educational Opportunity By Cavit Baran; Eric Chyn; Bryan Stuart
  6. Urban cycling tourism. How can bikes and public transport ride together for sustainability? By Crotti, Daniele; Maggi, Elena; Pantelaki, Evangelia
  7. Mortgage-Backed Securities By Andreas Fuster; David O. Lucca; James I. Vickery
  8. No inventor is an island: social connectedness and the geography of knowledge flows in the US By Diemer, Andreas; Regan, Tanner
  9. Valuing the environmental benefits of canals and canal restoration using house prices By Gibbons, Stephen; Peng, Cong; Tang, Cheng Keat
  10. Urban development, housing market and housing policy in Leipzig By Rink, Dieter
  11. Micromotives and macromoves:Political preferences and internal migration in England and Wales By Georgios Efthyvoulou; Vincenzo Bove; Harry Pickard
  12. Wheels of Change: Transforming Girls’ Lives with Bicycles By Nathan Fiala; Ana Garcia-Hernandez; Kritika Narula; Nishith Prakash
  13. Mobility of novice teachers By Torberg Falch; Bjarne Strøm
  14. Fiscal decentralization and efficiency: empirical evidence from Italian municipalities By bucci, valeria; ferrara, giancarlo; resce, giuliano
  15. The impact of the 2018 Families Package Accommodation Supplement area changes on housing outcomes. By Dean Hyslop; David Maré
  16. The urban-rural wage gap in Germany By Brixy, Udo; Brunow, Stephan; Ochsen, Carsten
  17. Heterogeneous responses to school track choice: Evidence from the repeal of binding track recommendations By Bach, Maximilian
  18. Linking spatial and social mobility: is London's “escalator” as strong as it was? By Champion, Tony; Gordon, Ian
  19. Relationship Between Migration Promotion Policies in Local Governments and Population Movement―Text Analysis of the Local Comprehensive Strategies for Rural Revitalization (Japanese) By ARAKAWA Kiyoaki; NOYORI Shuhei; NAKATA Toshiyuki
  20. School Success Between Expectations and Achievement By Eleonora Mihaela Popa
  21. Local labour market competition and radical right voting: evidence from France By Bolet, Diane
  22. Managers’ Productivity and Recruitment in the Public Sector: The Case of School Principals By Prem, Mounu; Munoz, Pablo
  23. Managers’ Productivity and Recruitment in the Public Sector: The Case of School Principals By Munoz, Pablo; Prem, Mounu
  24. House Price Rises and Borrowing to Invest By Thomas Crossley; Peter Levell; Hamish Low
  25. Compensating for academic loss: Online learning and student performance during the COVID-19 pandemic By Andrew E. Clark; Huifu Nong; Hongjia Zhu; Rong Zhu
  26. Defaulting Alone: The Geography of Sme Owner Numbers and Credit Risk in Hungary By Csaba Burger
  27. The 2015 refugee inflow and concerns over immigration By Gallegos Torres, Katia
  28. In platforms we trust: misinformation on social networks in the presence of social mistrust By Charlson, G.
  29. Quantifying domestic violence in times of crisis By Dan Anderberg; Helmut Rainer; Fabian Siuda
  30. The long shadow of local decline: birthplace economic conditions, political attitudes, and long-term individual economic outcomes in the UK By McNeil, Andrew; Lee, Neil; Luca, Davide
  31. Concurrent elections and voting behaviour: evidence from an Italian referendum By Francesco Armillei; Enrico Cavallotti
  32. Online Tutoring by College Volunteers: Experimental Evidence from a Pilot Program By Matthew Kraft; John List; Jeffrey Livingston; Sally Sadoff
  33. Bond Insurance and Public Sector Employment By Natee Amornsiripanitch
  34. Firm innovation and generalized trust as a regional resource By Bischoff, Thore Sören; Hipp, Ann; Runst, Petrik
  35. Fiscal rules and the reliability of public investment plans: evidence from local governments By Anna Laura Mancini; Pietro Tommasino
  36. Imitative Pricing: The Importance of Neighborhood Effects in Physicians' Consultation Prices By Benjamin Montmartin; Marcos Herrera-Gomez
  37. Can interactive online training make high school students more entrepreneurial? Experimental evidence from Rwanda By Lafortune, Jeanne; Pugatch, Todd; Tessada, José; Ubfal, Diego
  38. Local Public Goods and the Spatial Distribution of Economic Activity By Arthur Guillouzouic--Le Corff; Emeric Henry; Joan Monras
  39. Homophily in preferences or meetings? Identifying and estimating an iterative network formation model By Luis Antonio Fantozzi Alvarez; Cristine Campos de Xavier Pinto; Vladimir Pinheiro Ponczek
  40. COVID-19 school closures and mental health of adolescent students: Evidence from rural Mozambique By Chimbutane, Feliciano; Herrera-Almanza, Catalina; Karachiwalla, Naureen; Lauchande, Carlos; Leight, Jessica
  41. Efficient Regional Taxes in the Presence of Mobile Creative Capital By Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Nijkamp, Peter
  42. Car Prices Drive Up Borrowing By Andrew F. Haughwout; Donghoon Lee; Daniel Mangrum; Joelle Scally; Wilbert Van der Klaauw
  43. Managing Airbnb: A Cross-Jurisdictional Review of Approaches for Regulating the Short-Term Rental Market By Cameron, Anna; Khanal, Mukesh; Tedds, Lindsay M.
  44. Positioning Prospective Teachers’ Awareness of Classroom Learning Climate: A Critical Literacy Context By Lorenzo Cherubini
  45. The social and economic rationale of inclusive education: An overview of the outcomes in education for diverse groups of students By Cecilia Mezzanotte
  46. Analyzing Sustainability Issues in Urban Logistics in the Context of Growth of E-Commerce By Siegfried, Patrick; Michel, Alex; Tänzler, Jan; Zhang, John Jiyuan
  47. Convolutional regression for big spatial data By Yasumasa Matsuda; Xin Yuan
  48. Productivity Growth and Spillovers across European Industries: A Global Value Chain Perspective Based on EURO KLEMS By Liu, Weilin; Cheng, Qian; Sickles, Robin C.
  49. Multi-stakeholder approach for better integration of refugee students: Stakeholder engagement in the practice-research-policy transfer in refugee education policy By Hanna Siarova; Loes van der Graaf
  50. Self-Regulation Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the Classroom By Gina Martin
  51. The Production Function for Housing: Evidence from France By Pierre-Philippe Combes; Gilles Duranton; Laurent Gobillon
  52. A Beam of Light: Media, Tourism and Economic Development By Samuel Nocito; Marcello Sartarelli; Francesco Sobbrio
  53. Rebuilding a Cluster While Protecting Knowledge within Low-Medium-Tech Supplier SMEs: A Spanish and French Comparison By Martine Gadille; Juan Gallego-Bono
  54. How do firms adjust to a negative labor supply shock? Evidence form migration outflows By Emanuele Dicarlo
  55. Settlers and Norms By Joanne Haddad
  56. Social and emotional learning (SEL) of newcomer and refugee students: Beliefs, practices and implications for policies across OECD countries By Jody McBrien
  57. Socio-economic inequality in young people's financial capabilities By Jake Anders; John Jerrim; Lindsey Macmillan
  58. Sharing with Minimal Regulation? Free Riding and Neighborhood Book Exchange By Schippers, Anouk L.; Soetevent, Adriaan R.
  59. Boosting social entrepreneurship and social enterprise development in Slovenia: In-depth policy review By OECD
  60. Does Over-education Raise Productivity and Wages Equally? The Moderating Role of Workers' Origin and Immigrants' Background By Jacobs, Valentine; Rycx, François; Volral, Mélanie
  61. Parental Investments in Early Childhood and the Gender Gap in Math and Literacy By Amanda Chuan; John List; Anya Samek; Shreemayi Samujjwala
  62. Disability types and children’s schooling in Africa By Zhang, Huafeng; Holden, Stein Terje
  63. Task specialization and the native-foreign wage gap: Evidence from worker-level data By Storm, Eduard
  64. The effects of male migration on irrigation systems in Nepal By Pradhan, Prachanda; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Zhang, Wei
  65. Public subsidies and cooperation in research and development. Evidence from the lab By Acconcia, Antonio; Beraldo, Sergio; Capuano, Carlo; Stimolo, Marco
  66. Managing the Impact of Climate on Migration: Evidence from Mexico By Chort, Isabelle; de la Rupelle, Maëlys
  67. How to reduce discrimination? Evidence from a field experiment in amateur soccer By Robert Dur; Carlos Gomez-Gonzalez; Cornel Nesseler
  68. Openness to migrate internationally for a job: evidence from LinkedIn data in Europe By Daniela Perrotta; Sarah C. Johnson; Tom Theile; André Grow; Helga de Valk; Emilio Zagheni
  69. Making Subsidies Work: Rules vs. Discretion By Federico Cingano; Filippo Palomba; Paolo Pinotti; Enrico Rettore
  70. Firm subsidies, financial intermediation, and bank risk By Kazakov, Aleksandr; Koetter, Michael; Titze, Mirko; Tonzer, Lena
  71. The Macroeconomic Effects of Funding U.S. Infrastructure By James Malley; Apostolis Philippopoulos
  72. Labor market spillover effects of a compulsory schooling reform in Germany By Valentin Schiele;
  73. Do firms care about peers when choosing to go circular? Peer effect among Italian firms in the introduction of circular innovation By Elisa Chioatto; Susanna Mancinelli; Francesco Nicolli
  74. Positional enhancement in effort-based social comparisons By Jeroen Nieboer
  75. A Roadmap for Integrating Complete Streets Infrastructure into Pavement Asset Management Systems By Gadsby, April; Tsai, Yichang James; Harvey, John
  76. Inequalities in children’s experiences of home learning during the COVID-19 lockdown in England By Alison Andrew; Sarah Cattan; Monica Costa Dias; Christine Farquharson; Lucy Kraftman; Sonya Krutikova; Angus Phimister; Almudena Sevilla

  1. By: Corinna Ghirelli (Banco de España); Danilo Leiva-León (Banco de España); Alberto Urtasun (Banco de España)
    Abstract: In this article, we measure changes over time in the synchronization of housing price cycles across Spanish cities. In doing so, we rely on a regime-switching framework that identifies the housing price cycles of pairs of cities, and simultaneously infers the evolving relation between those cycles. These bilateral relationships are then summarized into an aggregate synchronization index of city-level housing cycles. The estimates suggest that Spanish housing prices have followed a convergence pattern, which picked in 2009 and slightly decreased afterwards. We also identify the cities that have been the main contributors to this convergence process. Moreover, we show that differences in population growth and economic structure are key factors to explain the evolution of housing price synchronization among Spanish cities.
