nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2022‒02‒07
fifty-two papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Agglomeration Economies and the Urban Wage Premium in Australia By Jordy Meekes
  2. New Evidence on Redlining by Federal Housing Programs in the 1930s By Price Fishback; Jonathan D. Rose; Kenneth A. Snowden; Thomas Storrs
  3. Effects of Childhood Peers on Personality Skills By Feng, Shuaizhang; Kim, Jun Hyung; Yang, Zhe
  4. Predicting housing prices. A long term housing price path for Spanish regions By Paloma Taltavull de La Paz
  5. The Effect of Short-Term Rentals on Local Consumption Amenities: Evidence from Madrid By Alberto Hidalgo; Massimo Riccaboni; Francisco J. Velazquez
  6. The Earth is Not Flat: A New World of High-Dimensional Peer Effects By Aurélien Sallin; Simone Balestra
  7. Entries and Regional Growth: The Role of Relatedness By Tijl Hendrich; Jennifer Olsen; Judith Bayer
  8. A multimodal transport model to evaluate transport policies in the North of France By Kilani, M.; Diop, N.; De Wolf, Daniel
  9. On the Mechanisms of Ability Peer Effects By Alexandra de Gendre; Nicolás Salamanca
  10. Developed Practices in the African Real Estate Investment Trusts as a Conduit for improving Capital Investment in the African Real Estate Market By Olebogeng Moagi
  11. Does being "left behind" in childhood lead to criminality in adulthood? Evidence from data on rural-urban migrants and prison inmates in China By Lisa Cameron; Xin Meng; Dandan Zhang
  12. Using geolocation data in spatial-econometric construction of multiregion input-output tables: a Bayesian approach By Andrzej Torój
  13. Spatio-temporal dynamics of European innovation: An exploratory approach via multivariate functional data cluster analysis By Rhoden, Imke; Weller, Daniel; Voit, Ann-Katrin
  14. Parental Responses to Children’s Achievement Test Results By Deborah A. Cobb-Clark; Tiffany Ho; Nicolás Salamanca
  15. The Extent of Mortgage Financing in the Supply of Commercial Space: A Review of WA Space Market By Peres Ofori; Stephen Ameyaw
  16. Inconsistent response behavior: A potential pitfall in modeling the link between educational attainment and social network characteristics By Marina Lagemann; Peter Winker
  17. The Role of Social Capital for Teacher Professional Learning and Student Achievement: A Systematic Literature Review By Demir, Ema K.
  18. Too Cold to Venture There? January Temperature and Immigrant Self-Employment across the United States By Lee, Jun Yeong; Winters, John V.
  19. Scooters Are Here, But Where Do They Go?: Aligning Scooter Regulations with City Goals By ITF
  20. Green Technological Diversification and Local Recombinant Capabilities: The Role of Technological Novelty and Academic Inventors. By Orsatti, Gianluca; Quatraro,Francesco; Scandura, Alessandra
  21. The importance of global value chains and regional capabilities for the economic complexity of EU-regions By Colozza, Federico; Boschma, Ron; Morrison, Andrea; Pietrobelli, Carlo
  22. What Property Attributes are important to UK University Students in their Online Accommodation Search? By Olayiwola Oladiran; Adesola Sunmoni; Saheed Ajayi
  23. An Appraisal of the Adoption of Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Real Estate Practice in Edo State, Nigeria By Akinwamide David Oluwatofumi; Jonas Hahn
  24. Micromobility Policies for Sustainable Transport: Bogotá and Mexico City By ITF
  25. The Covid-19 Pandemic and School Closure: Learning Loss in Mathematics in Primary Education. By Contini, Dalit; Di Tommaso, Laura; Muratori, Maria Caterina; Piazzalunga,Daniela; Schiavon, Lucia
  26. Compensating for academic loss: Online learning and student performance during the COVID-19 pandemic By Andrew E. Clark; Huifu Nong; Hongjia Zhu; Rong Zhu
  27. The Intended and Unintended Effects of Promoting Labor Market Mobility By Marco Caliendo; Steffen Künn; Robert Mahlstedt
  28. Theoretical and Conceptual Models of Critical Success Factors and Key Performance Indicators for Real Estate Professional Business in Lagos, Nigeria By James Olayinka Ogunbiyi; Timothy Tunde Oladokun
  29. Flexible workspaces within corporate real estate By Fernanda Antunes Batista da Silva
  30. Overcoming Barriers to Service Access: Refugees’ Professional Support Service Utilization and the Impact of Human and Social Capital By Ellen Heidinger
  31. Perception on Modular Construction for Low-Income Housing in South Africa By Prisca Simbanegavi; Pride Ndlovu
  32. A Tale of Two Cities: Communication, Innovation, and Divergence By Stefano Magrini; Alessandro Spiganti
  33. The dragon down under: The regional labour market impact of growth in Chinese imports to Australia By Michael Coelli; James Maccarrone; Jeff Borland
  34. Who uses green mobility? Exploring profiles in developed countries By Echeverría, Lucía; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Molina, José Alberto
  35. Are Secondary Equity Offerings of BEE REITs Less Underpriced than Non-BEE REITs? By Oluwaseun Damilola Ajayi; Omokolade Akinsomi
  36. Coworker Networks and the Labor Market Outcomes of Displaced Workers: Evidence from Portugal By Marta Silva; José Garcia-Louzão
  37. The Effect of a Polycentric System of Governance on the Building Approval Process By Irene Nyokabi Wamuyu; Dennis Mbugua Muthama
  38. Combining remotely sensed and survey data to better understand linkages between urbanization and child nutrition: Case study from Burkina Faso By Haile, Beliyou; Guo, Zhe; Arndt, Channing; Ahn, Hee Eun
  39. Institutions and Geography By Laté Ayao Lawson; Phu Nguyen-Van
  40. Information, Intermediaries, and International Migration By Samuel Bazzi; Lisa Cameron; Simone Schaner; Firman Witoelar
  41. Does temporary employment increase length of commuting: Longitudinal evidence from Australia and Germany By Inga Laß; Thomas Skora; Heiko Rüger; Mark Wooden; Martin Bujard
  42. Romanian Communist State Persecution on Neoprotestant Children, Youngsters and Teachers By Ciprian Corneliu Ciurea
  43. Big Data for smart cities and citizen engagement: evidence from Twitter data analysis on Italian municipalities By Silvia Blasi; Edoardo Gobbo; Silvia Rita Sedita
  44. Minimizing the Impact of Freight Traffic on Disadvantaged Communities By Jaller, Miguel; Pahwa, Anmol
  45. The Production Function for Housing: Evidence from France By Pierre-Philippe Combes; Gilles Duranton; Laurent Gobillon
  46. Green mobility and well-being By Echeverría, Lucía; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Molina, José Alberto
  47. Heterogeneous Impacts of Sentencing Decisions By Andrew Jordan; Ezra Karger; Derek Neal
  48. Carpooling: User profiles and well-being By Echeverría, Lucía; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Molina, José Alberto
  49. Exchange rate depreciations and local business cycles: The role of bank loan supply By Beck, Thorsten; Bednarek, Peter; te Kaat, Daniel Marcel; von Westernhagen, Natalja
  50. Property Valuation Theory: Implications to Practice By Ronald Mpofu
  51. International student mobility and academic performance: Does timing matter? By Granja, Cintia Denise; Visentin, Fabiana
  52. Control and Spread of Contagion in Networks By John Higgins; Tarun Sabarwal

  1. By: Jordy Meekes (Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research, the University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: Understanding the benefits of dense agglomerations is important for decisions on where to live. This paper is the first to quantify the economic impact of urban density on individual wages, referred to as the urban wage premium, in Australia. By combining Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey microdata on 13,112 employed individuals and regional-level population data, population density effects on individual hourly wages are studied over the period 2001 to 2019. A unique feature of this paper is to apply a flow-based clustering algorithm that uses commuting flows to define spatial structures, which are compared with the Australian Statistical Geography Standard spatial structures. The Ordinary Least Squares estimate of the urban wage premium peaks at 2.7 per cent. Controlling for individual fixed effects, the estimate peaks at 1.6 per cent. This evidence suggests that wages increase by 1.6 to 2.7 per cent if local density doubles.