    Keywords: housing cycles, synchronization, Spain
    JEL: E31 C32 R11
    Date: 2022–01
  2. By: Chen, Yuanyuan; Feng, Shuaizhang; Yang, Chao
    Abstract: This paper develops a model that allows for heterogenous contemporaneous peer effects among different types of agents who are endogenously selected into different peer groups. Using our framework, we characterize the reduced-form coefficient in the peer effect literature and show that it is a priori ambiguous in sign. We apply our approach to migrant and local students in Shanghai, where local students all go to public schools, but migrant students are endogenously selected into either public schools or lower-quality private schools. The results suggest large contemporaneous peer effects among all student groups. We conduct policy experiments to examine the effect of transferring migrant students from private schools to public schools. We show that peer effect can be substantially more important than the school effect in accounting for the total treatment effect of moving to better schools.
    Keywords: Peer Effects,Sample Selection,Education,Migrant Children
    JEL: C31 C34 I21
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Owen Thompson (Williams College)
    Abstract: Racial segregation can occur across educational programs or classrooms within a given school, and there has been particular concern that gifted and talented programs may reduce integration within schools. This paper evaluates the contribution of gifted and talented education to racial segregation using data on the presence and racial composition of gifted and talented programs at virtually all US elementary schools over a span of nine school years. I first show that, consistent with widespread perceptions, gifted and talented programs do disproportionately enroll white and Asian students while Black, Hispanic and Native American students are underrepresented. However, I also show that accounting for the within- school racial sorting caused by these programs has little or no effect on standard measures of overall racial segregation. This is primarily because gifted and talented programs are a small share of total enrollments and do enroll non-negligible numbers of under-represented minority students. I also estimate changes in race-specific enrollments after schools initiate or discontinue gifted and talented programs, and find no significant enrollment changes after programs are eliminated or initiated. I conclude that gifted and talented education is a quantitatively small contributor to racial segregation in US elementary schools, and that evaluations of these programs should be based primarily on how they impact participating and non-participating students, not on their contributions to racial segregation.
    Keywords: Racial, Segregation, Education, Gifted, Talented,
    JEL: I24 J15
    Date: 2021–12–10
  4. By: Fritsche, Charmaine
    Abstract: The outbreak of COVID-19 has been an unprecedented disruptor in the world's social and economic fabric. However, the crisis has only barely affected the real estate market, which continues its upward trend in many countries as of the fourth quarter of 2020. Drivers of housing prices and possible effects of the pandemic on the housing market are examined in this article. Special emphasis lies on developments in the EU.
    Keywords: housing prices,real estate,remote work,COVID-19
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Cavit Baran; Eric Chyn; Bryan Stuart
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of the First Great Migration on children. We use the complete count 1940 Census to estimate selection-corrected place effects on education for children of Black migrants. On average, Black children gained 0.8 years of schooling (12 percent) by moving from the South to the North. Many counties that had the strongest positive impacts on children during the 1940s offer relatively poor opportunities for Black youth today. Opportunities for Black children were greater in places with more schooling investment, stronger labor market opportunities for Black adults, more social capital, and less crime.
    Keywords: Great Migration; human capital; education; place effect.
    JEL: N32 J15 J24 H75
    Date: 2022–02–08
  6. By: Crotti, Daniele; Maggi, Elena; Pantelaki, Evangelia
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2022–01–27
  7. By: Andreas Fuster (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne; Swiss Finance Institute; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)); David O. Lucca (Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of New York); James I. Vickery (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the mortgage-backed securities (MBS) market, with a particular emphasis on agency residential MBS in the United States. We discuss the institutional environment, security design, MBS risks and asset pricing, and the economic effects of mortgage securitization. We also assemble descriptive statistics about market size, growth, security characteristics, prepayment, and trading activity. Throughout, we highlight insights from the expanding body of academic research on the MBS market and mortgage securitization.
    Keywords: mortgage finance, securitization, agency mortgage-backed securities, TBA, option-adjusted spreads, covered bonds.
    JEL: G10 G12 G21
    Date: 2022–02
  8. By: Diemer, Andreas; Regan, Tanner
    Abstract: Do informal social ties connecting inventors across distant places promote knowledge flows between them? To measure informal ties, we use a new and direct index of social connectedness of regions based on aggregate Facebook friendships. We use a well-established identification strategy that relies on matching inventor citations with citations from examiners. Moreover, we isolate the specific effect of informal connections, above and beyond formal professional ties (co-inventor networks) and geographic proximity. We identify a significant and robust effect of informal ties on patent citations. Further, we find that the effect of geographic proximity on knowledge flows is entirely explained by informal social ties and professional networks. We also show that the effect of informal social ties on knowledge flows is greater for new entrepreneurs or ‘garage inventors’, for older or ‘forgotten’ patents, and for flows across distant technology fields. It has also become increasingly important over the last two decades.
    Keywords: diffusion; informal networks; knowledge flows; social connectedness; PhD Studentship
    JEL: O33 R12 Z13
    Date: 2022–03–01
  9. By: Gibbons, Stephen; Peng, Cong; Tang, Cheng Keat
    Abstract: This paper values the local environmental benefits of historic, navigable canals using property values. We employ regressions on high-volume transaction data, controlling for micro-geographic fixed effects, and cross-check these estimates against a causal, difference-in-differences analysis of a local canal restoration project. We find a price premium within 100 m, suggesting benefits for canal-side properties with a direct outlook or immediate access, around 5% before the 2008 recession, falling to 3.4% by 2016. These locations have a higher proportion of new-build sales, suggesting they attract developers. Our calculations imply canals generate land value uplift of £0.8-0.9 billion in England and Wales.
    Keywords: canals; waterways; house prices; environment; valuation; revealed preference; ES/M010341/1; UKRI block grant
    JEL: Q51
    Date: 2021–10–20
  10. By: Rink, Dieter
    Abstract: [Introduction] Leipzig's urban development has been subject to serious, not to say extreme, changes in terms of shrinkage and growth over the past three decades. These had a strong impact on the housing market, which was first very tight and then (very) relaxed for some time. In recent years it has tightened up again. Whether Leipzig has a "housing question" or even a housing shortage is, however, still assessed differently and discussed controversially by relevant actors. The sometimes extreme changes in the housing market have led to several realignments in housing policy. This is reflected not least in the four quite different housing policy concepts adopted by the city council since 1990. In the wake of strong growth and the tightening of the housing market, Leipzig reoriented its housing policy in 2015 with a new concept. This paper briefly discusses the strategies of the actors and the new housing policy, the starting situation and the developments in the 1990s and 2000s in order to provide the necessary background for understanding the current developments on the housing market. Then the current situation is presented and the specifics of the housing question in Leipzig are elaborated. This is followed by a description of housing policy, its concepts and instruments, the actors and governance structures. Finally, there is a summary of the implementation steps and the difficulties encountered before a conclusion is drawn. The coronavirus pandemic has currently changed some of the parameters of development. Since these are still subject to great uncertainty at the present time, they are addressed in an excursus in which possibilities and plausibilities are discussed.
    Date: 2022
  11. By: Georgios Efthyvoulou (University of Sheffield); Vincenzo Bove (University of Warwick); Harry Pickard (Newcastle University)
    Abstract: When people migrate internally, do they tend to move to locations that reflect their political preferences? To address this question, we first compile a unique panel dataset on the universe of population movements in England and Wales across 346 local authority districts over the period 2002-2015, and estimate a gravity model of internal migration. We show that proximity in partisan composition exerts an important positive effect on migration flows, which is of a similar order of magnitude as wage differentials or ethnic proximity. We then use individual surveybased data over the same time period to investigate some of the micro-foundations underlying the “macromoves†. We find that political alignment to the district of residence contributes to individuals’ sense of belonging and ‘fitting in’ – consistent with the existence of a political homophily mechanism – and that a migrant’s political ideology can predict the partisanship of the destination district.
    Keywords: Internal migration; Residential mobility; Neighbourhood preference; Polarization;Political sorting; Gravity models JEL Classification:
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Nathan Fiala (University of Connecticut, Makerere University and RWI-Leibniz Institute for Economic Research); Ana Garcia-Hernandez (Universidad del Rosario and Innovations for Poverty Action); Kritika Narula (Analysis Group); Nishith Prakash (University of Connecticut, IZA, GLO, HiCN, and CReAM)
    Abstract: Reducing the gender gap in education is a primary goal for many countries. Two major challenges for many girls are the distance to school and their safety when commuting to school. In Zambia, we studied the impact of providing a bicycle to a school-going girl who lives more than 3 km from the school. We randomized whether a girl received a bicycle with a small cost to her family to cover replacement parts, a bicycle where these costs are covered by the program, and therefore is zero cost to the family, or a control group. One year after the intervention, we find that the bicycle reduced average commuting time to school by 35%, reduced late arrival by 66%, and decreased absenteeism by 27%. We find continued improvement in girls’ attendance and reduction in dropouts two, three, and four years after the intervention. We also find evidence of improved math test scores, girls expressing higher feelings of control over their lives and, for those who received bicycles with a small cost to her family, higher levels of aspirations, self-image, and a desire to delay marriage and pregnancy. Heterogeneity analysis by distance to school shows an inverted U-shape for most of the schooling and empowerment results, suggesting greater impact for girls that live further away from school. These results suggest that empowerment outcomes worked through increased attendance in school.
    Keywords: Girls’ Education, Attendance, Dropout, Grade Transition, Test Scores, Bicycles, Female As-piration, Female Empowerment, Safety, Zambia
    JEL: H42 I21 I25 J16 O15
    Date: 2022–02
  13. By: Torberg Falch (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology); Bjarne Strøm (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: This paper examines the propensity for graduates from teacher education to work as a teacher in the home region after graduation. We use Norwegian administrative register data and present descriptive statistics and results from regression models. On average, those returning to a teacher position in the home region tend to have lower measured academic ability from higher education than others. Females and parents without higher education are also associated with a higher probability to work as a teacher in the home region. This propensity is not significantly associated with the localization of teacher education in the home region, but strongly related to the population of the region. The results suggest that the types of teachers often believed to be underrepresented in schools have the lowest attachment to their home region and the teacher profession.
    Keywords: Teacher mobility; Novice teachers; Teacher education; Teacher attrition; Teacher characteristics
    Date: 2021–12–22
  14. By: bucci, valeria; ferrara, giancarlo; resce, giuliano
    Abstract: This paper investigates the association between fiscal decentralization and municipality efficiency by conducting an empirical analysis focused on the Italian context. We conduct a cost efficiency analysis based on a stochastic frontier approach with municipality and time fixed effects for 2010-2016 modelling the decentralization effect with a continuous variable, taxation autonomy, which allows for accounting for the degree and evolution of fiscal decentralization over time. The empirical analysis provides convincing evidence that fiscal decentralization is positively associated with municipalities' efficiency, robust to inclusion into the model of a large set of control variables. This evidence lends support for policies aimed at making more closely aligned expenditure and revenue decision making.
    Keywords: Fiscal Decentralization; Local governance; Italian municipalities; Efficiency; Stochastic frontier analysis
    JEL: D61 H50 H77
    Date: 2022
  15. By: Dean Hyslop (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); David Maré (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyse the effects on rents of the substantial April 2018 changes in the Accommodation Supplement (AS) policy. These policy changes adjusted which geographic locations were assigned to each AS-area, and the AS-maxima were increased to reflect the rising costs of housing in each AS-area. The result of these changes was that the maximum AS-payments for recipients in all locations increased, and the increases varied across geographic locations within redefined AS-areas. We exploit the relative changes in maxima that occurred on either side of such AS-area boundaries to identify the effects of the policy changes on relative rents in these boundary areas. First, we estimate that recipients on the side of boundaries with larger increases in the AS-maxima received on average about $14-19 per week more in accommodation support relative to recipients on the other side. Although we estimate that the relative raw rent increase in the second year after the policy change was about $9 per week on the boundary-sides that received larger increases, once we control for observable and fixed unobservable characteristics of clients, we find negligible differences in rent changes. We conclude that higher-rent new AS-recipients to the treatment areas largely explain the composition changes in these areas, but explain little of the increase in average support. Finally, regression kink analysis shows only weak evidence of stronger rent increases for AS-recipients directly affected by the policy changes.
    Keywords: Accommodation supplement, housing demand subsidy
    JEL: H22 R21
    Date: 2022–01
  16. By: Brixy, Udo (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany); Brunow, Stephan (HdBA); Ochsen, Carsten (HdBA ; Univ. Rostock)
    Abstract: "We compare real wage differences between centralized and peripheral areas and highly centralized and peripheral areas using vast information of German administrative data that contains more than 2.8 Million individuals and 660,000 firms. We provide substantial empirical evidence that most of the wage gaps can be explained by differences in endowments of individual and firm characteristics, particularly when unobserved individual and firm heterogeneity is appropriately accounted for. Our interpretation is that the selectivity of workers and firms in space explains most of the real wage gap between peripheral and (highly) centralized regions, and returns to characteristics are honoured rather equally in all regional types." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: IAB-Open-Access-Publikation
    JEL: J31 R12
    Date: 2022–02–14
  17. By: Bach, Maximilian
    Abstract: This paper studies heterogeneity in schooling decisions by socio-economic status (SES) in response to a repeal of achievement-based admissions requirements (i.e. binding track recommendations) in Germany's between-school tracking system. The main contribution is to show that while previously ineligible high-SES students are relatively more likely to enroll in the highest (academic) track than comparable low-SES students after the repeal, the SES gap in academic track enrollment does not increase. The reason is that low-SES students, who were already eligible for the academic track before the repeal, increase their probability of enrolling in the academic track. A key mechanism driving low-SES students' response appears to be lower preferences for the intermediate track due to concerns about the inflow of mostly low-achieving and low-SES students from the lowest (basic) track after the repeal.
    Keywords: education,school choice,intergenerational mobility,inequality of opportunity,tracking
    JEL: I24 I28 J24 J62
    Date: 2021
  18. By: Champion, Tony; Gordon, Ian
    Abstract: The “escalator region” concept became a key element of migration literature after Fielding's work on South East England and fuelled a welcome growth of interest in the links between spatial and social mobility. More recent research has shown that London has continued to perform an escalator function since the 1970s, but little attention has been given to how its strength has altered both over time and compared with other parts of the UK. Against the background of the declining rates of internal migration observed in the United States and several other countries, this paper seeks to identify whether London's escalator role was waxing or waning over the four intercensal decades between 1971 and 2011. The primary emphasis is on the chances of people shifting up from noncore to core white-collar work during each decade for London's nonmigrant and in-migrant populations, in both absolute terms and relative to England's second-order cities. It is found that over the three decades since the 1970s London's escalator was still performing in the way originally conceived, but although its net gain of young adults from the rest of England and Wales steadily increased over this period, it was not operating as strongly in 2001–2011 as during the 1990s in terms of both the career-progression premium gained by its in-migrants and the extent of its advantage over England's second-order cities.
    Keywords: career progression; escalator region; London; migration; second-order city regions; social mobility; ES/R00823X/1
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2021–10–01
  19. By: ARAKAWA Kiyoaki; NOYORI Shuhei; NAKATA Toshiyuki
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of policies in the local comprehensive strategies for rural revitalization and investigate how such policies are related to migration from large cities to local communities. We conducted text mining, factor analysis, and regression analysis using a modified gravity model. Our study demonstrated the following two points: First, the local comprehensive strategies for rural revitalization consist of ten latent factors: local community, human resource development, education, immigration and settlement, medical care and welfare, public transportation, cooperation, child rearing, public relations, and sports. Second, after adjusting for socioeconomic variables using a modified gravity model, the latent factor of "cooperation" is positively related to population movement from large cities, while the remaining nine factors are not. The specifics of the comprehensive strategies should be examined in detail and effective policies to promote migration from large cities to local communities should be investigated in further studies.
    Date: 2021–12
  20. By: Eleonora Mihaela Popa (Ph.D. Candidate, University of Bucharest, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Romania)
    Abstract: School success is the goal of many students and parents. This paper aims to study the issue of school success in terms of expectations and academic achievement and is structured in two parts. The first part deals with aspects of school success and addresses topics such as school performance, school success, school failure, school evaluation, and motivational factors. School performance, understood as the result of all student activities and expressed through grades, is different from school achievement, which is oriented towards its value. Academic achievement depends on motivational factors, the influence and involvement of parents in the school life of the student, how the student relates to the environment, and educational influences. The second part of the paper addresses the issue of students’ and parents’ expectations regarding academic results. Differences or similarities between these expectations can lead to school success and academic achievement. The expectation-value theory highlights the catalytic effect of expectations, as well as the reciprocity of the relationship between parents' expectations and students' academic achievement.
    Keywords: school performance, school success, school failure, evaluation, motivation, expectations, achievement
    Date: 2021–06
  21. By: Bolet, Diane
    Abstract: How do the economic effects of immigration affect radical right support? The evidence in support of the labour market competition theory—which posits that the economic threat posed by immigration to jobs and wages leads to radical right voting—has been mixed. On the one hand, individual‐level surveys underreport economic drivers because of social desirability bias. On the other hand, contextual studies show contradictory findings due to an over‐reliance on units of analysis that are too aggregated to meaningfully capture the competitive threat posed by immigrants. This paper identifies the influence of labour market competition on radical right voting at a local level in contexts where native workers are directly affected by the arrival of immigrants who have similar or higher skillsets. Using an original longitudinal dataset of fine‐grained municipal electoral, demographic and economic data from France over the 2002–2017 period, the paper provides empirical evidence of local contextual influences of economic competition between natives and immigrants of any skillset. Under local conditions of material deprivation, measured by the local unemployment rate, the effect of labour market competition on municipalities’ radical right vote share is amplified. Moreover, higher radical right support is observed in municipalities with a higher share of any one of the following groups: low‐skilled natives; medium‐skilled immigrants; or high‐skilled immigrants. This supports the hypothesis that immigrants with higher qualifications are compelled to accept lower‐skilled jobs, and are thus perceived as a competitive threat to low‐skilled natives. By reconciling radical right contextual studies and research on the political economy of immigration policies, this paper highlights the importance of a local analysis in detecting the effect of labour market competition on radical right support. This paper also explains why some local areas are more prone to radical right support than others over time.
    Keywords: radical right parties; labour market competition; local context; European politics; political behaviour; Doctoral training grant; UKRI block grant
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2020–11–01
  22. By: Prem, Mounu; Munoz, Pablo
    Abstract: Governments face many constraints in attracting talented managers to the public sector, where high-powered incentives are often absent. In this paper, we study how a civil service reform in Chile changed the effectiveness of a vital group of public sector managers, school principals. We measure principals’ e˙ectiveness using an extension of the canonical teacher value-added model and we evaluate the effect of the reform using a dfference-in-differences approach. We find that public schools appoint more effective managers after increasing the competitiveness and transparency of their se-lection process. Our result shows that better recruitment policies can enhance service provision in the public sector, despite rigid wage schemes.
    Keywords: Managers; Public sector; Recruitment; School principals
    Date: 2022–02–11
  23. By: Munoz, Pablo; Prem, Mounu
    Abstract: Governments face many constraints in attracting talented managers to the public sector, where high-powered incentives are often absent. In this paper, we study how a civil service reform in Chile changed the effectiveness of a vital group of public sector managers, school principals. We measure principals’ e˙ectiveness using an extension of the canonical teacher value-added model and we evaluate the effect of the reform using a dfference-in-differences approach. We find that public schools appoint more effective managers after increasing the competitiveness and transparency of their se-lection process. Our result shows that better recruitment policies can enhance service provision in the public sector, despite rigid wage schemes.