    Keywords: Urban wage premium, Agglomeration, Population density, Wages, Australia, HILDA Survey
    JEL: R11 R12 R23 J31
    Date: 2021–09
  2. By: Price Fishback; Jonathan D. Rose; Kenneth A. Snowden; Thomas Storrs
    Abstract: We show that the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), from its inception in the 1930s, did not insure mortgages in low income urban neighborhoods where the vast majority of urban Black Americans lived. The agency evaluated neighborhoods using block-level information collected by New Deal relief programs and the Census in many cities. The FHA's exclusionary pattern predates the advent of the infamous maps later made by the Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC) and shows little change after the drafting of those maps. In contrast, the HOLC itself broadly loaned to such neighborhoods and to Black homeowners. We conclude that the HOLC's redlining maps had little effect on the geographic distribution of either program's mortgage market activity, and that the FHA crafted and implemented its own redlining methodology prior to the HOLC.
    Keywords: Redlining; mortgage history
    JEL: G21 J15 N22 R38
    Date: 2022–01–03
  3. By: Feng, Shuaizhang (Shanghai University of Finance and Economics); Kim, Jun Hyung (Jinan University); Yang, Zhe (Peking University)
    Abstract: Despite extensive literature on peer effects, the role of peers on personality skill development remains poorly understood. We fill this gap by investigating the effects of having disadvantaged primary school peers, generated by random classroom assignment and parental migration for employment. We find that having disadvantaged peers significantly lowers conscientiousness, agreeableness, emotional stability, and social skill. The implied effects of a 10–15 percentage point change in the classroom proportion of disadvantaged peers are comparable to the effects of popular early childhood interventions. Furthermore, we find suggestive evidence that these effects are driven by the peers' personality skills.
    Keywords: peer effect, noncognitive skill, left-behind children, human capital, Big-5
    JEL: I21 D62 O15
    Date: 2021–12
  4. By: Paloma Taltavull de La Paz
    Abstract: This paper aims to forecast the long term trend of housing prices in the Spanish cities with more than 25 thousand inhabitants, a total of 275 individual municipalities. Based on a causal model explaining housing prices based on six fundamental variables (changes in population, income, number of mortgages, interest rates, vacant and housing prices), a pool VECM technique is used to estimate a housing price model and calculate the 'stable long term price', a central concept defined in the formal valuation process. The model covers the period 1995-2020, and the long term is approached from 2000 to 2026, so the prediction exercise includes backcast and forecast period allowing to extract the long term cycle housing price have followed during last 20 years and project it further six years. The analytical process follows three steps. Firstly, it identifies the cities following a common pattern in their housing market by clustering twice the cities: (1) using house price time series and (2) using a machine learning approach with the six fundamental variables. Results give a comprehensible evolution of the long term component of housing prices and the model also permits the understanding of the main drivers of housing prices in each Spanish region. Clustering cities with two statistical tools give pretty similar results in some cities but is different in others. The challenge of finding the correct grouping is critical to understanding the housing market and forecasting their prices.
    Keywords: Error correction models; Forecast; Housing Prices; Housing valuation; Machine Learning; Time Series
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–01–01
  5. By: Alberto Hidalgo (IMT School for advanced studies); Massimo Riccaboni (IMT School for advanced studies); Francisco J. Velazquez (Universidad Complutense de Madrid)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of the arrival of Airbnb on the local consumption amenities in Madrid. We exploit the exogenous variation created by the timing and the unequal distribution of Airbnb listings across the urban geography to identify its effects on food and beverage establishments. Using an instrumental variable strategy, we find positive local effects on both the number of restaurants and their employees: an increase in ten Airbnb rooms in a given census tract translates into one more restaurant, and the same increase in a given neighborhood generates nine new tourist-related employees. The results are robust to sample composition, spatial spillovers and alternative measures of local consumption amenities. This paper contributes to the literature on the economic impacts of the platform economy on urban areas by providing evidence of positive economic externalities from short-term rentals.
    Keywords: Consumption amenities; Short-term rentals; Tourism
    JEL: R10 R23 Z32
    Date: 2022–01
  6. By: Aurélien Sallin; Simone Balestra
    Abstract: The majority of recent peer-effect studies in education have focused on the effect of one particular type of peers on classmates. This view fails to take into account the reality that peer effects are heterogeneous for students with different characteristics, and that there are at least as many peer effect functions as there are types of peers. In this paper, we develop a general empirical framework that accounts for systematic interactions between peer types and nonlinearities of peer effects. We use machine-learning methods to (i) understand which dimensions of peer characteristics are the most predictive of academic success, (ii) estimate high-dimensional peer effects functions, and (iii) investigate performance-improving classroom allocation through policy-relevant simulations. First, we find that students' own characteristics are the most predictive of academic success, and that the most predictive peer effects are generated by students with special needs, low-achieving students, and male students. Second, we show that peer effects traditionally reported by the literature likely miss important nonlinearities in the distribution of peer proportions. Third, we determine that classroom compositions that are the most balanced in students' characteristics are the best ways to reach maximal aggregated school performance.
    Keywords: peer effects, high dimensionality, machine learning, classroom composition
    JEL: C31 H75 I21 I28
    Date: 2022–01
  7. By: Tijl Hendrich (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Jennifer Olsen (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Judith Bayer
    Abstract: If new businesses and establishments are more closely related to economic activities taking place in a region, is this associated with higher regional growth a few years later? In this paper, we investigate the relationship between this 'relatedness' of newcomers and growth in employment and labor productivity in Dutch regions. While we find a positive correlation with regional employment growth, its economic magnitude is small. It is known that new companies can stimulate growth through creative destruction: they push existing less productive companies out of the market or force them to produce more efficiently. New companies can also create knowledge spillovers by introducing new ideas or techniques that disseminate on a local scale. The current research examines these two aspects in conjunction. We consider two industries to be related when their employees possess similar skills. It will then be easier for employees to switch jobs and transfer knowledge between these two sectors.
    JEL: L26 M13 O18 R11
    Date: 2022–01
  8. By: Kilani, M.; Diop, N.; De Wolf, Daniel (Université catholique de Louvain, LIDAM/CORE, Belgium)
    Abstract: We develop a passenger transport model for the North of France and use it to discuss the impacts of some policies focusing on the limitations of emissions and congestion. The model is calibrated for the North of France, and includes both urban and intercity trips. Four transport modes are considered: walking, biking, public transport and private cars. The model is calibrated to match the mode shares and the dynamic of congestion along a full day. The simulations are conducted within the MATSim framework. We evaluate the impacts, on traffic flows and emissions, of two pricing reforms: free public transport and road pricing in city center of Lille (the main metropolitan area in the study region).
    Keywords: Multimodal transport ; Emissions and congestion ; Transport simulation (MATSIM)
    Date: 2021–01–01
  9. By: Alexandra de Gendre (School of Economics, The University of Sydney Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)); Nicolás Salamanca (Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research, The University of Melbourne | Institute of Labor Economics (IZA))
    Abstract: Studying with higher ability peers increases student performance, yet we have little idea why. We exploit random assignment of students to classrooms and find positive peer effects on test scores. With very rich data on seventeen potential mechanisms, we then estimate how peer effects on attitudes, parents, etc. could drive these results. Higher-achieving peers reduce student effort, increase student university aspirations, increase parental time investments, and have precise null effects elsewhere. None of these mechanisms, however, explain our peer effect on test scores. Our findings question the prevailing empirical approach to understanding the mechanisms underlying academic peer effects.