    Keywords: Managers; Public sector; Recruitment; School principals
    Date: 2022–02–11
  24. By: Thomas Crossley (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Essex and European University Institute); Peter Levell (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Hamish Low (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Oxford & Nuffield College)
    Abstract: Household borrowing and spending rise with house prices, particularly for leveraged households, but household spending is not consumption. We propose an alternative borrow-to-invest channel by which house price gains a?ect household spending on residential investment. We show that rational, leveraged households have an incentive to make additional residential investments when house prices rise. Our empirical compares responses in di?erent kinds of spending across more and less leveraged households. We ?nd strong evidence of the borrow-to-invest channel in UK data. Credit constraints matter through reducing access to leveraged returns and so reducing lifetime resources, rather than through consumption smoothing.
    Date: 2020–01–22
  25. By: Andrew E. Clark (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Huifu Nong (Guangdong University of Finance & Economics); Hongjia Zhu (Jinan University [Guangzhou]); Rong Zhu (Flinders University [Adelaide, Australia])
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to widespread school shutdowns, with many continuing distance education via online-learning platforms. We here estimate the causal effects of online education on student exam performance using administrative data from Chinese Middle Schools. Taking a difference-in-differences approach, we find that receiving online education during the COVID-19 lockdown improved student academic results by 0.22 of a standard deviation, relative to pupils without learning support from their school. Not all online education was equal: students who were given recorded online lessons from external higher-quality teachers had higher exam scores than those whose lessons were recorded by teachers from their own school. The educational benefits of distance learning were the same for rural and urban students, but the exam performance of students who used a computer for online education was better than those who used a smartphone. Last, while everyone except the very-best students performed better with online learning, it was low achievers who benefited from teacher quality.
    Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic,Online education,Student performance,Teacher quality
    Date: 2021–08
  26. By: Csaba Burger (Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Central Bank of Hungary))
    Abstract: The transition from the state ownership to market mechanisms in Hungary fundamentally altered the geography of domestic micro, small, and medium enterprises (SMEs). This study investigates the spatial and temporal evolution of owner numbers, using data on all Hungarian SMEs between 1991 and 2019 and across 175 regional districts. Then it explores the relationship between the number of owners and the probability of credit default by joining data from the Credit Registry (KHR) for the period between 2007 and 2019. The number of owners at an average SME sank from four in 1991 to two in 2019, with consistently higher averages in less populated regions. Meanwhile, SMEs with one owner only have up to twice as high credit default probability as SMEs with more owners over all geographies in all years. Therefore, regionally varying ownership structures mean regionally differing ownership and management practices and hence risk levels. These could be mitigated with targeted regional policy measures.
    Keywords: financial geography, ownership structures, credit risk, SMEs
    JEL: G21 G3 R3 R11 R1
    Date: 2022
  27. By: Gallegos Torres, Katia
    Abstract: How did the large asylum-seeker inflow to Germany in 2015 affect concerns about immigration? Using individual-level panel data for the years 2012-2018, I show that after 2015 concerns about immigration increased by about 21 pp. and support for extreme right-wing parties by about 1.7 pp. These trends show considerable heterogeneity for different demographic groups. Using a policy that allocates asylum- seekers to districts I identify the effect of exposure to asylum-seekers. In line with the contact hypothesis, living in a high refugee migration district reduced concerns about immigration by 3 pp. The effect appears larger for right- leaning respondents but is otherwise similar across demographic groups.
    Keywords: immigration,refugees,attitudes,concerns about immigration
    JEL: J15 D72 P16 R23
    Date: 2021
  28. By: Charlson, G.
    Abstract: We examine the effect social mistrust has on the propagation of misinformation on a social network. Agents communicate with each other and observe information sources, changing their opinion with some probability determined by their social trust, which can be low or high. Low social trust agents are less likely to be convinced out of their opinion by their peers and, in line with recent empirical literature, are more likely to observe misinformative information sources. A platform facilitates the creation of a homophilic network where users are more likely to connect with agents of the same level of social trust and the same social characteristics. Networks in which worldview is relatively important in determining network structure have more pronounced echo chambers, reducing the extent to which high and low social trust agents interact. Due to the asymmetric nature of these interactions, echo chambers then decrease the probability that agents believe misinformation. At the same time, they increase polarisation, as disagreeing agents interact less frequently, leading to a trade-off which has implications for the optimal intervention of a platform wishing to reduce misinformation. We characterise this intervention by delineating the most effective change in the platform's algorithm, which for peer-to-peer connections involves reducing the extent to which relatively isolated high and low social trust agents interact with one another.
    Keywords: communication, misinformation, network design, platforms
    JEL: D82 D83 D85
    Date: 2022–01–14
  29. By: Dan Anderberg (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Royal Holloway University of London); Helmut Rainer (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Fabian Siuda (Institute for Fiscal Studies)
    Abstract: Recent contributions using police recorded calls-for-service and/or crime data to estimate impacts of COVID-19 lockdowns on the incidence of domestic violence (DV) have reported relatively modest effects. This may re?ect a low reporting-propensity, exacerbated by the lockdown measures. Combining ?ve years of daily Google Trends data for a set of DV-related search terms with daily data on DV crimes recorded by the London Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), we propose a method for generating a search-based DV-index, exploiting that both sets of data re?ect the same inter-temporal variation in the (unobserved) DV incidence. Estimating the same model for the impact of lockdown on police-reported DV crimes and our search-based DV-index, we ?nd a similar timing, but a substantially larger impact on the latter.
    Date: 2020–09–02
  30. By: McNeil, Andrew; Lee, Neil; Luca, Davide
    Abstract: Does growing up in a high-unemployment area matter for individual economic and political outcomes? Despite a significant focus upon the links between place of residence, life outcomes and political attitudes of individuals, there is less evidence on how local economic conditions at birth shape individual wages and political attitudes over the longterm. This paper links the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) micro data from English and Welsh respondents with historic localised information on unemployment. Our results, which control for composition effects, family background, and sorting of people across places, show that being born into a high-unemployment Local Authority has a significant, long-term impact on individual’s economic outcomes, decreasing earnings in adulthood. Even accounting for individual economic outcomes, being born into a local authority of high unemployment makes individuals more economically left-wing, with a greater belief in an obligation for the government to provide jobs, but also less culturally tolerant. These results contribute to the debate on the nature and rationales of placebased policy solutions.
    Keywords: place of birth; unemployment; territorial inequality; lifetime mobility; political attitutes; place-based policies
    JEL: J31 J38 J62 R11 R23
    Date: 2022–02
  31. By: Francesco Armillei; Enrico Cavallotti
    Abstract: In September 2020 Italy held a constitutional referendum. On the same election days, many municipalities and some regions held municipal and regional elections. We exploit this unique occasion, caused by the unexpected Covid-19 crisis, to obtain a causal estimate of the effects of the overlap of concurrent elections on the referendum results. When the referendum overlaps with either municipal or regional elections, we find a positive effect on turnout and on the proportion of blank and null votes. We also find a quantitatively small but statistically significant effect on the referendum preferences. We interpret the results through the use of the calculus of voting model, exploiting a slightly modified version of the most widespread one in the literature. Our findings are relevant from a policy-making standpoint, with respect to both fostering turnout and reducing election organizational costs.
    Keywords: Concurrent elections, Voting behaviour, Referendum, Calculus of voting
    Date: 2021
  32. By: Matthew Kraft; John List; Jeffrey Livingston; Sally Sadoff
    Abstract: A substantial body of experimental evidence now demonstrates the large impacts that in-person tutoring programs can have on K-12 student achievement. This evidence has motivated interest in scaling tutoring across public schools to address COVID-19 learning disruptions and expand equitable access to individualized instruction. However, these efforts have faced two primary constraints: high program costs and limited local supply of tutors.
    Date: 2022
  33. By: Natee Amornsiripanitch
    Abstract: This paper uses a unique data set of local governments’ bond issuance, expenditure, and employment to study the impact of the monoline insurance industry’s demise on local governments’ operations. To show causality, I use an instrumental variable approach that exploits persistent insurance relationships and the cross-sectional variation in insurers’ exposure to high-quality residential mortgage-backed securities. Governments associated with ailing insurers issued less debt, cut expenditures, and hired fewer workers. These effects are persistent. Partial equilibrium calculations show that affected governments’ aggregate expenditures and employment levels in 2017 would have been 6% to 10% higher if bond insurance had remained available
    Keywords: Bond insurance; municipal bonds; real effects; financial crisis
    JEL: E60 G00 G01 G22 H40 H70 J00
    Date: 2022–02–07
  34. By: Bischoff, Thore Sören; Hipp, Ann; Runst, Petrik
    Abstract: Generalized trust within regions represents an important firm resource. We provide empirical evidence on the impact of trust among people in regions on innovation using two distinct data sets. The first one contains firm-level data and is used to analyze how trust affects firm-level innovation in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The second data set is used to analyze the trust-innovation relationship within regions. It allows us to capture innovation in the form of patents and explore spatial patterns. Our observation period ranges from 2004 to 2019. We apply a multilevel approach, panel data models as well as spatial techniques. The results show that generalized trust has a positive impact on a firm's innovativeness, which is particularly strong for small and medium-sized firms and in regions with relatively low levels of trust.
    Keywords: Trust,innovation,regional innovation systems,SMEs
    JEL: D02 D83 O12 O18 O31
    Date: 2022
  35. By: Anna Laura Mancini (Bank of Italy); Pietro Tommasino (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: We document that Italian public administrations systematically overestimate capital expenditures, and that the introduction of a cap on this spending item improves the accuracy of their plans. Our analysis relies on a unique dataset including budgetary figures (both planned and realized) for all Italian municipalities, and exploits a national reform which introduced a limit to realized capital expenditures only for municipalities above a given population threshold (5,000 residents). One possible interpretation of our results is that policy-makers, exploiting the imperfect knowledge of voters, benefit from promising over-ambitious investment plans. The introduction of expenditure limits makes these promises less credible, and helps to bring expenditure plans in line with reality. Furthermore, we find that capital revenues are also over-estimated, and that the forecast accuracy of capital revenues improves due to the reform. This is in line with our political-economy interpretation: as there is less room to inflate expenditures, politicians have also less incentive to indulge in window-dressing on the revenue side.
    Keywords: budget rules, budget execution, local public finance, official forecasts, public investment, fiscal transparency
    JEL: E62 H62 H68
    Date: 2022–02
  36. By: Benjamin Montmartin (SKEMA Business School; Université Côte d'Azur; OFCE Sciences.Po; GREDEG CNRS); Marcos Herrera-Gomez (CONICET - IELDE; National University of Salta, Argentina)
    Abstract: During the last 30 years in France, concerns about healthcare access have grown as physician fees have increased threefold. In this paper, we developed an innovative structural framework to provide new insights into free-billing physician pricing behavior. We test our theoretical framework using a unique geolocalized database covering more than 4,000 private practitioners in three specializations (ophthalmology, gynecology and pediatrics). Our main findings highlight a low price competition environment driven by local imitative pricing between physicians, which increases with competition density. This evidence in the context of growing spatial concentration and an increasing share of free-billing physicians calls for new policies to limit additional fees.
    Keywords: Imitative pricing, Health care access, Local competition, Spatial effects
    JEL: H51 C21 I11 I18
    Date: 2022–01
  37. By: Lafortune, Jeanne; Pugatch, Todd; Tessada, José; Ubfal, Diego
    Abstract: We study the short-run effects of a gamified online entrepreneurship training offered to high school students in Rwanda during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a randomized controlled trial, we estimate sizeable effects of the 6-week training on entrepreneurial activity. One month after the training, participants in schools offered the training were much more likely to own a business than participants in control schools. The training induced students to participate more actively in their school's business club, to undertake more business-oriented actions, to improve their business practices, and to interact more with other youth and family members about their business ideas. We hypothesize that the training might have motivated treated students to sustain their business activities during the COVID-19 crisis.
    Date: 2022
  38. By: Arthur Guillouzouic--Le Corff (IPP - Institut des politiques publiques); Emeric Henry (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR); Joan Monras (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UPF - Universitat Pompeu Fabra [Barcelona])
    Abstract: Using French data, we provide: a) causal evidence that a drop in local public goods provision decreases private sector activity, and b) evidence consistent with monopsony power of the public sector in local labor markets. We introduce a public sector with these two key characteristics in an otherwise standard spatial equilibrium model, and show that it delivers the main stylized facts established in our data, in particular, that the share of the public sector relative to the private is independent of the productivity of the city. We emphasize the tradeoffs between allowing governments to freely choose local public employment and wages (as in most of the US public sector), versus imposing rules that constrain public sector pay with some indexation to the local cost of living (as in many European countries). We show that wage indexation limits monopsony power – leading to a larger public sector – and is optimal if the indexation is sufficiently strong.
    Keywords: Local public goods,Public service,Market power,Spatial economics
    Date: 2021–06–01
  39. By: Luis Antonio Fantozzi Alvarez (Institute of Mathematics and Statistics, University of S\~ao Paulo); Cristine Campos de Xavier Pinto (Insper Institute of Education and Research); Vladimir Pinheiro Ponczek (S\~ao Paulo School of Economics, Funda\c{c}\~ao Get\'ulio Vargas)
    Abstract: Is homophily in social and economic networks driven by a taste for homogeneity (preferences) or by a higher probability of meeting individuals with similar attributes (opportunity)? This paper studies identification and estimation of an iterative network game that distinguishes between these two mechanisms. Our approach enables us to assess the counterfactual effects across time of changing the meeting protocol between agents. As an application, we study the role of preferences and meetings in shaping classroom friendship networks in Brazil. We find that in a network structure in which homophily due to preferences is stronger than homophily due to meeting opportunities, tracking students may lead to welfare improvement, but the relative benefit of this policy diminishes over the school year.
    Date: 2022–01
  40. By: Chimbutane, Feliciano; Herrera-Almanza, Catalina; Karachiwalla, Naureen; Lauchande, Carlos; Leight, Jessica
    Abstract: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, entailing widespread school closures as well as acute disruptions to household livelihoods, has presumably had substantial consequences for adolescent well-being in developing country contexts that remain largely unexplored. We present novel evidence about the prevalence of mental health challenges among adolescent students as well as educators in rural Mozambique using data from an in-person survey conducted in 175 schools. In our sample, 31% of students report low levels of well-being (though only 10% suffer from high anxiety): students enrolled in schools that used a wider variety of distance learning measures report lower anxiety, while students reporting familial shocks linked to the pandemic report higher anxiety and lower well-being. Educators experience comparatively lower levels of anxiety and higher well-being, and household-level shocks are most predictive of variation in mental health. However, well-being is negatively affected by the range of hygiene-related measures implemented in schools upon reopening.
    Keywords: MOZAMBIQUE; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; Coronavirus; coronavirus disease; Coronavirinae; COVID-19; mental health; rural areas; adolescents; students; school closures
    Date: 2021
  41. By: Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Nijkamp, Peter
    Abstract: We study interregional competition for mobile creative capital between regions A and B. Regional authorities (RAs) in both regions use tax policy to attract the creative capital possessing members of the creative class to their region. The resulting tax revenues help RAs finance other objectives such as the provision of one or more public goods. In this setting, we accomplish five tasks. First, we explain the significance of a parameter ζ that is related to the marginal product of creative capital. Second, we compute the Nash equilibrium tax rates when each RA chooses its tax rate to maximize tax revenue. Third, we discuss how a decline in ζ affects the Nash equilibrium tax rates. Fourth, we determine the two efficient tax rates. Finally, we discuss the implications of our analysis for a policy that raises revenue by taxing creative capital.
    Keywords: Competition, Creative Capital, Efficiency, Mobility, Tax Revenue
    JEL: H20 R11 R50
    Date: 2021–11–13
  42. By: Andrew F. Haughwout; Donghoon Lee; Daniel Mangrum; Joelle Scally; Wilbert Van der Klaauw
    Abstract: Total household debt increased substantially during the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic, with a $1.02 trillion increase in aggregate debt balances, according to the Quarterly Report on Household Debt and Credit for the fourth quarter of 2021 from the New York Fed’s Center for Microeconomic Data. The yearly increase was the largest seen since 2007 in nominal terms and was boosted by particularly robust growth in mortgage balances, which grew by nearly $900 billion through 2021. Credit card balances, which have followed an unusual path during the pandemic, saw a large seasonal increase in the fourth quarter but remain well below pre-pandemic levels. And student loan balances increased only modestly through 2021 due to lower enrollment and also due to administrative forbearance on federal student loans—the smallest annual increase we’ve seen since 2004. Outstanding auto loan balances grew in 2021 by $84 billion. The $734 billion in newly opened auto loans through the year was the largest volume we’ve seen in our data.
    Keywords: auto loans; Consumer Credit Panel (CCP)
    JEL: D14
    Date: 2022–02–08
  43. By: Cameron, Anna; Khanal, Mukesh; Tedds, Lindsay M.
    Abstract: Canada’s short-term rental (STR) market has grown considerably in recent years, resulting in a heightened focus by local governments on adopting regulatory approaches to manage it. Indeed, since 2018, an increasing number of Canadian governments (largely cities) have introduced regulatory frameworks to both mitigate perceived negative impacts of the STR market, as well as reap some of its benefits. In light of the gap in Canada-focused research on STR regulation, this article analyzes in comparative perspective the regulatory approaches adopted in 11 Canadian jurisdictions in response to the rise of platform-mediated home sharing. We find that aspects of regulation, such as licensing and registration, are increasingly a question, not of “if,” but rather “how” and “to what extent,” with the most promising approaches being those that reflect sophisticated understandings of the range of activity that plays out in the market and the various actors, including platforms and property managers, involved. For jurisdictions looking to introduce or tweak approaches going forward, there is potential benefit in reframing market regulation as a governance issue, rather than a technical legal problem. From this standpoint, of particular promise are joint governance approaches which involve municipalities and other local jurisdictions implementing distinct rules within the context of an overarching provincial framework.
    Keywords: Short-term Rental, Market Failure, Regulatory Fracture, Regulation, Innovative Disruption, Community Impact
    JEL: H79 R19
    Date: 2022–01–14
  44. By: Lorenzo Cherubini (Brock University, Ontario, Canada)
    Abstract: The focus of this presentation is primarily related to the second part of a multi-dimensional study that includes a unique pedagogical approach to advance prospective teachers’ understanding of critical literacy. The instructional strategy is implemented in a mandatory third-year undergraduate concurrent Education course of study for all students enrolled in the Intermediate/Senior program (qualifications to teach grades 10 to 12). In small groups, the prospective teacher students are required to script and record a video presentation that examines, in a systematic process of case-deconstruction, the effects and outcomes of a case-based dilemma (the course is delivered in Problem-Based Learning (PBL) model that includes a social-constructivist approach to learning). The PBL instructional approach is intended to scaffold prospective teachers’ awareness of certain concepts (as will be discussed in the presentation) in the broader context of critical literacy. In turn, the critical literacy framework serves as the conceptual platform that positions prospective teachers to be increasingly aware of the implications on case-based K to 12 students’ engagement in classroom learning climates that tolerate anti-intellectualism, conformity, and prejudice.
    Keywords: critical literacy, prospective teacher development
    Date: 2021–06
  45. By: Cecilia Mezzanotte
    Abstract: Since UNESCO’s Salamanca Declaration in 1994, inclusive education has progressively attracted attention in international debates around education policy. While some evidence exists on the positive impact that inclusive education reforms can have on the academic and personal outcomes of diverse students – and in particular of students with special education needs – limited information is available on the economic sustainability of such reforms. Starting from the literature on the correlations between education and individuals’ life outcomes, this paper reviews the existing evidence on the potential benefits and costs of inclusive education reforms. Specifically, the paper discusses the evidence on the shortcomings of current education settings for diverse groups of students – with specific sections on students with special education needs; immigrant and refugee students; ethnic groups, national minorities and Indigenous peoples; gifted students; female and male students; and LGBTQI+ (which stands for ‘lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex’) students. It highlights the individual and societal costs deriving from the low academic, social and emotional outcomes of these students and the socio-economic costs these yield for societies. Where possible, the paper also presents evidence on the effects of inclusive education reforms on diverse student groups.