    Keywords: Random assignment; standardized test; mediation analysis; parental investment; school inputs
    JEL: I23 I26 D13
    Date: 2020–10
  10. By: Olebogeng Moagi
    Abstract: Purpose: The establishment of Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) has propelled the real estate industry to gain traction as a feasible investment vehicle for both the individual and institutional investor. The purpose of this paper is to assess how the further development of the African REIT market can form a channel to increasing capital investment in the African real estate market. There has been a range of REITs developed which could improve the African real estate market such as Affordable Housing, Healthcare and Green bond REITs. As much as such a variety of beneficial REIT options might seem like an attractive and viable conduit for capital injection into the African REIT sector, many individual investors remain sceptical of choosing African REITs as an investment vehicle. Research has shown that there is a small fraction of individual investors in Africa looking at REITs as an investment option among which, the black middle-class investors form the smallest portion of this group of investors. Such is concerning as these investors happen to form much of the population in the African continent.Design/Methodology: We look at how these challenges can be curbed by developing practices such as implementing sustainable real estate methods or incorporating new trends such as Property technology as part of the management and marketing style for African REITs. The use of these practices are evaluated to assess the impact on property values and increasing investor satisfaction.Value/Contribution: The paper reflects that with the success and evidence of these kind of practices, it will be reasonable to raise the much-needed public awareness about African REITs in the market.
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  11. By: Lisa Cameron (Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research, the University of Melbourne); Xin Meng (Research School of Economics, CBE, Australian National University); Dandan Zhang (China Center for Economic Research, National School of Development, Peking University)
    Abstract: Large scale rural-to-urban migration and China's household registration system have resulted in about 61 million children being left-behind in rural villages when their parents migrate to the cities. This paper uses survey and experimental data from male rural-urban migrants - prison inmates and comparable non-inmates - to examine whether parental absence in childhood as a result of migration is associated with increased criminality in adulthood. Control functions and sibling fixed effects are used to identify causal impacts. Parental absence due to migration is found to increase the propensity of adult males to commit crimes. Being left-behind decreases educational attainment and increases risk-loving behavior, both of which increase criminality.
    Keywords: Migration, Crime, China
    JEL: O12 O15 J12
    Date: 2021–10
  12. By: Andrzej Torój
    Abstract: Interregional input-output tables for Poland at NUTS-3 level are built by using the Bayesian approach to spatial econometric analysis. I apply the multi-equation Durbin specification proposed by Torój (2021) to derive the sample density and Statistics Finland (2006) regional I–O tables to derive the prior hyperparameters. This prior aims to introduce additional information in the presence of noisy spatial data, but also to avoid the areas where the spatial decay profiles representing the supply geography become insensitive to the parameter values of the selected functional form. To measure the distance, the real-world driving distance between the most populated cities of the regions from Google Maps is used. Posterior distrubutions indicate that the agricultural commodities and advanced services are supplied to the most distant locations, whereas the simple services – to the least distant ones; the result for the former group of sectors is characterized with the highest uncertainty. The illustrative simulation indicates that 82.2% of the indirect effects occur in the home region, with a posterior-based confidence interval from 71.5% to 92.4%. The results do not change qualitatively when I use the driving time (averaged over 42 equidistant moments in a 7-day week) as the alternative measure of distance, but the hybrid time- and distance-based model is strongly preferred in the Bayes factor comparison, since for all sectors except industry (NACE sections B-E), the time-based metric turned out to be dominant. When commuting is taken into account in the induced effect calculation (measured with mobile geolocation data), 4.9% of the induced effects are relocated from the home region (central point in a big agglomeration) to the other regions, especially the surrounding ''ring''.
    Keywords: input-output, interregional input-output tables, spatial econometrics, Bayesian estimation, regional economic impact assessment
    JEL: C31 C67 R12 R15
    Date: 2022–01
  13. By: Rhoden, Imke; Weller, Daniel; Voit, Ann-Katrin
    Abstract: We apply a functional data approach for mixture model-based multivariate innovation clustering to identify different regional innovation portfolios in Europe. Innovation concentration is considered as pattern of specialization among innovation types. We examine patent registration data and combine them with other innovation and economic data across 225 regions, 13 years and 8 patent classes. This allows us to identify innovation clusters that are supported by several innovation- and economy-related variables. We are able to form several regional clusters according to their specific innovation types. The regional innovation cluster solutions for IPC classes for 'fixed constructions' and 'mechanical engineering' are very comparable, and relatively less comparable for 'chemistry and metallurgy'. The clusters for innovations in 'physics' and 'chemistry and metallurgy' are similar; innovations in 'electricity' and 'physics' show similar temporal dynamics. For all other innovation types, the regional clustering is different and innovation concentrations in the respective regions are unique within clusters. By taking regional profiles, strengths and developments into account, options for improved efficiency of location-based regional innovation policy in order to promote tailored and efficient innovation-promoting programs can be derived.
    Keywords: Functional Data Analysis (FDA),innovation concentration,spatio-temporal cluster modeling,multivariate cluster analysis,European innovation,cluster algorithm
    JEL: O33 R12 C38
    Date: 2021
  14. By: Deborah A. Cobb-Clark (The University of Sydney, School of Economics); Tiffany Ho (ARC Centre of Excellence for Children and Families over the Life Course); Nicolás Salamanca (Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research, the University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: We use quasi-experimental variation in the timing of national standardized test-score reports to estimate the causal impact of giving parents objective information about children’s academic achievement. Releasing test scores leads to more modest perceptions of academic achievement and reduced school satisfaction. The use of private tutoring is increased, while extracurricular activities are reduced. Examining the underlying mechanisms, we show that it is public-school parents and parents of children receiving unexpectedly “bad” test scores who alter their perceptions. Learning that a child scores above the national average raises perceived academic achievement and time devoted to education, while reducing leisure time.
    Keywords: Parental investments, test-score information, parental perceptions, overconfidence
    JEL: I21 J13 D10 D90
    Date: 2021–08
  15. By: Peres Ofori; Stephen Ameyaw
    Abstract: Purpose: The supply of real estate space is decreasing at an increasing rate mostly in developing countries where monetary policies do not support borrowing. High rate of interest rate charges and adjustable nature of mortgage rates continues to dwindle real estate development in Ghana. However, the use of equity financing in producing real estate space is scarcely reliable. The study explores the contribution of mortgage financing in the supply of commercial space in Wa. It aimed at knowing the number of commercial space suppliers in Wa space market who have had access to mortgage financial support.Design/Methodology: The study employed field survey design and personal observation as techniques for data gathering. Questionnaires, focused group discussion and face to face interviews were adopted in getting primary information from the field. As such, respondents were purposively sampled to aid in getting appropriate information to suit the objective of the study.Findings: The study reveals that only 3.41% of the sampled commercial space suppliers had access to mortgage. As such a general conclusion was drawn to the fact that equity financing is prominent among commercial space suppliers in Wa even though the willingness to get mortgage by participants are high.Practical implications: The study makes recommendation for improving the accessibility of commercial real estate developers to mortgage facilities.