    Date: 2022–01–27
  46. By: Siegfried, Patrick; Michel, Alex; Tänzler, Jan; Zhang, John Jiyuan
    Abstract: E-commerce has been keeping fast increasing worldwide since beginning of the 21st century. While rapid growth of e-commerce, parcel shipping is a booming business [1]. However, how to handle with many hard-to-solve sustainability issues of transport in urban areas, is becoming a serious challenge for urban logistic sector and numerous stakeholders. The sustainability issues contain the problems of air pollution, congestion, and sub-contractors. This paper reported those issues in the context of growth of e-commerce and analyzed their efforts on the sustainable urban logistics development.
    Keywords: E-commerce, Last-mile delivery, Logistic solution, Parcel shipping, Transport, Sustainability, Urban logistic
    JEL: L81 O18 Q01
    Date: 2021–06–02
  47. By: Yasumasa Matsuda; Xin Yuan
    Abstract: Recently it is common to collect big spatial data on a national or continental scale at discrete time points. This paper aims at a regression model when both dependent and independent variables are big spatial data. Regarding spatial data as functions over a region, we propose a functional regression by a parametric convolution kernel together with the least squares estimation on the frequency domain by applying Fourier transform. It can handle massive datasets with asymptotic validations under the mixed asymptotics. The regression is applied to Covid-19 weekly new cases and human mobility collected in city levels all over Japan to find that an increase of human mobility is followed by an increase of Covid-19 new cases in time lag of two weeks.
    Date: 2022–02
  48. By: Liu, Weilin (Institute of Economic and Social Development, Nankai University); Cheng, Qian (Institute of Economic and Social Development, Nankai University); Sickles, Robin C. (Rice University,)
    Abstract: The development of production networks has promoted knowledge flows and technology diffusion among industries over the past decades, which affects the productivity growth for most countries. This paper examines productivity growth in the presence of inter-sectoral linkages. We construct a spatial production model with technological spillovers and productivity growth heterogeneity at the industry-level. We use the global value chain (GVC) linkages from inter-country input-output tables to model the technological interdependence among industries, and estimate the total factor productivity (TFP) growth and spillover for the European countries. We find that the spillover effects from intermediate inputs is significant. There is a network effect of TFP growth from one country to another through input-output linkages. Our paper provides a better understanding of the impact of spillover effects on TFP growth in the context of GVCs.
    JEL: C23 C67 O47
    Date: 2022–01
  49. By: Hanna Siarova (PPMI); Loes van der Graaf (PPMI)
    Abstract: Ample research has shown the importance of collaboration between practitioners, researchers, and policy makers to ensure holistic, inclusive, and effective policy making, particularly in the field of refugee education. Many countries, however, still face challenges in engaging with stakeholders during all the stages of the practice – research – policy transfer in the context of refugee education in a meaningful and effective way. The unique and distinct needs of refugee students in education systems require extensive collaboration among schools, service providers, and (refugee) communities to collect evidence whether and how refugee students’ needs are met. Hence, a multi-stakeholder approach or “whole-of-a-society” approach is one of the prerequisites for designing inclusive refugee education policies. This paper highlights the importance of stakeholder engagement at all stages of the practice – research – policy transfer, and maps key stakeholders in refugee education in Europe.
    Date: 2022–01–31
  50. By: Gina Martin (University of Central Florida,)
    Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive condition that can negatively affect student behavior and academic performance. The link between impairment of executive function in individuals with ADHD and the need for training in self-regulation could provide the solution for effective school-based interventions. This review addresses the effectiveness of self-monitoring, organization training, and self-management interventions on symptoms of ADHD in the classroom. The studies analyzed include students in various models of support in elementary, middle, and high school. All interventions showed some level of success, with the inclusion of goal setting and parent or teacher involvement being key factors in how well the interventions maintained over time and generalized to academic performance. Limitations of the current studies include small sample size and insufficient data on each intervention across grade levels. Current research findings are discussed, and a direction for future research is recommended.
    Keywords: ADHD, self-monitoring, self-regulation, self-management, goal setting, organization, school-based intervention
    Date: 2021–06
  51. By: Pierre-Philippe Combes (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR); Gilles Duranton (University of Pennsylvania [Philadelphia]); Laurent Gobillon (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: We propose a new nonparametric approach to estimate the production function for housing. Our estimation treats output as a latent variable and relies on a first-order condition for profit maximization combined with a zero-profit condition. More desirable locations command higher land prices and, in turn, more capital to build houses. For parcels of a given size, we compute housing production by summing across the marginal products of capital. For newly built single-family homes in France, the production function for housing is close to constant returns and is well, though not perfectly, approximated by a Cobb-Douglas function with a capital elasticity of 0.65.
    Keywords: Housing,Production function
    Date: 2021–10–01
  52. By: Samuel Nocito (Luiss University); Marcello Sartarelli (Universidad Complutense de Madrid and ICAE); Francesco Sobbrio (University of Rome Tor Vergata & CESifo)
    Abstract: Tourism accounts for around one tenth of global GDP.We analyze the impact of entertainment media in drawing tourists to filming municipalities (media multiplier ) and, in turn, the effect of tourism on local economic development (tourism multiplier ). To quantify the media multiplier, we employ a triple-difference empirical strategy exploiting the staggered international release across the EU of Inspector Montalbano, a TV series set in four municipalities of Sicily, a region of Italy. We find that the series release led to a fourfold increase in the number of tourists and boosted tourist expenditure by a factor of 2.5. Furthermore, we provide evidence of positive spillovers in nearby municipalities. To estimate the tourism multiplier, we exploit the interaction between the filming locations and the time-varying share of countries in which the series was aired, to instrument total tourist expenditure at the municipality-time level. Our results show that a 10% increase in total tourist expenditure translates into an increase in municipal income of 4.7%. The paper suggests that both entertainment media and tourism can be effective tools to boost local economic development.
    Keywords: Economic Development, Media, Spillovers, Tourism
    JEL: L83 O12 R10 Z32
    Date: 2022–01
  53. By: Martine Gadille (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Juan Gallego-Bono (Department of Applied Economics II, University of Valencia, Avda. dels Tarongers s/n, Valencia 46022 - affiliation inconnue)
    Abstract: Most of SMEs are engaged in open innovation practices, but they do not benefit from open innovation or from patenting in the same way as larger firms do. At the same time SMEs, as territorialized suppliers, play a crucial role within evolving regional specialization. In this context the purpose of our study is to examine how low and medium technology supplier SMEs learn and organize themselves at a territorial level to address the challenge of IP protection in an open innovation paradigm. We used a qualitative method with a longitudinal multi-case study involving 27 companies with a historical lance to compare the territorial dynamics of knowledge protection within clustered supplier SMEs in two European regions. The results show they protect their knowledge by learning how to design, in a direct relationship with clients, customized complex technological products to develop a new organizational matrix of multidisciplinary knowledge that reveals itself difficult to imitate within the clusters. They also cope with other supplier firms across sectors even if they show societal path dependencies in the way to build cooperation. This dynamic has given birth to changing structural relationships among regionally clustered SMEs and between them and large firms.
    Keywords: intellectual property,low-medium tech suppliers SMEs,regional clusters,cooperation,organizational matrix,regional specialization,societal path dependency
    Date: 2021–10
  54. By: Emanuele Dicarlo (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: This paper studies adjustments of Italian firms to negative labor supply shocks in the context of workers’ outflows from Italy to Switzerland. My diff-in-diff leverages a policy in which Switzerland granted free labor market mobility to EU citizens and different treatment intensity of Italian firms based on their distance to the Swiss border. Using detailed social security data on the universe of Italian firms and workers, I document large (12 percentage points higher) outflows of workers and fewer (2.5 percentage points) surviving firms in the treatment group relative to control. Despite replacing workers and becoming more capital intensive, treated firms are less productive and pay lower wages. In line with the brain drain literature, I show how adverse effects of large outflows of workers operate through firms that workers leave. I provide suggestive evidence that highskill intensive firms are the main driver of the negative results on wages and productivity. Low skill intensive firms instead suffer less from losing workers and provide new job opportunities for the workers who do not migrate.
    Keywords: migration, labor supply, skills, firms
    JEL: F22 J22 J24 J61
    Date: 2022–02
  55. By: Joanne Haddad
    Abstract: The distinctive traits of early settlers at initial stages of institutional development may be crucial for cultural formation. In 1973, the cultural geographer Wilbur Zelinsky postulated this in his doctrine of “first effective settlement”. There is however little empirical evidence supporting the role of early settlers in shaping culture over the long run. This paper tests this hypothesis by relating early settlers’ culture to within state variation in gender norms in the United States. I capture settlers’ culture using past female labor force participation, women’s suffrage, and financial rights at their place of origin. I document the distinctive characteristics of settlers’ populations and provide suggestive evidence in support of the transmission of gender norms across space and time. My results show that women’s labor supply is higher, in both the short and long run, in U.S. counties that historically hosted a larger settler population originating from places with favorable gender attitudes. My findings shed new light on the importance of the characteristics of immigrants and their place of origin for cultural formation in hosting societies.
    Keywords: female labor force participation, settlers, gender norms, cultural formation
    Date: 2022–01
  56. By: Jody McBrien (OECD)
    Abstract: Social and emotional learning (SEL) strengthens students’ abilities to regulate their emotions, thoughts, and behaviours and to interact successfully with others. There are an array of important social and emotional skills (SES): goal-setting, working to one’s potential, resilience, creativity, perseverance, problem solving, and caring about the welfare of others, among them. All students need SEL, but newcomer and refugee students may have particular challenges requiring SES. The beginning of this paper examines the current situation of refugee and newcomer students in OECD countries, SEL, its frameworks and skills and how they apply to newcomer and refugee students. The paper concludes with an examination of SEL policies and practices for newcomer and refugee students in OECD countries.