    Keywords: Collateral; commercial real estate; Debt Finance; Leverage
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  16. By: Marina Lagemann (Justus-Liebig-University Giessen); Peter Winker (Justus-Liebig-University Giessen)
    Abstract: An important role is ascribed to students’ social networks in explaining both social and ethnic differentials in educational achievement and attainment. For example, students’ social networks are assumed to influence their probability of success by providing educationally-relevant resources and by promoting effort and educational investments. The direction and strength of the network’s effect on students’ educational success is assumed to depend on the network’s precise characteristics, such as educational and migration background. As track selection by school performance (as is the case in Germany) goes hand in hand with a segregation of students by characteristics like social and migration background, it can be assumed that educational success itself has an influence on the social resources students have access to at later stages of their educational careers. Given the complexity of instruments commonly applied in self-administered questionnaires to assess students’ social resources, the quality of data on measures of network characteristics is likely to depend on the respondents’ abilities. As regards the estimation of the association between network characteristics and educational success, biased measurement of social network characteristics apparently constitutes a challenge as spurious correlation may be observed between measures of educational achievement and network characteristics if the bias systematically correlates with education. We report empirical findings on a complex instrument used in a self-administered questionnaire applied in the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) to 9th-graders in the classroom, which was designed to measure the social resources young people have at their disposal at the point of transition from general into vocational education. The data allows identifying population subgroups who face particularly strong difficulties in completing the relevant set of questions in a consistent way. Specifically, this selection can be shown to be significantly correlated with different measures of educational achievement as well as with the respondents’ migration background. As the network characteristics we investigate, i.e., the network members’ educational and migration background, have been found to correlate with students’ educational success, ignoring this selection can be shown to heavily bias estimates of the association between educational achievement and social network characteristics.
    Keywords: Social networks; network characteristics; network composition; social resources; answering behavior; cognitive skills; measurement bias; migration background; educational success; educational attainment
    Date: 2022
  17. By: Demir, Ema K. (University of Cambridge)
    Abstract: This systematic review synthesises research on social capital in relation to teachers and teacher professional learning between the years 2004-2019. The study was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement and the Weight of Evidence framework for quality and relevance appraisal. After applying eligibility criteria, 66 empirical items were included in the final review. The review finds that social capital among teachers has been associated with five categories of outcomes: 1) teacher professional development, 2) the implementation of change, 3) the introduction of new and beginning teachers, 4) teacher retention and job satisfaction, and 5) improved student achievement. These have, in turn, been associated with the implicit outcome of promoting educational equity. A synthesis of enablers and barriers to building social capital among teachers identifies the pervasive role of organisational structures for moderating the relationship between social capital and these outcomes. Findings indicate that different organisational structures may foster different social capital dimensions, such as bonding, bridging, and linking. More research is needed on the relationship between these dimensions and schools' organisational structure to promote the desired outcomes of teacher social capital identified in this review.
    Keywords: Social capital; teacher professional learning; student achievement; organisational structures; educational equity
    Date: 2022–01–07
  18. By: Lee, Jun Yeong (Iowa State University); Winters, John V. (Iowa State University)
    Abstract: Immigrant entrepreneurs are critical to regional and national economies. Immigrants in the USA have higher self-employment rates than natives, and immigrants have made outsized contributions as founders of numerous highly successful firms. However, we document that immigrant self-employment rates vary considerably across areas of the USA. Our main measure is the percentage of immigrant workers in an area who are self-employed; i.e., the self- employment rate for the foreign-born. Areas with colder winter temperatures have especially low self-employment rates among their immigrant populations compared to other areas of the USA. This relationship holds for numerous sub-samples of immigrants and is not driven by any particular group. The relationship persists after controlling for numerous individual and local area characteristics. Immigrant entrepreneurs appear to be especially forward-looking and responsive to warmer January temperature as a locational amenity. The results have important implications about the location choices of immigrant entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: self-employment, entrepreneurship, immigrants, amenities, temperature
    JEL: J61 L26 R23
    Date: 2021–12
  19. By: ITF
    Abstract: This paper examines how 37 US cities regulate scooter parking. It analyses rates of improper scooter parking and discusses how cities can employ scooter regulations, in conjunction with other policies, to realise broader goals such as promoting sustainability and mobility.
    Date: 2021–03–17
  20. By: Orsatti, Gianluca; Quatraro,Francesco; Scandura, Alessandra (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper studies the entry of regions in new green technological specializations, specifically investigating the role of local recombinant capabilities and the involvement of academic inventors in patenting activities, as well as the interplay between the two. We test our hypotheses on a dataset of Italian NUTS 3 regions over the period 1998-2009. The results show that both recombinant capabilities and the presence of academic inventors are positively associated to new entries in green technological specializations, and that their interaction provides a compensatory mechanism in regions lacking adequate novel combinatorial capabilities. The findings of this work are relevant for policy makers involved in the elaboration of successful regional specialization strategies in green technological domains.
    Date: 2021–10
  21. By: Colozza, Federico (University of Roma Tre); Boschma, Ron (Department of Human Geography and Planning, Utrecht University, and UiS Business School, University of Stavanger); Morrison, Andrea (Department of Political and Social Sciences, University of Pavia, Department of Human Geography and Planning, Utrecht University, and ICRIOS, Bocconi University); Pietrobelli, Carlo (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and University of Roma Tre)
    Abstract: This paper combines various literatures on Global Value Chains (GVC), Economic Complexity and Evolutionary Economic Geography. The objective is to assess the role of regional capabilities and GVC participation in fostering economic complexity in 236 NUTS2-regions in Europe. Our results suggest there is no such thing as a common path of economic upgrading across EU regions. Regions with high economic complexity tend to keep their advantageous positions, as they are capable of benefitting from both regional capabilities (as proxied by a high relatedness between local activities) and external linkages in terms of GVC participation. Conversely, low-complex regions do not benefit from GVC participation, unless their regional capabilities (in terms of relatedness density) are also stronger.
    Keywords: Economic Complexity, Evolutionary Economic Geography, Global Value Chains, Relatedness, Economic Upgrading, EU regions
    JEL: B52 F23 O19 O33 R10
    Date: 2021–12–17
  22. By: Olayiwola Oladiran; Adesola Sunmoni; Saheed Ajayi
    Abstract: Purpose: This paper analyses the relationship between the potential demand for purpose-built student accommodation (PBSA) properties and their online displayed attributes. Using data from 12 major UK cities, we analyse the effect of the online displayed property information on the popularity score of a PBSA.Design/Methodology: The data used is from an online student accommodation listing platform – which contains tangible and non-tangible property attributes, and the data is analysed using a hedonic regression model.Findings: The results show that PBSAs’ tangible and non-tangible attributes are important to students in their online accommodation search, although, these attributes vary in impact. The study also reveals that failure to display key information of a PBSA may reduce the attractiveness of the property. The results suggest that PBSAs’ tangible and non-tangible attributes are important to students in their online accommodation search, although, these attributes vary in impact. The study also reveals that failure to display key information of a PBSA may make the property less attractive.Practical implications: These insights are valuable in developing student accommodation investment, development and management strategies.
    Keywords: Hedonic Model; Investment; online search; Operational real estate; proptech; student accommodation
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  23. By: Akinwamide David Oluwatofumi; Jonas Hahn
    Abstract: Purpose: The introduction of various technologies in the real estate market has led to the disruption in the traditional practice of real estate globally. The adoption of innovative technologies such as blockchain, IoT, drone technology is limited in Nigeria to sustain the future of real estate practice. This study, therefore, appraises the adoption of innovative technologies for sustainable real estate practice in Edo State, Nigeria.Design/Methodology: Structured questionnaires were randomly administered to 43 selected registered Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in Benin Metropolis while all retrieved questionnaires were found suitable for analysis. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics.Findings: Findings revealed that online residential brokers, increasing space utilization, and smart city applications were the most aware innovations in real estate practice. However, websites and geospatial technologies were the most adopted technologies for sustainable real estate practice in the study area.Practical implications: Therefore, Nigerian Institutions of Estate Surveyors and Valuers should educate real estate professionals on the adoption of innovative technologies for sustainable real estate practice in Nigeria.