    Date: 2022–01–31
  57. By: Jake Anders (UCL Centre for Education Policy & Equalising Opportunities); John Jerrim (UCL Social Research Institute); Lindsey Macmillan (UCL Centre for Education Policy & Equalising Opportunities)
    Abstract: Previous research has shown that the UK has low levels of financial literacy by international standards, particularly among those in lower socio-economic groups. This may, in turn, have an impact upon young people, with social inequalities in financial attitudes, behaviours and skills perpetuating across generations. Yet there has been relatively little empirical research on this topic to date, including how such inequalities may be linked to the parents' actions and financial education provided by schools. This paper provides new evidence on this issue for the UK. Using parent-child linked survey data from 3,745 families, we find sizeable socio-economic inequalities in young people's financial capabilities, aspects of their mindset, and their financial behaviours. 15-year-olds from disadvantaged backgrounds having similar financial skills to an 11-year-old from an affluent background. Sizeable differences are also observed in the financial education that socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged children receive at school, and how they interact with their parents about money. Parental interactions can account for part of the socio-economic gap in money confidence, money management, financial connections, and financial behaviours, but less so in boosting financial abilities. However, we find no evidence of differences in financial education in schools driving differences in young people's financial capabilities.
    Keywords: Socio-economic inequality; financial capabilities; financial education; intergenerational transmission.
    JEL: I24
    Date: 2022–02
  58. By: Schippers, Anouk L.; Soetevent, Adriaan R.
    Abstract: Informal peer-to-peer services to share or barter goods often succumb to free riding behavior because they lack the tools to enforce compliance and reciprocity. We collect unique quantitative data on a form of unregulated peer-to-peer in kind exchange that appears viable on an international scale: the exchange of books via little free libraries. We find surprisingly limited free riding in this market. Users return 9 books for every 10 taken. An incentivized survey identifies the presence of strong social norms and preferences for cooperation among owners and users as key behavioral primitives that can explain the observed high and stable level of reciprocal exchange. However, a small field experiment does not show that a positive supply shock of high-quality books generates a lasting impact on a library's book stock.
    Keywords: Peer-to-peer exchange,honor systems,free riding,social norms,altruistic preferences,sharing economy
    JEL: D49 H42
    Date: 2022
  59. By: OECD
    Abstract: This report provides an in-depth analysis of the policy ecosystem in place for social entrepreneurship and social enterprises in Slovenia. It identifies the country’s strengths and challenges and provides policy recommendations to support the development of a stronger policy ecosystem. After an overview of the socio-economic and political context (Chapter 1), the report describes the conceptual framework for social enterprises and the social economy (Chapter 2); and analyses institutional and legal frameworks for social enterprises (Chapter 3), access to finance for social enterprises (Chapter 4), and access to public and private markets (Chapter 5), along with social impact measurement and reporting for social enterprise development (Chapter 6).
    Keywords: local development, policy ecosystem, social economy, social enterprise, social entrepreneurship, social impact, social innovation
    JEL: L31 L33
    Date: 2022–02–08
  60. By: Jacobs, Valentine; Rycx, François; Volral, Mélanie
    Abstract: We provide first evidence of the impact of over-education, among natives and immigrants, on firm-level productivity and wages. We use Belgian linked panel data and rely on the methodology from Hellerstein et al. (1999) to estimate ORU (over-, required, and under-education) equations aggregated at the firm level. Our results show that the over-education wage premium is higher for natives than for immigrants. However, since the differential in productivity gains associated with over-education between natives and immigrants outweighs the corresponding wage premium differential, we conclude - based on OLS and dynamic GMM-SYS estimates - that over-educated native workers are in fact underpaid to a greater extent than their over-educated immigrant counterparts. This conclusion is refined by sensitivity analyses, when testing the role of immigrants' background (e.g. region of birth, immigrant generation, age at arrival in the host country, tenure).
    Keywords: Immigrants,over-education,productivity,wages,linked panel data,Belgium
    JEL: J24 J71
    Date: 2022
  61. By: Amanda Chuan; John List; Anya Samek; Shreemayi Samujjwala
    Abstract: As early as middle school, girls self-select out of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) courses at greater rates than boys. Why? We link women's under-representation in STEM to their over-representation in nonSTEM fields. Prior work argues that this over-representation arises from women's comparative advantage in language arts, which emerges as early as age 5. A key question, therefore, is why might women have a comparative advantage in language arts? Since this advantage appears to arise early, early parental investments may play a role. As List et al. (2018) and others argue, parents play a central role in the development of child skills. In this paper, we use a longitudinal field experiment with 953 children and their parents to investigate whether there are differences in parental investments at early ages by child gender. We further investigate whether such investments are associated with test scores in math and language arts at older ages. We first survey parents on time spent teaching to children when they are 3-5 years old. We then collect data on Math and English test scores when children are 8-14 years old. Finally, we use a field experiment to explore whether early childhood interventions affect gender gaps in parental investments.
    Date: 2022
  62. By: Zhang, Huafeng (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Holden, Stein Terje (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set up by the United Nations include an overarching principle of “leaving no one behind” and aim for, among other goals, equal access to education for children with disabilities. Our study contributes to the knowledge on the school enrolment of disabled children with different disability types, with a focus here on eight countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Comparing the situation with children without disabilities as a benchmark, we assess early school enrolment for young children below ten years old, school enrolment for older children aged 10–17 years old, and the dropout rates of children from school. We perform our analysis as a natural experiment where different types of disabilities are considered as random treatments, which allows us to assume that the average deviation in certain school performance indicators from the average for non-disabled children is a result of the disability type, specifically vision, hearing, walking, intellectual capacity, and multi-disability. Our study finds that, compared with non-disabled children, children with vision and hearing disabilities do not lag behind in school enrolment. In contrast, children with walking disability have a higher risk of starting school late. Children with intellectual disabilities are less likely to enrol in school, less likely to remain enrolled, and more likely to drop out than their counterfactual peers. Children with multiple disabilities tend to experience the most severe challenges in enrolling at school, both at a young age and later. However, once enrolled in school, children with multiple disabilities are not more likely to drop out earlier than other children. Based on the first and probably the only large-scale application to date of the standard Washington Group Child function module as a disability measurement tool, our study is the first comprehensive multi-country study of disabled children’s schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa based on recent nationally representative data.
    Keywords: Children with disability; disability types; disability effects on schooling; SDG; Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: I24
    Date: 2022–02–07
  63. By: Storm, Eduard
    Abstract: Running RIF regressions to decompose wage differences along the distribution, this is the first study documenting that worker-level variation in tasks has played a key role in the widening of the German Native-Foreign Wage Gap. Comparing variation in Individual- vs Occupation-level task measures suggests idiosyncratic differences account for up to 34% of the explained wage gap. Importantly, natives specialize in high-paying interactive activities not only between but also within occupations. In contrast, foreign workers specialize in low-paying manual activities. This enhanced degree of task specialization accounts for 11% of the gap near the top of the distribution and 25% near the bottom, thus offering new insight into sources for imperfect substitution of native and foreign workers in the production function and consequently small migration-induced wage effects.
    Keywords: Wage Gap,individual job task data,RIF decomposition,task specialization within occupations
    JEL: J15 J21 J24 J31 J61
    Date: 2021
  64. By: Pradhan, Prachanda; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Zhang, Wei
    Abstract: Widespread male migration from rural areas is a major force shaping agrarian transformation in Nepal. One particularly important area affected is the governance and management of irrigation systems. The resilience of systems to the effects of male migration is likely to depend on whether (and how) the men’s contributions to the system are met. This highlights the importance of understanding how Water Users’ Associations' (WUAs) organizational functioning evolves, internal and external factors driving the evolution process, the extent of technical and institutional innovation, and the outcomes in terms of system functioning.
    Keywords: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; gender; men; women's participation; migration; irrigation; policies; technology; Water Users’ Associations (WUAs); male migration
    Date: 2021
  65. By: Acconcia, Antonio; Beraldo, Sergio; Capuano, Carlo; Stimolo, Marco
    Abstract: We implement an experimental design based on a duopoly game in which subjects choose whether to cooperate in Research and Development (R&D) activities. We first conduct six experimental markets that differ in both the levels of knowledge spillovers and the intensity of competition. Consistently with the theory, we find that the probability of cooperation increases in the level of spillovers and decreases in that of market competition. We then replicate the experimental markets by providing subsidies to subjects who cooperate. Subsidies relevantly increase the probability of cooperation in focus markets, causing, however, a sensible reduction of R&D investments. Overall, our evidence suggests that, depending on the characteristics of the market, the use of public subsidies might be redundant, for firms would anyway joined their R&D efforts; or counterproductive, inducing firms to significantly reduce R&D investments compared to the non-cooperative scenario.
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2022–01–28
  66. By: Chort, Isabelle; de la Rupelle, Maëlys
    Abstract: While there is a growing literature on the impact of climate and weather-related events on migration, little is known about the mitigating effect of different policies directed to the agricultural sector, or aimed at insuring against environmental disasters. This paper uses state-level data on migration ows between Mexico and the U.S. from 1999 to 2012 to investigate the mitigating impact of an agricultural cashtransfer program (PROCAMPO) and a disaster fund (Fonden) on the migration response to weather shocks. We find that Fonden decreases migration in response to heavy rainfall, hurricanes and droughts. Increases in PROCAMPO amounts paid to small producers are found to play a more ambiguous role on the migration response to shocks. Changes in the distribution of PROCAMPO favoring more vulnerable producers in the non irrigated ejido sector however seem to mitigate the impact of droughts on migration.
    Keywords: International migration,Weather shocks,Public policies,Weather variability,Natural disasters,Mexico-U.S. migration,Inequality
    JEL: F22 Q54 Q18 J61
    Date: 2022
  67. By: Robert Dur (Erasmus University Rotterdam); Carlos Gomez-Gonzalez (University of Zurich); Cornel Nesseler (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: A rich literature shows that ethnic discrimination is an omnipresent and highly persistent phenomenon. Little is known, however, about how to reduce discrimination. This study reports the results of a large-scale field experiment we ran together with the Norwegian Football Federation. The federation sent an email to a random selection of about 500 amateur soccer coaches, pointing towards the important role that soccer can play in promoting inclusivity and reducing racism in society and calling on the coaches to be open to all interested applicants. Two weeks later, we sent fictitious applications to join an amateur club, using either a nativesounding or a foreign-sounding name, to the same coaches and to a random selection of about 500 coaches who form the control group. In line with earlier research, we find that applications from people with a native-sounding name receive significantly more positive responses than applications from people with a foreign-sounding name. Surprisingly and unintentionally, the email from the federation substantially increased rather than decreased this gap. Our study underlines the importance of running field experiments to check whether well-intended initiatives are effective in reducing discrimination.