    Keywords: Innovation; Nigeria; proptech; Smart Real Estate; sustainability; Technology
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  24. By: ITF
    Abstract: This paper analyses regulations that support non-motorised mobility in Bogotá and Mexico City. It reviews the promotion of bicycles as a sustainable alternative to cars and the rapid implementation of cycling lanes as a substitute for public transport under the Covid-19 crisis. It also discusses the renewed interest in support for dockless micromobility sharing systems. It focuses on subsidies and revision of regulations as avenues to ensure that micromobility will make a durable contribution to sustainable mobility in these cities.
    Date: 2021–03–18
  25. By: Contini, Dalit; Di Tommaso, Laura; Muratori, Maria Caterina; Piazzalunga,Daniela; Schiavon, Lucia (University of Turin)
    Abstract: Italy was the first Western country hit by Covid-19 in February 2020, responding with a tight lockdown and full school closure until the end of the school year. This paper estimates the effect of the pandemic and school closure on the math skills of primary school pupils in Italy. We compare the learning achievements of two cohorts of pupils, the pre-Covid and the Covid cohort. For both cohorts, we match scores on the national standardised assessment in grade 2 with scores on a standardised test delivered by the researchers at the end of grade 3. The pandemic had a large negative impact on the pupils’ performance in mathematics (-0.19 standard deviations). Among children of low-educated parents, the learning loss was larger for the best-performing ones (up to -0.51 s.d.) and for girls (-0.29 s.d.).
    Date: 2021–10
  26. By: Andrew E. Clark (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Huifu Nong (Guangdong University of Finance & Economics); Hongjia Zhu (Jinan University [Guangzhou]); Rong Zhu (Flinders University [Adelaide, Australia])
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to widespread school shutdowns, with many continuing distance education via online-learning platforms. We here estimate the causal effects of online education on student exam performance using administrative data from Chinese Middle Schools. Taking a difference-in-differences approach, we find that receiving online education during the COVID-19 lockdown improved student academic results by 0.22 of a standard deviation, relative to pupils without learning support from their school. Not all online education was equal: students who were given recorded online lessons from external higher-quality teachers had higher exam scores than those whose lessons were recorded by teachers from their own school. The educational benefits of distance learning were the same for rural and urban students, but the exam performance of students who used a computer for online education was better than those who used a smartphone. Last, while everyone except the very-best students performed better with online learning, it was low achievers who benefited from teacher quality.
    Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic,Online education,Student performance,Teacher quality
    Date: 2021–08
  27. By: Marco Caliendo (University of Potsdam, IZA Bonn, DIW Berlin, IAB Nuremberg); Steffen Künn (Maastricht University and ROA, IZA Bonn); Robert Mahlstedt (University of Copenhagen, IZA Bonn, DFI)
    Abstract: Subsidizing the geographical mobility of unemployed workers may improve welfare by relaxing their financial constraints and allowing them to find jobs in more prosperous regions. We exploit regional variation in the promotion of mobility programs along administrative borders of German employment agency districts to investigate the causal effect of offering such financial incentives on the job search behavior and labor market integration of unemployed workers. We show that promoting mobility – as intended – causes job seekers to increase their search radius, apply for and accept distant jobs. At the same time, local job search is reduced with adverse consequences for reemployment and earnings. These unintended negative effects are provoked by spatial search frictions. Overall, the unconditional provision of mobility programs harms the welfare of unemployed job seekers.
    Keywords: Job Search, Active Labor Market Policy, Labor Market Mobility, Unintended Consequence, Search Frictions
    JEL: J61 J68 D04 C21
    Date: 2022–01
  28. By: James Olayinka Ogunbiyi; Timothy Tunde Oladokun
    Abstract: Purpose: This paper aimed to equip real estate practitioners in developing countries with critical success factors (CSFs) and key performance indicators (KPIs) for keeping track of their activities to develop sustainable practice. It will model CSF and KPIs that can be effectively used to run an enduring real estate practice.Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper reviewed and analysed previous related papers in respect of the subject in other industries both locally and in advanced countries as a guide to real estate practitioners in developing countries. The paper identified the various theories of business management that suggest how business performance is measured. The paper continued to identify CSFs and kPIs that are used in other industries to model CSFs and kPIs for use in real estate industry.Findings: The practice of corporate real estate management is still relatively new to African countries like Nigeria. The implication is the collapse of many real estate firms with its untold negative effect on the profession. Understanding CSFs and KPIs in real estate business is a major pathway to developing sustainable real estate practice.Originality/Value: The paper is a useful guide to real estate managers in developing countries towards employing CSFs and KPIs to increase the overall performance of their companies.
    Keywords: Business Performance; critical success factors; CSFs; Key performance Indicators; Kpis; Real Estate Business
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  29. By: Fernanda Antunes Batista da Silva
    Abstract: Building flexibility within real estate is challenging due to its inherent characteristics of being immovable, large and expensive, making any transformation a complex matter. However, it is possible to achieve different types of flexibility within the different types of corporate real estate an organisation owns. The literature surrounding the development of more flexible workspaces within the corporation has a focus on the physical layout and internal usage raising issues such as non-territorial spaces, hot-desking and hotelling. Flexible workspaces, however, can also take place outside an organisation. As technology allows the office space to evolve beyond its industrial heritage, space as a service becomes another option for corporations to unleash flexibility. External flexible workspaces are offices with different levels of curated services available to hire on an ‘easy-in, easy out’ basis. Originally used by freelancers and start-ups seeking affordability, the current flexible workspace market has expanded in terms of the number of operators, the magnitude of take-ups and the type of users, which now also encompasses large corporations. To date, very little research has been made on the adoption of flexible workspaces by the corporate sector. This study is aimed to provide an overview from academic and nonacademic sources of the approach corporations take to use such environments, what drives them to flexible workspaces and the perspectives for the future in a post-pandemic world. It is found that from cost reduction to talent retention, the reasons why corporations are attracted to flexible workspaces vary, as well as their patterns of usage, which range from housing a flexible workspace within their portfolio, to outsourcing workspace to an operator. As Covid-19 has made organisations rethink the amount of real estate they occupy, it is expected a greater drive from corporations to incorporate flexibility and allow agility in uncertain economic times.
    Keywords: Corporate real estate; Coworking; flexible workspaces; workspace strategy
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–01–01
  30. By: Ellen Heidinger
    Abstract: After arriving in a new country, refugees are most often dependent on professional support to reestablish their livelihood. It is however well documented that refugees face barriers when seeking access to services aimed at facilitating their settlement and integration. This study examines refugees’ support service needs and their actual utilization and investigates the impact of social and human capital on support service utilization. Employing data from the IAB-BAMF-SOEP Survey of Refugees, this paper highlights the diversity of refugees’ support service needs as well as large differences in utilization in eight different domains. It furthermore provides evidence for an overall positive association between predictors of human and social capital and service utilization in general and additionally reveals differences in service domains. While language proficiency is positively associated with service utilization across all service domains in the sample, previous work experience in the country of origin especially increased utilization of services related to employment and the labor market. The analyses additionally find a positive association of inter-ethnic networks, whereas intra-ethnic connections are negatively associated with service utilization across a variety of domains. These findings are especially relevant since they support the hypothesis of exclusive host community knowledge, which benefits those refugees engaging with individuals outside their own ethnic network in their efforts regarding integrational outcomes. The findings of this study accentuate the need to acknowledge the diversity in refugees’ service needs as well as the barriers to service utilization that only well-equipped refugees seem to be able to overcome.