    Keywords: ethnic discrimination; intervention; field experiment; correspondence test; amateur soccer.
    JEL: C93 J15 Z2
    Date: 2022–01–24
  68. By: Daniela Perrotta (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Sarah C. Johnson (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Tom Theile (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); André Grow (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Helga de Valk; Emilio Zagheni (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2022
  69. By: Federico Cingano; Filippo Palomba; Paolo Pinotti; Enrico Rettore
    Abstract: We estimate the effects of a large program of public investment subsidies granted to Italian firms in disadvantaged areas. Projects were given numerical scores according to objective criteria and local politicians’ preferences, and funded in rank order until the funds were fully allocated. We estimate that subsidies increased investment by marginal firms near the cutoff by 39 percent, and employment by 17 percent over a 6-year period. Building on recent advancements in the econometrics of regression discontinuity designs, we characterize heterogeneity of treatment effects and cost-per-new-job across inframarginal firms away from the cutoff. Employment grows more in smaller firms, but larger firms generated more jobs-per-euro of subsidy. Younger firms did better than older firms. Firms ranking high on objective criteria and firms preferred by local politicians generated larger employment growth on average, but the latter did so at a higher cost per job. Under a policy invariance assumption, we estimate that eliminating political discretion and relying only on objective criteria would reduce the cost per job by 9 percent, while relying only on political discretion would increase the cost by 55 percent. The effect of political discretion is larger in the south, which received the largest share of funds and exhibited the highest cost-per-job under the actual allocation criteria.
    Keywords: Public subsidies, investment, employment, political discretion, regression discontinuity
    JEL: H25 J08
    Date: 2022
  70. By: Kazakov, Aleksandr; Koetter, Michael; Titze, Mirko; Tonzer, Lena
    Abstract: We study whether government subsidies can stimulate bank funding of marginal investment projects and the associated effect on financial stability. We do so by exploiting granular project-level information for the largest regional economic development programme in Germany since 1997: the Improvement of Regional Eco-nomic Structures programme (GRW). By combining the universe of subsidised firms to virtually all German local banks over the period 1998-2019, we test whether this large-scale transfer programme destabilised regional credit markets. Because GRW subsidies to firms are destabilised at the EU level, we can use it as an exogenous shock to identify bank responses. On average, firm subsidies do not affect bank lending, but reduce banks' distance to default. Average effects conflate important bank-level heterogeneity though. Conditional on various bank traits, we show that well capita-lised banks with more industry experience expand lending when being exposed to subsidised firms without exhibiting more risky financial profiles. Our results thus indicate that stable banks can act as an important facilitator of regional economic development policies. Against the backdrop of pervasive transfer payments to mitigate Covid-19 losses and in light of far-reaching transformation policies requiredto green the economy, our study bears important implications as to whether and which banks to incorporate into the design of transfer programmes.
    Keywords: bank stability,financial intermediation,government subsidies
    JEL: G21 G28 H25
    Date: 2022
  71. By: James Malley; Apostolis Philippopoulos
    Abstract: This paper quantitatively assesses the macroeconomic effects of the recently agreed U.S. bipartisan infrastructure spending bill in a neoclassical growth model. We add to the literature by considering a more detailed tax structure, different types of infrastructure spending and linkages between the final and intermediate goods sectors. We find that infrastructure spending cannot fully pay for itself despite public and private capital being underprovided. We further find long-run output multipliers above unity if infrastructure spending and rising public debt are financed by consumption, dividend and labour income taxes and below one for corporate taxes. We also show that except for the consumption tax, the size of the multipliers critically depends on the Frisch labour supply elasticity. Finally, when we compute differences in welfare across different public financing regimes, the net welfare gains and losses are relatively minor.
    Keywords: Infrastructure investment, public capital, fiscal multipliers, taxation
    JEL: E62 H41 H54
    Date: 2022–01
  72. By: Valentin Schiele (University of Paderborn);
    Abstract: Compulsory schooling reforms are often used to estimate monetary returns to education. Such reforms are unrelated to individual characteristics and preferences and thus arguably able to eliminate selection bias. However, as these reforms affect a large number of individuals in the relevant age groups, they might have spillover effects on individuals not directly affected by the reform. Such spillover effects constitute a problem for identification and estimation of returns to schooling. As they are difficult to address, they are mostly ignored in the empirical literature. I show that the introduction of the compulsory ninth grade in Germany led to a labor supply shock that might have increased wages and employment of individuals who were not directly subject to the reform and were assumed not to be affected in previous research. To investigate in this kinds of spillover effects, I exploit the staggered introduction of the compulsory ninth grade across German federal states in a difference-in-differences approach. Based on large scale register and survey data, I find no evidence for persistent spillover effects for men. For women, however, my results suggest that the labor supply shock resulting from the reform may have led to a persistent increase in employment and wages.
    Keywords: Compulsory schooling, Education, Spillover e ects, Cohort size, Wages, Employment
    JEL: I20 I26 J20 J31
    Date: 2022–01
  73. By: Elisa Chioatto (University of Ferrara – Department of Economics and Management (Ferrara, Italy); SEEDS); Susanna Mancinelli (University of Ferrara – Department of Economics and Management (Ferrara, Italy); SEEDS); Francesco Nicolli (University of Ferrara – Department of Economics and Management (Ferrara, Italy); SEEDS)
    Abstract: The challenges posed by the achievement of the circular economy require the adoption of new innovative practices that are not simply green but specifically related to closing, narrowing, and extending resources cycles (Bocken et al., 2016). Understanding the relationship between eco-innovation and circular innovation and what factors favour their implementation is, therefore, pivotal. This paper offers new pieces of evidence on the role of social norms in increasing firms' propensity to adopt circular innovation. Drawing upon the literature corpus confirming the influence of the social context on firms' decision to innovate and enriching this analysis with recent evidence on the effect of peers in firm decision-making, the present study relies on survey data on 3270 Italian Small and Medium Enterprises with the extent to investigate the effect of peers behaviour in firms decision to adopt circular innovation. The empirical analysis shows a positive relationship between increased investment in circular innovation by peers and the decision of firms to innovate in the same realm. These results, therefore, offer a relevant starting point for the design of policy guidelines and organisational strategies in favour of the circular economy. Social norm information and comparison can be indeed complementary tools to the traditional market and regulatory levers for circular innovation adoption.
    Keywords: Circular innovation, Circular Economy, Eco-Innovation, Social Norm, Peer Effect
    Date: 2022–01
  74. By: Jeroen Nieboer (London School of Economics and Political Science)
    Abstract: Salient social comparisons to peers are generally thought to increase people’s productive effort. But social comparisons can also become ends in themselves, with individuals seeking to outrank others by costly, non-productive means. This paper explores the motives behind such tendencies in the context of a real-effort task. We offer subjects the option of enhancing their relative position, at a cost to themselves, in a social comparison based on points earned on the task. Despite receiving no tangible benefits from enhancing their position, at least half of our subjects sacrifice some of their experimental earnings to do so. We find that information conditions are crucial: expenditure on positional enhancement is twice as high when social comparisons only occur after enhancement. Surprisingly, this effect is not driven by the visibility of subjects’ positional enhancement to peers; the increase is due to ex ante uncertainty over how one’s (unenhanced) task output compares to peers. Since many professional settings are characterized by uncertainty over peer output, these findings can help organizations identify positional enhancement and reduce its costs.
    Keywords: Social comparison; Status; Competition; Experiment
    Date: 2022–02
  75. By: Gadsby, April; Tsai, Yichang James; Harvey, John
    Abstract: Transportation agencies nationwide use pavement management systems (PMS) to maintain roads and highways. Pavement management has typically been used for auto-oriented infrastructure. However, state and local agencies are increasingly adopting complete streets policies to promote roadway designs focused on the needs of all transportation users. Complete streets designs include new assets such as pedestrian and bicycling infrastructure that are not typically incorporated into mainstream pavement management systems and do not have asset management systems of their own. Including pedestrian and bicycling features into asset management systems (directly in PMS or via other approaches) would help ensure that sidewalks and bike lanes are properly maintained over time and continue to provide the safety, environmental, and public health benefits attributed to complete streets design. Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of California, Davis surveyed all 50 state departments of transportation and conducted in-depth interviews with agency experts to understand the implementation status of complete streets asset management, identify what state transportation agencies need to improve their asset management plans, and develop a road map for implementing complete streets asset management. This policy brief summarizes the findings from that research and provides policy implications. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Asset management, Complete streets, Pavement management systems, State departments of transportation, Surveys
    Date: 2022–01–01
  76. By: Alison Andrew (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Sarah Cattan (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Monica Costa Dias (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Christine Farquharson (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Lucy Kraftman (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Sonya Krutikova (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Angus Phimister (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Almudena Sevilla (Institute for Fiscal Studies)
    Abstract: This paper combines novel data on the time use, home learning practices and economic circumstances of families with children during the COVID-19 lockdown with pre-lockdown data from the UK Time User Survey to characterise the time use of children and how it changed during lockdown, and to gauge the extent to which changes in time use and learning practices during this period are likely to reinforce the already large gaps in education attainment between children from poorer and better-off families. We find considerable heterogeneity in children’s learning experiences - amount of time spent learning, activities undertaken during this time and availability of resources to support learning. Concerningly, but perhaps unsurprisingly, this heterogeneity is strongly associated with family income and in some instances more so than before lockdown. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that any impacts of inequalities in time spent learning between poorer and richer children are likely to be compounded by inequalities not only in learning resources available at home, but also those provided by schools.
    Keywords: home learning, lockdown, covid-19
    Date: 2020–08–17

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