    Keywords: refugees, service utilization, professional support services, human capital, social capital
    Date: 2021
  31. By: Prisca Simbanegavi; Pride Ndlovu
    Abstract: Purpose: Modular: Construction is touted as a panacea to low-income housing for its speed in delivery, yet its use is still scanty in those countries that have the greatest shortage of low- income housing. The paper identifies this alternative construction method as a research gap on whether the product can be acknowledged and accepted by built environment stakeholders.Design/Methodology: In depth interviews showed some themes on what delays the implementation of this technology in building the much-needed low-income housing in South Africa.Findings: Results show that developers are ready to embrace non- traditional construction techniques for the development of low-income housing. The main concern raised is that modular construction creates the impression that modular housing are temporary solutions than a permanent solution for the masses. Further, modular housing is associated with low quality and this perception precludes the engagement of the financial sector in financing asupposedly ‘valueless asset’. The finding is that government as a stakeholder is highly likely to embrace modular housing for low-income people should they be persuaded of their value.Practical implications: The paperrecommends more incentives by government for developers to start building good quality examples of modular housing. These examples will have potential to appeal to local communities and help raise awareness of modular construction as a solution to mass production of low-cost housing.
    Keywords: Built environment stakeholders; Johannesburg; Low-Income Housing; mass production; modular construction; South Africa
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  32. By: Stefano Magrini (Department of Economics, University Of Venice CÃ Foscari); Alessandro Spiganti (Department of Economics, University Of Venice CÃ Foscari)
    Abstract: We present a two-area endogenous growth model where abstract knowledge flows at no cost across space but tacit knowledge arises from the interaction among researchers and is hampered by distance. Digital communication reduces this "cost of distance" and reinforces productive specialization, leading to an increase in the system-wide growth rate but at the cost of more inequality within and across areas. These results are consistent with evidences on the rise in the concentration of innovative activities, income inequality, and skills and income divergence across US urban areas.
    Keywords: Agglomeration, specialization, digital communication, inequality, patents
    JEL: J24 O31 O41 R12
  33. By: Michael Coelli (Department of Economics, The University of Melbourne); James Maccarrone (Department of Economics, the University of Melbourne); Jeff Borland (Department of Economics, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: Imports of manufactured goods from China to Australia grew more than eleven-fold in real US dollar terms between 1991 and 2006. This study uses differences in industry structure between regions to identify the impact of that growth on labour market outcomes in Australia. Overall, the growth in Chinese imports is estimated to have reduced the ratio of manufacturing employment to population by 1.6 percentage points, and manufacturing employment by 221,000 workers. Adjustment to this impact on local manufacturing employment appears to have occurred through labour mobility between regions, but also increased rates of unemployment and non-participation. Growth in manufacturing imports from other Asian countries during this period, by contrast, is found to have had little impact on manufacturing employment in Australia – with the main explanation for the difference being that Chinese imports were weighted more to manufacturing sectors experiencing slower growth in domestic consumption (absorption) and with high labour-intensity. The study concludes by interpreting the estimated impacts of Chinese imports on Australia against estimates for other countries.
    Keywords: Manufacturing employment, trade shocks, labour market adjustment, import exposure
    JEL: J21 J23 J61 F16 F66
    Date: 2021–07
  34. By: Echeverría, Lucía; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Molina, José Alberto
    Abstract: Mobility gives individuals access to different daily activities, facilities, and places, but at the cost of imposing environmental burdens. The sustainable growth of society is linked to green mobility (e.g., public transport, walking, cycling) as a way to alleviate individual carbon footprints. This study explores the socio-demographic profile of individuals performing green travel (public and physical modes of transport) and identifies cross-country differences in green travelling behavior. We rely on information from the Multinational Time Use Study, MTUS. for Bulgaria, Canada, Spain, France, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, from 2000 to 2019. We estimate Ordinary Least Squares regressions modelling individual decisions regarding green mobility. Our results indicate that the socio-demographic and family profile of travelers is not homogenous across green modes of transport, with physical travel exhibiting a much more consistent profile, across countries, in comparison to the use of public transport. Results indicate a positive relationship between living in urban areas and the time proportion of green travel, but estimates by country differ in magnitude and depend on the mode. We also find that some countries are more prone to green travel, and that transport infrastructure is more related to the proportion of time travelled by physical transport than by public transport. Our findings help in understanding who is committed to green mobility, while revealing systematic differences across countries that are worth analyzing.
    Keywords: Perfil del Viajero; Medios de Transporte; Transporte No Motorizado; Transporte Público;
    Date: 2021–07
  35. By: Oluwaseun Damilola Ajayi; Omokolade Akinsomi
    Abstract: Purpose: Using real estate investment trusts as a unique laboratory, we investigate the impact of the Black Economic Empowerment policy on seasoned equity offering (SEO) price dynamics.Methodology: 52 SEOs issued by 29 REIT firms (based on availability of data) from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2020 were retrieved from the Stock Exchange News Service (SENs) of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE).Findings: Using OLS regression in analysing our data, evidence indicates that BEE is positively related to SEO underpricing; in other words, SEOs of BEE compliant REITs are less underpriced compared to non-compliant BEE REITs.Implication: Evidence also suggests that the BEE policy needs to be recalibrated owing to its politicization as this will enhance compliance from REITs.Originality: This is a pioneer attempt at providing insights for subsequent studies of this nature.
    Keywords: Black Economic Empowerment; Economic Policy; seasoned equity offerings; Underpricing
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  36. By: Marta Silva; José Garcia-Louzão
    Abstract: The use of social contacts in the labor market is widespread. This paper investigates the impact of personal connections on hiring probabilities and re-employment outcomes of displaced workers in Portugal. We rely on rich matched employer-employee data to define personal connections that arise from interactions at the workplace. Our empirical strategy exploits firm closures to select workers who are exogenously forced to search for a new job and leverages variation across displaced workers with direct connections to prospective employers. The hiring analysis indicates that displaced workers with a direct link to a firm through a former coworker are roughly three times more likely to be hired compared to workers displaced from the same closing event who lack such a tie. However, we find that the effect varies according to the type of connection as well as firms’ similarity. Finally, we show that successful displaced workers with a connection in the hiring firm have higher entry-level wages and enjoy greater job security although these advantages disappear over time.
    JEL: J23 J63 L14
    Date: 2021
  37. By: Irene Nyokabi Wamuyu; Dennis Mbugua Muthama
    Abstract: Purpose: Building approvals are a key determinant of real estate development in Kenya. These approvals are nested at different jurisdictional levels leading to a complex institutional arrangement of building approval decision making. This leads to a cumbersome, and in some instances, duplicated process. This paper examines the experience of real estate developers in Kenya with the institutional arrangement of the building approval process. Design/Methodology: Using qualitative research methods, we analyse 30 questionnaires administered to real estate developers in Nairobi County. Our findings indicate that the approval process is governed by a complex institutional arrangement. In its current form, this complex institutional arrangement is unable to deliver the building approval permits in a timely manner leading to delayed real estate project commencement and development cost variations. Limitations: While the paper is limited to the real estate developer’s perspective of the approval process it makes two key contributions. First, it offers empirical insight into the need to streamline the approval process to enhance real estate investment. Second, the paper provides important empirical evidence on the need to have an integrated building approval one-stop shop where all approvals can be integrated and housed in a central location.Contribution/Value: This paper therefore contributes to the policy justification for streamlining and integrating the real estate development approval processes in Kenya.
    Keywords: Building Approval Process; Developers; polycentric governance; Real Estate Development
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  38. By: Haile, Beliyou; Guo, Zhe; Arndt, Channing; Ahn, Hee Eun
    Abstract: Africa is experiencing a rapid growth in urban population with a billion more people expected to live in cities by 2050. The extent to which urbanization contributes to improvements in the welfare of households and individuals depends on whether it is accompanied by the creation of remunerative employment opportunities and investments on essential infrastructure and services. Specific to child nutrition, urbanization can improve nutrition through its effects on the immediate and underlying determinants that include dietary and nutrient intake, diseases, household food security, environmental sanitation, and access to health services. The direction and strength of the association between urbanization and child undernutrition is therefore an empirical matter that largely depends on the type of urban settlements. This study examines linkages between urbanization and child undernutrition in Burkina Faso. Nutrition data are obtained from the Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) con-ducted in 1998/99, 2003, and 2010. Nutritional outcomes of children 0-59 months old are measured using height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ). Instead of relying on a binary urban-rural classification available in the DHS data, we construct two continuous indicators of urbanization based on remotely sensed data ‒ the size of urban area within 10 kilometers radius around the DHS cluster (urban extent) and the distance between the child’s DHS cluster and the boundary of the nearest urban settlement (remoteness).
    Keywords: BURKINA FASO, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agriculture, investment, poverty, income, economic growth, nutrition, child nutrition, child health, malnutrition, urbanization, rural urban relations, stunting,
    Date: 2021
  39. By: Laté Ayao Lawson (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Phu Nguyen-Van (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Do institutional and geographical characteristics matter for energy consumption similar to the case of economic development? Why do coastal Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries appear to be more energy-consuming than inland ones? To answer these questions, surprisingly rarely addressed in the existing literature, we empirically assess the determinants of primary energy use across SSA, exploiting spatial analysis methods. Our results highlight the existence of positive geographical spillovers in primary energy use. We also derive factors (income, exports, population dynamics and urbanization) explaining the reasons coastal countries are more energy-intensive. Furthermore, good political institutions and geographical location enhance primary energy use, connoting a "two sides of the same coin" role played by both factors. Our results impel SSA countries to develop alternative energy strategies and deploy energy resources management policies since adverse environmental consequences associated with increasing fossil energies use are to expect in the near future.
    Keywords: Institutions,Geography,Primary energies,Spatial effects,Development
    Date: 2021–04–01
  40. By: Samuel Bazzi (UC San Diego, NBER, and CEPR); Lisa Cameron (Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research, the University of Melbourne); Simone Schaner (University of Southern California, NBER); Firman Witoelar (Australian National University)
    Abstract: Job seekers often face substantial information frictions related to potential job quality. This is especially true in international labor markets, where intermediaries match prospective migrants with employers abroad. We conducted a randomised trial in Indonesia to explore how information about intermediary quality shapes migration choices and outcomes. Information reduces the migration rate, lowering use of low-quality intermediaries. However, workers who migrate receive better pre-departure preparation and have higher-quality job experiences abroad, despite no change in occupation or destination. Information does not change intentions to migrate or beliefs about the return to migration or intermediary quality. Nor does selection explain the improved outcomes for workers who choose to migrate with the information. Together, our findings are consistent with an increase in the option value of search: with better ability to differentiate offer quality, workers become choosier and ultimately have better migration experiences. This offers a new perspective on the importance of information and matching frictions in global labor markets.
    Keywords: International Migration, Information, Middlemen, Quality Disclosure, Search
    JEL: F22 O15 D83 L15
    Date: 2021–12
  41. By: Inga Laß (Federal Institute for Population Research (BiB)); Thomas Skora (Federal Institute for Population Research (BiB)); Heiko Rüger (Federal Institute for Population Research (BiB)); Mark Wooden (Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Martin Bujard (Federal Institute for Population Research (BiB))
    Abstract: By definition, temporary workers, such as fixed-term, casual and temporary agency workers, have jobs that are far less stable than permanent jobs. However, surprisingly few studies have investigated whether and to what extent this lesser stability translates into longer commutes to work. Using data from the German SOEP and the Australian HILDA Survey, this article investigates the link between temporary employment and length of commutes in different institutional contexts. We compare three types of temporary workers and apply fixed-effects regression, thereby accounting for unobserved worker heterogeneity. We also estimate unconditional quantile regression (UQR) models, thus allowing us to examine how the commuting length differential varies over the commuting length distribution. The results suggest that the link between temporary employment and commuting length varies by employment type and institutional context, as well as location in the distribution. On average, agency work is associated with longer commutes than permanent work in both countries, whereas fixed-term contracts are only associated with longer commutes in Germany. Further, UQR shows these associations are often strongest in the upper end of the distribution. For casual work, mean regression suggests no commuting length differential, whereas the UQR shows negative associations for large parts of the distribution.
    Keywords: Australia, commuting, Germany, longitudinal analysis, quantile regression, temporary employment
    JEL: J61 J81
    Date: 2021–06
  42. By: Ciprian Corneliu Ciurea (Aurel Vlaicu University, Arad, Romania)
    Abstract: While Adventist pupils and students suffered because of the communist regime, particularly because of not attending classes on Saturday, other neo-Protestant children and young people suffered because of their faith too. Although they had Sunday as a day of worship and did not skip classes, they, along with their parents and teachers belonging to these cults, had to endure furious repressive measures.
    Keywords: church, neoprotestant, students, youngsters, teachers, communism, persecutions
    Date: 2021–10
  43. By: Silvia Blasi (University of Verona); Edoardo Gobbo (University of Padova); Silvia Rita Sedita (University of Padova)
    Abstract: Smart cities are increasingly keen to establish a fruitful conversation with their citizens, to better capture their needs, and create virtual platforms for stimulating co-creation processes between government and users, with the final objective of increasing the quality of life and well-being. Social media applications provide an opportunity for dialogic communication, where, for a relatively low cost, a large amount of information reaching a wide audience can be published and exchanged in real time, fueling opportunities for citizens’ engagement. This study is based on a social media listening method, through a twitter data mining, which enabled disentangling different components of citizen engagement (popularity, commitment and virality) for a sample of Italian municipalities. In addition, we executed a deep analysis of the types of communication artifact exchanged and, through a content analysis of the tweets published by followers of the municipalities’ accounts, we identified main areas of interests of the social media conversations. Our results are based on the analysis of online conversations engaged by followers of twitter accounts of a sample of 28 Italian municipalities, chosen among the most active and densely populated. We show that municipalities tend to use the twitter account as a channel of communication to inform the population about a variety of topics, such as transports and public works, among the others. The volume of activity and number of followers (audience) vary from one municipality to the other. There is generally a negative relationship between the density of the population of a municipality and citizens’ engagement: smaller municipalities show a higher citizens’ engagement; the biggest ones, like Roma, Milan, Turin, Naples, are laggards. We finally conducted a city profiling process, which provides a representation of key citizens’ segments in terms of engagement. Policy makers could find in our work useful tools to increase citizens’ listening capacity.
    Keywords: smart cities, e-government, twitter, web scraping, social media listening, we-government
    JEL: M10 M38
    Date: 2022
  44. By: Jaller, Miguel; Pahwa, Anmol
    Abstract: This research brief summarizes findings from the project and report titled, "Cargo Routing and Disadvantaged Communities." In the project, the authors assessed whether eco-routing of freight traffic can improve transportation sustainability, and studied the cost-benefit trade-off for a carrier accounting for emissions in its routing decisions. They also explored geofencing as a tool to protect disadvantaged communities from freight traffic impacts. The authors developed advanced routing tools to understand the effects of eco-routing in the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) region, and the implementation of geographically constrained management strategies.
    Keywords: Engineering, Benefit cost analysis, Environmental impacts, Freight traffic, Pollutants, Routes and routing, Traffic assignment
    Date: 2021–11–01
  45. By: Pierre-Philippe Combes (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR); Gilles Duranton (University of Pennsylvania [Philadelphia]); Laurent Gobillon (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: We propose a new nonparametric approach to estimate the production function for housing. Our estimation treats output as a latent variable and relies on a first-order condition for profit maximization combined with a zero-profit condition. More desirable locations command higher land prices and, in turn, more capital to build houses. For parcels of a given size, we compute housing production by summing across the marginal products of capital. For newly built single-family homes in France, the production function for housing is close to constant returns and is well, though not perfectly, approximated by a Cobb-Douglas function with a capital elasticity of 0.65.
    Keywords: Housing,Production function
    Date: 2021–10–01
  46. By: Echeverría, Lucía; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Molina, José Alberto
    Abstract: Recent years have witnessed efforts worldwide to promote green mobility, aimed at boosting sustainable economic growth. However, how green mobility relates to travelers' well-being remains an open question. We explore whether "green" modes of transportation (public transit and walking/cycling) are associated with higher levels of well-being in comparison to private driving, placing special focus on different types of travel (related to paid work, unpaid work, personal care, childcare, and leisure). We use the UK Time Use Survey (UKTUS) from 2014-2015, and exploit information on self-reported enjoyment during travel, as a measure of experienced well-being. We estimate Ordinary Least Squares and Random Effects regressions for each travel category, and find relative, positive effects of physical transport on enjoyment, in terms of personal care and leisure, while the relative negative effects of public transport are observed for childcare and work/paid travel, in relationship to traditional driving modes. Our evidence suggests a need to develop strategies to effectively promote mobility by physical modes, while improving the experience of public transit users.
    Keywords: Bienestar; Medios de Transporte; Transporte Público;
    Date: 2021–05
  47. By: Andrew Jordan; Ezra Karger; Derek Neal
    Abstract: We examine 70,581 felony court cases filed in Chicago, IL during the period 1990-2007. We exploit case randomization to assess the impact of judge assignment and sentencing decisions on the arrival rates of new charges. Relative to prior research, we document an important source of heterogeneity in the impact of incarceration on recidivism. Incarceration creates lasting reductions in recidivism among first offenders but not repeat offenders. We present suggestive evidence that these reductions among first offenders primarily reflect outcomes for offenders who live in lower-crime areas of the city and are not involved in the drug trade. During our sample period, Illinois parole officers were able to issue arrest warrants for former inmates under their supervision. These powers place former inmates at significant risk of returning to prison as punishment for violations of technical conditions of their supervision. However, we find no evidence that these police powers increased the arrival rate of new charges against formerly incarcerated offenders. Incarceration does not reduce the arrival of new criminal charges among repeat offenders, and this outcome is not the result of parole officers over-policing repeat offenders.
    Date: 2021–10–26
  48. By: Echeverría, Lucía; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Molina, José Alberto
    Abstract: Carpooling is a sustainable daily mobility mode, implying significant reductions in energy consumption and CO2 emissions, although it remains an uncommon practice. With the aim of stimulating this green transportation mode, this paper focus on understanding why certain individuals will agree to share a car to a common destination, apart from the obvious environmental benefit in emissions. It first describes the profile of users and then explores the relationship between this transportation mode and the participants' well- being. To that end, we have selected two countries, the UK and the US, where the use of cars represents a high proportion of daily commuting. We use the UK Time Use Survey (UKTUS) from 2014-2015 and the Well-Being Module of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) from 2010-2012-2013 to identify which groups in the population are more likely to pool their cars, and with whom those individuals enjoy carpooling more. Results indicate that individuals with certain socio-demographic characteristics and occupations are more likely to commute by carpooling, but the profile seems to be country-specific. Furthermore, our evidence reveals a positive relationship between carpooling and well-being during commuting.
    Keywords: Carpooling; Perfil del Consumidor; Medios de Transporte; Bienestar;
    Date: 2021–09
  49. By: Beck, Thorsten; Bednarek, Peter; te Kaat, Daniel Marcel; von Westernhagen, Natalja
    Abstract: This paper uses matched bank-firm-level data and the 2014 depreciation of the euro to show that exchange rate depreciations lead to increased bank loan supply of large banks with significant net foreign asset exposure. This increase in lending can be explained by a shift in credit towards both export-intensive firms and small banks without foreign asset exposure that have a higher share of exporting firms in their credit portfolio. We also find that German regions where these reallocation effects are stronger experience higher output growth. In economic terms, we show that such regions grow by 1.2 percentage points more than less exposed regions, cumulatively, in the two years after the depreciation relative to the two pre-depreciation years.
    Keywords: Exchange Rates,Bank Lending,Interbank Markets,Real Effects,Regional Business Cycles,Germany
    JEL: E44 E52 G21 O40
    Date: 2021
  50. By: Ronald Mpofu
    Abstract: Purpose: Property valuation has evolved to become an important economic strategy and dispute resolution tool for individuals, public institutions, and private corporations. However, inthe face of uncertainties and immediate economic impacts, the practice of property valuation has been called to question. An extensive real estate literature has indicatedthat property values can become a great motivation for investment and can establishthe basis of negotiation for compensation. Less study, nonetheless, has investigated the extent of the impact of value theories to the property valuation practice.Design/Methodology: Reviewingliterature, this paper explores the property valuation theory evolution and its implication to the property valuation practice.Findings: The paper notes that value is a product of its time and place and should be understood contextually. The present understanding isa contextualized deduction of the past reasoning. It can be assumed that since valueis illustrated in a numerical figure, there are processes for value determination that emanated from the value theory reasoning. Further, the paper argues that, the valuetheory is evolving slowly to the expense of the valuation profession in the face of contemporary challenges such as economic crises, pandemics and compensations after expropriation.Practical implications: The issues are important in the general evolution of the property valuation practice and national debates involving practices like expropriation and compensation.
    Keywords: Property Valuation; real estate; valuation practice; value theory
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  51. By: Granja, Cintia Denise (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and Institute of Geosciences, University of Campinas); Visentin, Fabiana (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: In this study, we examine the impact of exchange programs’ timing on students’ academic performance, focusing on the moment in which students travel and the length of the period spent abroad. To provide causal evidence, we exploit unique data of more than 10,000 students from a well-known and internationalized Brazilian university from 2010 to 2020. By combining Propensity Score Matching with Difference in Differences techniques, we find that international mobility impacts groups of students differently. Students who travel closer to the end of their undergraduate courses benefit the most from the mobility experience (an increase of 0.06 points on final standardized grades), while negative effects (-0.05 points) are found for those who travel at the beginning of their university program. Our results also show that, while student mobility impacts positively and significantly students who participate in programs lasting from one semester to one year (0.08 points), negative effects are associated with shorter periods abroad (-0.1 points).
    Keywords: Tertiary education, international student mobility, academic performance, grades, student achievement, propensity score matching, difference in differences
    JEL: I23 I26 J24 O15 O34
    Date: 2021–12–14
  52. By: John Higgins (Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA); Tarun Sabarwal (Department of Economics, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA)
    Abstract: We study proliferation of an action in binary action network coordination games that are generalized to include global effects. This captures important aspects of proliferation of a particular action or narrative in online social networks, providing a basis to understand their impact on societal outcomes. Our model naturally captures complementarities among starting sets, network resilience, and global effects, and highlights interdependence in channels through which contagion spreads. We present new, natural, and computationally tractable algorithms to define and compute equilibrium objects that facilitate the general study of contagion in networks and prove their theoretical properties. Our algorithms are easy to implement and help to quantify relationships previously inaccessible due to computational intractability. Using these algorithms, we study the spread of contagion in scale-free networks with 1,000 players using millions of Monte Carlo simulations. Our analysis provides quantitative and qualitative insight into the design of policies to control or spread contagion in networks. The scope of application is enlarged given the many other situations across different fields that may be modeled using this framework.
    Keywords: Network games, coordination games, contagion, algorithmic computation
    JEL: C62 C72
    Date: 2021–05

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